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Edition. With an Introduction by Robert E. 
Speer. Illustrated. 8vo . . .net $2.00 

IN DARKEST AFRICA, or The Quest, Rescue, 
and Retreat of Emin, Governor of Equa- 
toria. New and Cheaper Edition in One 
Volume. With illustrations and maps. 8vo. 

net $3.00 

MY DARK COMPANIONS, and Their Strange 

Stories. Illustrated $2.00 

MY KALULU : Prince, King, and Slave. Illus- 
trated $1.50 










I will not cease to go forward until ! come to the place where the two seas meet, 
though I travel ninety years." — Koban, chap, xviii., v. 6i. 




[All rights reserved] 






Prefatory Letter to Sir William Mackinnon, Chairman of the 

Emin Pasha Relief Expedition 1 


L Introductory Chapter U 

, IL Egypt and Zanzibar 49 

IIL By Sea to the Congo River 67 

IV. To Stanley Pool 79 

V. From Stanley Pool to Yambuya 99 

VI. At Yambuya Ill 

VII. To Panga Falls 134 

VIII. From Panga Falls to Ugarrowwa's 171 

IX. Ugarrowwa's to Kilonga-Longa's 211 

X. With the Manyuema at Ipot^ 236 

XL Through the Forest to Mazamboni's Peak 255 

XII. Arrival at Lake Albert and Our Return to Ibwiri . 319 

XIII. Life at Fort Bodo 350 

XIV. To THE Albert Nyanza a Second Time 373 

XV. The Meeting with Emin Pasha 393 

XVI. With the Pasha — Continued 418 

XVII. Personal to the Pasha 422 

XVIII. Start for the Relief of the Rear Column 4.52 

XIX. Arrival AT Banalya: Barttelot Dead! 468 

XX. The Sad Story of the Rear Column 498 

Copy of Log of Rear Column 527 

fOV 20 1S53 




XXI. We Start Our Third Journey to the Nyanza ... 1 

XXII. Arrival at Fort Bodo 37 

XXIII. The Great Central African Forest 73 

XXIV. Imprisonment of Emin Pasha and Mr. Jephson . . .112 

^ XXV. Emin Pasha and His Officers Reach our Camp at 

Kavalli 139 

XXVI. We Start Homeward for Zanzibar 182 

XXVII. Emin Pasha— A Study 228 

XXVIII. To the Albert Edward Nyanza 250 

XXIX. The Sources of the Nile — The Mountains of the 

Moon and the Fountains of the Nile . . . .291 

XXX. RuwENzoRi: The Cloud King 313 

XXXI. RuwENzoRi AND Lake Albert Edward 334 

XXXII. Through Ankori to the Alexandra Nile 358 

XXXIII. The Tribes of the Grass-Land 384 

XXXIV. To the English Mission Station, South End of Vic- 

toria Nyanza 404 

XXXV. From the Victoria Nyanza to Zanzibar 432 



Portrait of Henry M. Stanley Frontispiece, 

(From a Photograph taken at Cairo, March, 1890.) 



Group — Mr. Stanley and his Officers 1 

The Steel Boat "Advance" 80 

In the Night and Rain in the Forest 146 

The Fight with the Avisibba Cannibals 174 

The River Column Ascending the Aruwimi River with the " Ad- 
vance " AND Sixteen Canoes 184 

Wooden Arrows of the Avisibba 180 

"The Pasha is Coming" 196 

The Relief of Nelson and Survivors at Starvation Camp . . 250 

Gymnastics in a Forest Clearing 258 

Iyuqu ; A Call to Arms 286 

Emerging from the Forest 292 

First Experiences with Mazamboni's People. View from Nzera 

KuM Hill 306 

The South End of the Albert Nyanza, Dec. 13, 1887 . . . 324 



Sketch-Map : "Return to TTqabrowa's." By Lieutenant Stairs . 365 

Emin and Casati Arrive at Lake Shore Camp 396 

A Phalanx Dance by Mazamboni's Warriors 438 

Meeting with the Rear Column at Banalya , . . . . 494 


Portrait op Emin Pasha 18 

Captain Nelson 39 

Lieutenant Stairs 40 

William Bonny 41 

A. J. MouNTENEY Jephson 42 

Surgeon Parke, A.M.D. 50 

NuBAR Pasha 51 

The Khedive Tewfik 55 

Tippu-TiB 68 

Maxim Automatic Gun 83 

Launching the Steamer "Florida" .96 

Stanley Pool 100 

Baruti Finds his Brother 109 

A Typical Village on the Lower Aruwimi 112 

Landing at Yambuya 113 

Diagram of Forest Camps 130 

Marching through the Forest 135 

The Kirangozi, or Foremost Man 137 

Head-Dbess— Crown of Bristles 160 

Paddle of the Upper Aruwimi or Itubi 160 

Wasps' Nests 164 

Fort Island, near Panga Falls 168 

Panga Palls 169 



View of Utiri Village 172 

Leaf-Bladed Paddle of Avisibba 174 

A Head-Dress of Avisibba Warriors , 178 

Coroneted Avisibba Warrior — Head-Dress 179 

Cascades of the Nepoko ......... 193 

View of Bafaido Cataract • 202 

Attacking an Elephant in the Ituri River 203 

Randy Seizes the Guinea Fowl 224 

Kilonga Longa's Station 234 

Shields of the Balesse 256 

View of Mount Pisgah from the Eastward ..... 281 
Villages of the Bakwuru on a Spur of Pisgah .... 283 

A Village at the Base of Pisgah 284 

Chief of the Iyugu 285 

Pipes of Forest Tribes 290 

Shields op the Babusesse 299 

Suspension Bridge across the East Ituri 304 

Shield of the Edge of the Plains ....... 317 

View of the South End of Albert Nyanza 318 

Corn Granary of the Babusesse 343 

A Village of the Baviri : Europeans Tailoring .... 345 

Great Rock near Indetonga 348 

Exterior View of Fort Bodo 349 

Interior of Fort Bodo 351 

Plan of Fort Bodo and Vicinity, by Lieutenant Stairs. . . 354 

The Queen op the Dwarfs 368 

Within Fort Bodo 371 

One of Mazamboni's Warriors 384 

Kavalli, Chief of the Babiassi 389 

Milk Vessel of the Wahuma 392 

The Steamers "Khedive" and "Nyanza" on Tjake Albert . . 426 
View of Banalya Curvb 493 



Portrait of Major Barttelot . . * . • • . . 499 
" M&. Jamesok .«••••••• 501 




SwoKDS AND Knives of the Ababua 22 

Entering Andikumu 50 

The Scouts Discover the Pigmies Carryino away the Case of 

Ammunition 54 

Starvation Camp : Serving out Milk and Butter for Broth. . 66 

A Page from Mr. Stanley's Note-Book — Sketch-Maps ... 94 

The Pigmies at Home — A Zanzibar Scout Taking Notes . . . 104 

Address to Rebel Officers at Kavalli 148 

The Pigmies under the Lens, as Compared to Captain Casati's 

Servant Okili 164 

Climbing the Plateau Slopes 170 

Rescued Egyptians and Their Families 220 




RuwENZORi, FROM Mtsora 286 

Bied's-Eye View op Ruwenzori, Lake Albert Edward, and Lake 

Albert 318 

Ruwenzori, from Karimi 328 

Expedition Windbjg up the Gorge of Karya-Muhoro . . . 362 

A Page FROM Mr. Stanley's Note-Book — Musical Instruments . 396 

Weapons of the Balegga and Wahuma Tribes .... 400 

Baby Rhinoceros Showing Fight in Camp 406 

South-West Extremity of Lake Victoria Nyanza .... 419 

Stanley, Emin, and Officers at Usambiro 425 

Experiences in Usukuma 438 

Banquet at Msua 450 

Under the Palms at Bagamoyo 454 

The Relief Expedition Returning to Zanzibar .... 462 

Thk Faithfuls at Zanzibar 474 


A Swimming Race after a Bush Antelope. 

Dwarf Captive at Avitako 

Bridging the Dui River 

Two-Edged Spears 

Play-Table . 

Back-Rest and Stool . 

Decorated Earthen Pot 

Arrows of the Dwarfs 

Elephant Trap 

A Belle of Baviba 

View op Camp at Kavalli 

Shukri Agha, Commandant of Mswa Station 















Bali, Head-Boy 

An Ancient Egyptian Lady .... 
Attack by the Wansoro at Semliki Ferry 
Houses on the Edge of the Forest 
Egyptian Women and Children . 

The Tallest Peak op Ruwenzori, from Awamba Forest 
South-West Twin Cones op Ruwenzori — Sketch. By Lieut. Stairs 
•Africa in Homer's World . . . 

** Map of Hekat^us 

*' HiPPARCHUS, 100 B.C. . 

Ptolemy's Map op Africa, a.d. 150 

Central Africa according to Edrisi, a.d. 1154 

Map of the Margarita Philosophica, a.d. 1503 

" John Ruysch, a.d. 1508 ... 
Map, Syltanus', a.d. 1511 .... 
Hieronimus de Verrazano's Map, a.d. 1539 
Sebastian Cabot's Map op the World, 16th Century 
The Nile's Sources according to Geographers op the 
17th Centuries 

Map op the Nile Basin, a.d. 1819 
Mountains op the Moon — Massoudi, 11th Century 
Map op Nile Basin to-day from the Mediterkansan to S. 
View op Ruwenzori from Bakokoro Western Cones 
The Little Salt Lake at Katwe .... 
Section op a House near Lake Albert Nyanza 

A Village in Ankori 

Expedition Climbing the Rock in the Valley of Ankow 
Musical Instruments op the Balbgga . 
A Hot Spring, Mtagata .... 
Lake Urigi 


16th and 



♦ The Sketch Maps on pages 293 to 308 inclusive are from tracings from ancient books 
la the Khedive's library at Cairo. 


. Facing 


View from Mackay's Mission, IjAkk Victoria ..... 4'2S 

Rock Hills, Usambiro 437 

House and Balcony from which Emin Fell 454 

Sketch of Casket containing the Freedom of .the City of London . 488 

Skktch of Casket, the Gift of King Leopold 489 


k Map of the Route of the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition through 

Africa At end of volume 




My dear Sir William, 

I have great pleasure in dedicating this book to you. 
It professes to be the Official Report to yourself and the 
Emin Relief Committee of what we have experienced 
and endured during our mission of Relief, which cir- 
cumstances altered into that of Rescue. You may 
accept it as a truthful record of the journeyings of the 
Expedition which you and the Emin Relief Committee 
entrusted to my guidance. 

I regret that I was not able to accomplish all that I 
burned to do when I set out from England in January, 
1887, but the total collapse of the Government of 
Equatoria thrust upon us the duty of conveying in 
hammocks so many aged and sick people, and protecting 
so many helpless and feeble folk, that we became trans- 
formed from a small fighting column of tried men into 
a mere Hospital Corps to whom active adventure was 
denied. The Governor was half blind and possessed 
much luggage, Casati was weakly and had to be carried, 
and 90 per cent, of their followers were, soon after 
starting, scarcely able to travel from age, disease, weak- 
ness or infancy. Without sacrificing our sacred charge, 
to assist which was the object of the Expedition, we 
could neither deviate to the right or to the left, from 
the most direct road to the sea. 



You who throughout your long and varied life have 
steadfastly believed in the Christian's God, and before 
men have professed your devout thankfulness for many 
mercies vouchsafed to you, will better understand than 
many others the feelings which animate me when I find 
myself back again in civilization, uninjured in life or 
health, after passing through so many stormy and dis- 
tressful periods. Constrained at the darkest hour to 
humbly confess that without God's help I was helpless, 
I vowed a vow in the forest solitudes that I would 
confess His aid before men. A silence as of death was 
round about me ; it was midnight ; I was weakened by 
illness, prostrated with fatigue and worn with anxiety 
for my white and black companions, whose fate was a 
mystery. In this physical and mental distress I be- 
sought God to give me back my people. Nine hours 
later we were exulting with a rapturous joy. In full 
view of all was the crimson flag with the crescent, and 
beneath its waving folds was the long-lost rear column. 

Again, we had emerged into the open country out of 
the forest, after such experiences as in the collective 
annals of African travels there is no parallel. We were 
approaching the region wherein our ideal Governor was 
reported to be beleaguered. All that we heard from 
such natives as our scouts caught prepared us for des- 
perate encounters with multitudes, of whose numbers or 
qualities none could inform us intelligently, and when 
the population of Undusuma swarmed in myriads on the 
hills, and the valleys seemed alive with warriors, it really 
seemed to us in our dense ignorance of their character 
and power, that these were of those who hemmed in 
the Pasha to the west. If he with his 4000 soldiers 
appealed for help, what could we eff'ect with 173? 
, The night before I had been reading the exhortation of 
Moses to Joshua, and whether it was the eff'ect of those 
brave words, or whether it was a voice, I know not, but 
it appeared to me as though I heard : "Be strong, and 
of a good courage, fear not, nor be afraid of them, for 
the Lord thy God He it is that doth go with thee, He 
will not fail thee nor forsake thee." When on the next 


day Mazamboni commanded his people to attack and 
exterminate us, there was not a coward in our camp, 
whereas the evening before we exclaimed in bitterness 
on seeing four of our men fly before one native, " And 
these are the wretches with whom we must reach the 
Pasha ! " 

And yet again. Between the confluence of the Ihuru 
and the Dui rivers in December 1888, 150 of the 
best and strongest of our men had been despatched to 
forage for food. They had been absent for many days 
more than they ought to have been, and in the mean- 
time 130 men besides boys and women were starving. 
They were supported each day with a cup of warm thin 
broth, made of butter, milk and water, to keep death 
away as long as possible. When the provisions were 
so reduced that there were only suflicient for thirteen 
men for ten days, even of the thin broth with four tiny 
biscuits each per day, it became necessary for me to 
hunt up the missing men. They might, being without 
a leader, have been reckless, and been besieged by an 
overwhelming force of vicious dwarfs. My following 
consisted of sixty-six men, a few women and children, 
who, more active than the others, had assisted the thin 
fluid with the berries of the phrynium and the 
amomum, and such fungi as could be discovered in 
damp places, and therefore were possessed of some 
little strength, though the poor fellows were terribly 
emaciated. Fifty-one men, besides boys and women, 
were so prostrate with debility and disease that they 
would be hopelessly gone if within a few hours food 
did not arrive. My white comrade and thirteen men 
were assured of sufficient for ten days to protract the 
struggle against a painful death. We who were bound 
for the search possessed nothing. We could feed on 
berries until we could arrive at a plantation. As we 
travelled that afternoon we passed several dead bodies 
in various stages of decay, and the sight of doomed, 
dying and dead produced on my nerves such a feeling 
of weakness that I was well-nigh overcome. Every 
soul in that camp was paralysed with sadness and 


suffering. Despair had made them all dumb. Not 
a sound was heard to disturb the deathly brooding. 
It was a mercy to me that I heard no murmur of 
reproach, no sign of rebuke. I felt the horror of the 
silence of the forest and the night intensely. Sleep 
was impossible. My thoughts dwelt on these recurring 
disobediences which caused so much misery and 
anxiety. " Stiff-necked, rebellious, incorrigible human 
nature, ever showing its animalism and brutishness, let 
the wretches be for ever accursed ! Their utter thought- 
less and oblivious natures and continual breach of 
promises kill more men, and cause more anxiety, than 
the poison of the darts or barbs and points of the 

arrows. If I meet them I will " But before the 

resolve was uttered flashed to my memory the dead 
men on the road, the doomed in the camp, and the 
starving with me, and the thought that those 150 
men were lost in the remorseless woods beyond re- 
covery, or surrounded by savages without hope of 
escape, then do you wonder that the natural hardness 
of the heart was softened, and that I again consigned 
my case to Him who could alone assist us. The next 
morning within half-an-hour of the start we met the 
foragers, safe, sound, robust, loaded, bearing four tons 
of plain tains. You can imagine what cries of joy these 
wild children of nature uttered, you can imagine how 
they flung themselves upon the fruit, and kindled the 
fires to roast and boil and bake, and how, after they 
were all filled, we strode back to the camp to rejoice 
those unfortunates with Mr. Bonny. 

As I mentally review the many grim episodes and 
reflect on the marvellously narrow escapes from utter 
destruction to which we have been subjected during 
our various journeys to and fro through that immense 
and gloomy extent of primeval woods, I feel utterly 
unable to attribute our salvation to any other cause 
than to a gracious Providence who for some purpose of 
His own preserved us. All the armies and armaments 
of Europe could not have lent us any aid in the dire 
extremity in which we found ourselves in that camp 


between the Dui and Ihuru ; an army of explorers could 
not have traced our course to the scene of the last 
struggle had we fallen, for deep, deep as utter oblivion 
had we been surely buried under the humus of the 
trackless wilds. 

It is in this humble and grateful spirit that I com- 
mence this record of the progress of the Expedition 
from its inception by you to the date when at our feet 
the Indian Ocean burst into view, pure and blue as 
Heaven when we might justly exclaim " It is ended ! " 

What the public ought to know, that have I written ; 
but there are many things that the snarling, cynical, 
unbelieving, vulgar ought not to know. I write to 
you and to your friends, and for those who desire more 
light on Darkest Africa, and for those who can feel an 
interest in what concerns humanity. 

My creed has been, is, and will remain so, I hope, to 
act for the best, think the right thought, and speak the 
right word, as well as a good motive will permit. 
When a mission is entrusted to me and my conscience 
approves it as noble and right, and I give my promise 
to exert my best powers to fulfil this according to the 
letter and spirit, I carry with me a Law, that I am 
compelled to obey. If any associated with me prove 
to me by their manner and action that this Law is 
equally incumbent on them, then I recognize my 
brothers. Therefore it is with unqualified delight that 
I acknowledge the priceless services of my friends 
Stairs, Jephson, Nelson and Parke, four men whose 
devotion to their several duties were as perfect as 
human nature is capable of. As a man's epitaph can 
only be justly written when he lies in his sepulchre, so 
I rarely attempted to tell them during the journey, how 
much I valued the ready and prompt obedience of 
Stairs, that earnestness for work that distinguished 
Jephson, the brave soldierly qualities of Nelson, and the 
gentle, tender devotion paid by our Doctor to his ailing 
patients ; but now that the long wanderings are over, and 
they have bided and laboured ungrudgingly throughout 
the long period, I feel that my words are poor indeed 


when I need them to express in full my lasting obli- 
gations to each of them. 

Concerning those who have fallen, or who were 
turned back by illness or accident, I will admit, with 
pleasure, that while in my company every one seemed 
most capable of fulfilling the highest expectations 
formed of them. I never had a doubt of any one 
of them until Mr. Bonny poured into my ears the 
dismal story of the rear column. While I possess 
positive proofs that both the Major and Mr. Jameson 
were inspired by loyalty, and burning with desire 
throu hout those long months at Yambuya, I have 
endeavoured to ascertain why they did not proceed as 
instructed by letter, or why Messrs. Ward, Troup and 
Bonny did not suggest that to move little by little was 
preferable to rotting at Yambuya, which they were 
clearly in danger of doing, like the 100 dead followers. 
To this simple question there is no answer. The eight 
visits to Stanley Falls and Kasongo amount in the 
aggregate to 1,200 miles ; their journals, log books, letters 
teem with proofs that every element of success was 
in and with them. I cannot understand why the five 
officers, having means for moving, confessedly burning 
with the desire to move, and animated with the highest 
feelings, did not move on along our tract as directed ; or, 
why, believing I was alive, the officers sent my personal 
baggage down river and reduced their chief to a state 
of destitution ; or, why they should send European 
tinned provisions and two dozen bottles of Madeira 
down river, when there were thirty-three men sick and 
hungry in camp ; or, why Mr. Bonny should allow 
his own rations to be sent down while he was present ; 
or, why Mr. Ward should be sent down river with 
a despatch, and an order be sent after him to 
prevent his return to the Expedition. These are a 
few of the problems which puzzle me, and to which 
I have been unable to obtain satisfactory solutions. 
Had any other person informed me that such things 
had taken place I should have doubted them, but 
I take my information solely from Major Barttelot's 


official despatch (See Appendix). The telegram which 
Mr. Ward conveyed to the sea requests instructions 
from the London Committee, but the gentlemen in 
London reply, " We refer you to Mr. Stanley's letter of 
instructions." It becomes clear to every one that there 
is a mystery here for which I cannot conceive a rational 
solution, and therefore each reader of this narrative 
must think his own thoughts but construe the whole 

After the discovery of Mr. Bonny at Banalya, I had 
frequent occasions to remark to him that his goodwill 
and devotion were equal to that shown by the others, 
and as for bravery, I think he has as much as the 
bravest. With his performance of any appointed work 
I never had cause for dissatisfaction, and as he so 
admirably conducted himself with such perfect and 
respectful obedience while with us from Banalya to the 
Indian Sea, the more the mystery of Yambuya life is 
deepened, for with 2,000 such soldiers as Bonny under 
a competent leader, the entire Soudan could be sub- 
jugated, pacified and governed. 

It must thoroughly be understood, however, while 
reflecting upon the misfortunes of the rear-column, that 
it is my firm belief that had it been the lot of Barttelot 
and Jameson to have been in the place of, say Stairs and 
Jephson, and to have accompanied us in the advance, 
they would equally have distinguished themselves ; for 
such a group of young gentlemen as Barttelot, Jameson, 
Stairs, Nelson, Jephson, and Parke, at all times, night or 
day, so eager for and rather loving work, is rare. If I 
were to try and form another African State, such tire- 
less, brave natures would be simply invaluable. The 
misfortunes of the rear-column were due to the resolu- 
tions of August 17th to stay and wait for me, and to 
the meeting with the Arabs the next day. 

What is herein related about Emin Pasha need not, I 
hope, be taken as derogating in the slightest from the high 
conception of our ideal. If the reality differs somewhat 
from it no fault can be attributed to him. While his 
people were faithful he was equal to the ideal ; when 


his soldiers revolted his usefulness as a Governor 
ceased, just as the cabinet-maker with tools may turn 
out finished wood-work, but without them can do 
nothing If the Pasha was not of such gigantic stature 
as we supposed him to be, he certainly cannot be held 
responsible for that, any more than he can be held 
accountable for his unmilitary appearance. If the 
Pasha was able to maintain his province for five years, 
he cannot in justice be held answerable for the wave 
of insanity and the epidemic of turbulence which con- 
verted his hitherto loyal soldiers into rebels. You will 
find two special periods in this narrative wherein the 
Pasha is described with strictest impartiality in each, 
but his misfortunes never cause us to lose our respect 
for him, though we may not agree with that excess of 
sentiment which distinguished him, for objects so un- 
worthy as sworn rebels. As an administrator he dis- 
played the finest qualities ; he was just, tender, loyal 
and merciful, and afiectionate to the natives wno placed 
themselves under his protection, and no higher and 
better proof of the esteem with which he was regarded 
by his soldiery can be desired than that he owed his 
life to the reputation for justice and mildness which he 
had won. In short, every hour saved from sleep was 
devoted before his final deposition to some useful 
purpose conducive to increase of knowledge, improve- 
ment of humanity, and gain to civilization. You must 
remember all these things, and by no means lose sight 
of them, even while you read our impressions of him. 

I am compelled to believe that Mr. Mounteney 
Jephson wrote the kindliest report of the events that 
transpired during the arrest and imprisonment of the 
Pasha and himself, out of pure afiection, sympathy, and 
fellow-feeling for his friend. Indeed the kindness and 
sympathy he entertains for the Pasha are so evident 
that 'I playfully accuse him of being either a Mahdist, 
Arabist, or Eminist, as one w >uld naturally feel 
indignant at the prospect of leading a slave's 
life at Khartoum. The letters of Mr. Jephson, 
after being shown, were endorsed, as will be seen by 


Emin Pasha. Later observations proved the truth of 
those made by Mr. Jephson when he said, " Sentiment 
is the Pasha's worst enemy ; nothing keeps Emin here 
but Emin himself." What I most admire in him is 
the evident struggle between his duty to me, as my 
agent, and the friendship he entertains for the Pasha. 

While we may naturally regret that Emin Pasha did 
not possess that influence over his troops which would 
have commanded their perfect obedience, confidence and 
trust, and made them pliable to the laws and customs 
of civilization, and compelled them to respect natives as 
fellow-subjects, to be guardians of peace and protectors 
of property, without. which there can be no civilization, 
many will think that as the Governor was unable to do 
this, that it is as well that events took the turn they 
did. The natives of Africa cannot be taught that there 
are blessings in civilization if they are permitted to be 
oppressed and to be treated as unworthy of the treat- 
ment due to human beings, to be despoiled and en- 
slaved at will by a licentious soldiery. The habit of 
regarding the aborigines as nothing better than pagan 
ahid or slaves, dates from Ibrahim Pasha, and must be 
utterly suppressed before any semblance of civilization 
can be seen outside the military settlements. When 
every grain of corn, and every fowl, goat, sheep and 
cow which is necessary for the troops is paid for in 
sterling money or its equivalent in necessary goods, 
then civilization will become irresistible in its influence, 
and the Gospel even may be introduced ; but without 
impartial justice both are impossible, certainly never 
when preceded and accompanied by spoliation, which I 
fear was too general a custom in the Soudan. 

Those who have some regard for righteous justice 
may find some comfort in the reflection that until 
civilization in its true and real form be introduced into 
Equatoria, the aborigines shall now have some peace 
and rest, and that whatever aspects its semblance bare, 
excepting a few orange and lime trees, can be replaced 
within a month, under higher, better, and more enduring 


If during this Expedition I have not sufficiently 
manifested the reality of my friendship and devotion 
to you, and to my friends of the Emin Relief 
Committee, pray attriVjute it to want of opportunities 
and force of circumstances and not to lukewarmness and 
insincerity ; but if, on the other hand, you and my 
friends have been satisfied that so far as lay in my 
power I have faithfully and loyally accomplished the 
missions you entrusted to me in the same spirit and 
to the same purpose that you yourself would have 
performed them had it been physically and morally 
possible for you to have been with us, then indeed am 
I satisfied, and the highest praise would not be equal 
in my opinion to the simple acknowledgment of it, such 
as " Well done." 

My dear Sir William, to love a noble, generous and 
loyal heart like your own, is natural. Accept the pro- 
fession of mine, which has been pledged long ago to you 
wholly and entirely. 

Henry M. Stanley. 

To Sir "William MAckinnon, Bart., 
of Balinakill and Loup, 
in the County of Argyleshire, 
The Chairman of the Emin Pasha Relief Committee. 
&«. &c. &c. 



The Khedive and the Soudan — Arabi Pasha — Hicks Pasha's defeat — The 
Mahdi — Sir Evelyn Baring and Lord Granville on the Soudan — 
Valentine Baker Pasha — General Gordon: his work in the Upper 
Soudan— Edward Schnitzler (or Emin Effendi Hakim) and his pro- 
vince — General Gordon at Khartoum: and account of the Belief 
Expedition in 1884, under Lord Wolseley — Mr. A. M. Mackay, the 
missionary in Uganda — Letters from Emin Bey to Mr. Mackay, 
Mr. C. H. Allen, and Dr. E. "W. Felkin, relating to his Province — 
Mr. F. Holmwood's and Mr. A. M. Mackay's views on the proposed 
relief of Emin — Suggested routes for the Emin Belief Expedition — 
Sir Wm. Mackinnon and Mr. J. F. Hutton — The Belief Fund and 
Preparatory details of the Expedition — Colonel Sir Francis De Winton 
— Selection of officers for the Expedition — King Leopold and the Congo 
Boute — Departure for Egypt. 

Only a Carlyle in his maturest period, as when he drew 
in lurid colours the agonies of the terrible French 
Revolution, can do justice to the long catalogue of 
disasters which has followed the connection of England 
with Egypt. It is a theme so dreadful throughout, that 
Englishmen shrink from touching it. Those who have 
written upon any matters relating to these horrors 
confine themselves to bare historical record. No one 
can read through these without shuddering at the 
dangers England and Englishmen have incurred during 
this pitiful period of mismanagement. After the Egyptian 
campaign there is only one bright gleam of sunshine 
throughout months of oppressive darkness, and that 
shone over the immortals of Abu-Klea and Gubat, 
when that small body of heroic Englishmen struggled 
shoulder to shoulder on the sands of the fatal desert, and 
won a glory equal to that which the Light Brigade were 
urged to gain at Balaclava. Those were fights indeed, 


and atone in a great measure for a series of blunders, 
that a century of history would fail to parallel. If 
only a portion of that earnestness of purpose exhibited 
at Abu-Klea had been manifested by those responsible 
for ordering events, the Mahdi would soon have become 
only a picturesque figure to adorn a page or to point a 
metaphor, and not the terrible portent of these latter 
days, whose presence blasted every vestige of civilization 
in the Soudan to ashes. 

In order that I may make a fitting but brief intro- 
duction to the subject matter of this book, I must 
necessarily glance at the events which led to the cry ot 
the last surviving Lieutenant of Gordon for help in his 
close beleaguerment near the Equator. 

To the daring project of Ismail the Khedive do we 
owe the original cause of all that has befallen Egypt 
and the Soudan. With 5,000,000 of subjects, and a 
rapidly depleting treasury, he undertook the expansion 
of the Egyptian Khediviate into an enormous Egyptian 
Empire, the entire area embracing a superficial extent of 
nearly 1,000,000 square miles — that is, from the Pharos 
of Alexandria to the south end of Lake Albert, from 
Massowah to the western boundary of Darfur. 
Adventurers from Europe and from America resorted 
to his capital to suggest the maddest schemes, and 
volunteered themselves leaders of the wildest enter- 
prises. The staid period when Egyptian sovereignty 
ceased at Gondokoro, and the Nile was the natural drain 
of such traffic as found its way by the gentle pressure 
of slow development, was ended when Captains Speke 
and Grant, and Sir Samuel Baker brought their rapturous 
reports of magnificent lakes, and regions unmatched for 
fertility and productiveness. The termination of the 
American Civil War threw numbers of military officers 
out of employment, and many thronged to Egypt to 
lend their genius to the modern Pharaoh, and to realize 
his splendid dreams of empire. Englishmen, Germans, 
and Italians, appeared also to share in the honours that 
were showered upon the bold and the brave. 

While reading carefully and dispassionately the 


annals of this period, admiring the breadth of the 
Khedive's views, the enthusiasm which possesses him, 
the princely liberality of his rewards, the military 
exploits, the sudden extensions of his power, and the 
steady expansions of his sovereignty to the south, west, 
and east, I am struck by the fact that his success as a 
conqueror in Africa may well be compared to the 
successes of Alexander in Asia, the only difference being 
that Alexander led his armies in person, while Ismail 
the Khedive preferred the luxuries of his palaces in 
Cairo, and to commit his wars to the charge of his 
Pashas and Beys. 

To the Khedive the career of conquest on which he 
has launched appears noble ; the European Press applaud 
him ; so many things of grand importance to civilization 
transpire that they chant pseans of praise in his honour ; 
the two seas are brought together, and the mercantile 
navies ride in stately columns along the maritime canal ; 
railways are pushed towards the south, and it is 
prophesied that a line will reach as far as Berber, But 
throughout all this brilliant period the people of this 
new empire do not seem to have been worthy of a 
thought, except as subjects of taxation and as instru- 
ments of supplying the Treasury ; taxes are heavier than 
ever ; the Pashas are more mercenary ; the laws are more 
exacting, the ivory trade is monopolised, and finally, 
to add to the discontent already growing, the slave 
trade is prohibited throughout all the territory where 
Egyptian authority is constituted. Within five years 
Sir Samuel Baker has conquered the Equatorial Province, 
Munzinger has mastered Senaar, Darfur has been 
annexed, and Bahr-el-Ghazal has been subjugated after a 
most frightful waste of life. The audacity manifested 
in all these projects of empire is perfectly marvellous — 
almost as wonderful as the total absence of common 
sense. Along a line of territory 800 miles in length 
there are only three military stations in a country that 
can only rely upon camels as means of communication 
except when the Nile is high. 

In 1879, Ismail the Khedive having drawn too freely 


upon the banks of Europe, and increased the debt of 
Egypt to £128,000,000, and unable to agree to the 
restraints imposed by the Powers, the money of whose 
subjects he had so liberally squandered, was deposed, 
and the present Khedive, Tewfik, his son, was elevated to 
his place, under the tutelage of the Powers, But 
shortly after, a military revolt occurred, and at Kassassin, 
Tel-el-Kebir, Cairo, and Kafr Dowar, it was crushed by 
an English Army, 13,000 strong, under Lord Wolseley. 
During the brief sovereignty of Arabi Pasha, who 
headed the military revolt, much mischief was caused 
by the withdrawal of the available troops from the 
Soudan. While the English General was defeating 
the rebel soldiers at Tel-el-Kebir, the Mahdi Mohamet- 
Achmet was proceeding to the investment of El Obeid. 
On the 23rd of August he was attacked at Duem 
with a loss of 4500. On the 14th he was repulsed by 
the garrison of Obeid, with a loss, it is said, of 10,000 
men. These immense losses of life, which have been 
continuous from the 11th of August, 1881, when the 
Mahdi first essayed the task of teaching the populations 
of the Soudan the weakness of Egyptian power, were 
from the tribes who were indifferent to the religion 
professed by the Mahdi, but who had been robbed 
by the Egyptian officials, taxed beyond endurance by 
the Government, and who had been prevented from 
obtaining means by the sale of slaves to pay the taxes, 
and also from the hundreds of slave-trading caravans, 
whose occupation was taken from them by their energetic 
suppression by Gordon, and his Lieutenant, Gessi Pasha. 
From the 11th of August, 1881, to the 4th of March, 
1883, when Hicks Pasha, a retired Indian officer, landed at 
Khartoum as Chief of the Staff of the Soudan army, the 
disasters to the Government troops had been almost one 
unbroken series ; and, in the meanwhile, the factious 
and mutinous army of Egypt had revolted, been sup- 
pressed and disbanded, and another army had been 
reconstituted under Sir Evelyn Wood, which was not to 
exceed 6000 men. Yet aware of the tremendous power 
of the Mahdi, and the combined fanaticism and hate. 


amounting to frenzy, which possessed his legions, and of 
the instability, the indiscipline, and cowardice of his 
troops — while pleading to the Egyptian Government for 
a reinforcement of 5000 men, or for four battalions of 
General Wood's new army — Hicks Pasha resolves upon 
the conquest of Kordofan, and marches to meet the 
victorious Prophet, while he and his hordes are flushed 
with the victory lately gained over Obeid and Bara. 
His staff", and the very civilians accompanying him, pre- 
dict disaster ; yet Hicks starts forth on his last journey 
with a body of 12,000 men, 10 mountain guns, 6 Nor- 
denfelts, 5500 camels, and 500 horses. They know that 
the elements of weakness are in the force ; that many of 
the soldiers are peasants taken from the fields in Egypt, 
chained in gangs ; that others are Mahdists ; that there 
is dissension between the officers, and that everything is 
out of joint. But they march towards Obeid, meet the 
Mahdi's legions, and are annihilated. 

England at this time directs the affairs of Egypt with 
the consent of the young Khedive, whom she has been 
instrumental in placing upon the almost royal throne of 
Egypt, and whom she is interested in protecting. Her 
soldiers are in Egypt ; the new Egyptian army is under 
an English General ; her military police is under the 
command of an English ex-Colonel of cavalry ; her 
Diplomatic Agent directs the foreign policy ; almost all 
the principal offices of the State are in the hands of 

The Soudan has been the scene of the most fearful 
sanguinary encounters between the ill-directed troops of 
the Egyptian Government and the victorious tribes 
gathered under the sacred banner of the Mahdi ; and 
unless firm resistance is offered soon to the advance of 
the Prophet, it becomes clear to many in England that 
this vast region and fertile basin of the Upper Nile will 
be lost to Egypt, unless troops and money be furnished 
to meet the emergency. To the view of good sense it 
is clear that, as England has undertaken to direct the 
government and manage the affairs of Egypt, she cannot 
avoid declaring her policy as regards the Soudan. To a 


question addressed to the English Prime Minister in 
Parliament, as to whether the Soudan was regarded as 
forming a part of Egypt, and if so, whether the British 
Government would take steps to restore order there, 
Mr. Gladstone replied, that the Soudan had not been 
included in the sphere of English operations, and that 
the Government was not disposed to include it within 
the sphere of English responsibility. As a declaration 
of policy no fault can be found with it ; it is Mr. Glad- 
stone's policy, and there is nothing to be said against it 
as such ; it is his principle, the principle of his associates 
in the Government, and of his party, and as a principle 
it deserves respect. 

The Political Agent in Egypt, Sir Evelyn Baring, 
while the fate of Hicks Pasha and his army was still 
unknown, but suspected, sends repeated signals of warn- 
ing to the English Government, and suggests remedies 
and means of averting a final catastrophe. " If Hicks 
Pasha is defeated, Khartoum is in danger ; by the fall of 
Khartoum, Egypt will be menaced." 

Lord Granville replies at various times in the months 
of November and December, 1883, that the Government 
advises the abandonment of the Soudan within certain 
limits ; that the Egyptian Government must take the 
sole responsibility of operations beyond Egypt Proper ; 
that the Government has no intention of employing 
British or Indian troops in the Soudan ; that ineffectual 
efforts on the part of the Egyptian Government to secure 
the Soudan would only increase the danger. 

Sir Evelyn Baring notified Lord Granville that no 
persuasion or argument availed to induce the Egyptian 
Minister to accept the policy of abandonment. Cherif 
Pasha, the Prime Minister, also informed Lord Granville 
that, according to Valentine Baker Pasha, the means at 
the disposal were utterly inadequate for coping with the 
insurrection in the Soudan. 

Then Lord Granville replied, through Sir Evelyn 
Baring, that it was indispensable that, so long as Eng- 
lish soldiers provisionally occupied Egypt, the advice 
of Her Majesty's Ministers should be followed^ and that 


he insisted on its adoption. The Egyptian Ministers 
were changed, and Nubar Pasha became Prime Minister 
on the 10th January, 1884. 

On the 1 7th December, Valentine Baker departed from 
Egypt for Suakim, to commence military operations 
for the maintenance of communication between Suakim 
and Berber, and the pacification of the tribes in that 
region. While it was absolutely certain in England that 
Baker's force would suffer a crushing defeat, and sus- 
pected in Egypt, the General does not seem to be aware 
of any danger, or if there be, he courts it. The Khedive, 
fearful that to his troops an engagement will be most 
disastrous, writes privately to Baker Pasha : "I rely on 
your prudence and ability not to engage the enemy 
except under the most favourable conditions," Baker 
possessed ability and courage in abundance ; but the 
event proved that prudence and judgment were as absent 
in his case as in that of the unfortunate Hicks. His 
force consisted of 3746 men. On the 6th of February he 
left Trinkitat on the sea shore, towards Tokar. After a 
march of six miles the van of the rebels was encountered, 
and shortly after the armies were engaged. It is said 
" that the rebels displayed the utmost contempt for the 
Egyptians ; that they seized them by the neck and cut 
their throats ; and that the Government troops, paralysed 
by fear, turned their backs, submitting to be killed rather 
than attempt to defend their lives ; that hundreds threw 
away their rifles, knelt down, raised their clasped hands, 
and prayed for mercy." 

The total number killed was 2373 out of 3746. Mr. 
Eoyle, the excellent historian of the Egyptian cam- 
paigns, says : " Baker knew, or ought to have known, the 
composition of the troops he commanded, and to take 
such men into action was simply to court disaster." 
What ought we to say of Hicks ? 

We now come to General Gordon, who from 1874 to 
1876 had been working in the Upper Soudan on the 
lines commenced by Sir Samuel Baker, conciliating 
natives, crushing slave caravans, destroying slave sta- 
tions, and extending Egyptian authority by lines of 




fortified forts up to the Albert Nyanza. After four 
months' retirement he was appointed Governor-General 
of the Soudan, of Darfur, and the Equatorial Provinces. 
Among others whom Gordon employed as Governors of 
these various provinces under his Vice-regal Government 
was one Edward Schnitzler, a German born in Oppeln, 


Prussia, 28th March, 1840, of Jewish parents, who had 
seen service in Turkey, Armenia, Syria, and Arabia, in 
the suite of Ismail Hakki Pasha, once Governor-General 
of Scutari, and a Mushir of the Empire. On the death 
of his patron he had departed to Niesse, where his 
mother, sister, and cousins lived, and where he stayed 
for several months, and thence left for Egypt. He, in 


1875, tlienee travelled to Khartoum, and being a medical 
doctor, was employed by Gordon Paslia in that capacity. 
He assumed the name and title of Emin Effendi Hakim 
— the faithful physician. He was sent to Lado as store- 
keeper and doctor, was afterwards despatched to King 
Mtesa on a political mission, recalled to Khartoum, 
again despatched on a similar mission to King Kabba- 
Rega of Unyoro, and finally, in 1878, was promoted to 
Bey, and appointed Governor of the Equatorial Pro- 
vince of Ha-tal-astiva, which, rendered into English, 
means Equatoria, at a salary of £50 per month. A 
mate of one of the Peninsular and Oriental steamers, 
called Lupton, was promoted to the rank of Governor 
of the Province of Bahr-el-Ghazal, which adjoined 

On hearing of the deposition of Ismail in 1879, 
Gordon surrendered his high office in the hands of 
Tewfik, the new Khedive, informing him that he did not 
intend to resume it. 

In 1880 he accepted the post of Secretary under the 
Marquis of Ripon, but resigned it within a month. 

In 1881 he is in Mauritius as Commandant of the 
Royal Engineers. In about two months he abandons 
that post to proceed to the assistance of the Cape 
authorities in their difficulty with the Basutos, but, after 
a little experience, finds himself unable to agree with 
the views of the Cape Government, and resigns. 

Meantime, I have been labourino; on the Congo River. 
Our successes in that immense territory of Western 
Africa have expanded into responsibilities so serious 
that they threaten to become unmanageable. When I 
visit the Lower Congo affairs become deranged on the 
Upper Congo ; if I confine myself to the Upper Congo 
there is friction in the Lower Congo. Wherefore, feeling 
an intense interest in the growth of the territory which 
was rapidly developing into a State, I suggested to His 
Majesty King Leopold, as early as September, 1882, and 
again in the spring of 1883, that I required as an 
associate a person of merit, rank, and devotion to work, 
such as General Gordon, who would undertake either 


the management of the Lower or Upper Congo, while I 
would work in the other section, as a vast amount of 
valuable time was consumed in travelling up and down 
from one to the other, and young officers of stations 
were so apt to take advantage of my absence. His 
Majesty promised to request the aid of General Gordon, 
but for a long time the replies were unfavourable. 
Finally, in the spring of 1884, I received a letter in 
General Gordon's well-known handwriting, which in- 
formed me I was to expect him by the next mail. 

It appears, however, that he had no sooner mailed 
his letter to me and parted from His Majesty than he 
was besieged by applications from his countrymen to 
assist the Egyptian Government in extricating the 
beleaguered garrison of Khartoum from their impending 
fate. Personally I know nothing of what actually 
happened when he was ushered by Lord Wolseley into 
the presence of Lord Granville, but I have been in- 
formed that General Gordon was confident he could 
perform the mission entrusted to him. There is a 
serious discrepancy in the definition of this mission. 
The Egyptian authorities were anxious for the evacua- 
tion of Khartoum only, and it is possible that Lord 
Granville only needed Gordon's services for this humane 
mission, all the other garrisons to be left to their fate 
because of the supposed impossibility of rescuing them. 
The Blue Books which contain the official despatches 
seem to confirm the probability of this. But it is 
certain that Lord Granville instructed General Gordon 
to proceed to Egypt to report on the situation of the 
Soudan, and on the best measures that should be taken 
for the security of the Egyptian garrisons (in the plural), 
and for the safety of the European population in 
Khartoum. He was to perform such other duties as 
the Egyptian Government might wish to entrust to him. 
He was to be accompanied by Colonel Stewart. 

Sir Evelyn Baring, after a prolonged conversation 
with Gordon, gives him his final instructions on behalf of 
the British Government. 

A precis of these is as follows : — 


1. " Ensure retreat of the European population from 10,000 to 15,000 
people, and of the garrison of Kartoum.'* 

2. " Yon know best the when and how to effect this." 

3. " You will bear in mind that the main end (of your Mission) is 
the evacuation of the Soudan." 

4. "As you are of opinion it could be done, endeavour to make a 
confederation of the native tribes to take the place of Egyptian authority." 

5. " A credit of £100,000 is opened for you at the Finance Department." 

Gordon has succeeded in infusing confidence in the 
minds of the Egyptian Ministry, who were previously 
panic-stricken and cried out for the evacuation of 
Khartoum only. They breathe freer after seeing and 
hearing him, and according to his own request they 
invest him with the Governor-Generalship. The firman, 
given him, empowers him to evacuate the respective 
territories (of the Soudan) and to withdraw the troops, 
civil ofiicials, and such of the inhabitants as wish to 
leave for Egypt, and if possible, after completing the 
evacuation (and this was an absolute impossibility) he 
was to establish an organized Government. With these 
instructions Lord Granville concurs. 

I am told that it was understood, however, that he 
was to do what he could — do everything necessary, in 
fact, if possible ; if not all the Soudan, then he was to 
proceed to evacuating Khartoum only, without loss of 
time. But this is not on official record until March 
23rd, 1884, and it is not known whether he ever 
received this particular telegram.^ 

General Gordon proceeded to Khartoum on January 
26th, 1884, and arrived in that city on the 18th of the 
following month. During his journey he sent frequent 
despatches by telegraph abounding in confidence. Mr. 
Power, the acting consul and Times correspondent, 
wired the following despatch — "The people (of Khar- 
toum) are devoted to General Gordon, whose design is 
to save the garrison, and for ever leave the Soudan — as 
perforce it must be left — to the Soudanese. 

* No. 2 clashes with No. 3 somewhat. Khartoum and the Soudan are 
not synonymous terms. To withdraw the garrison of Khartoum is an 
easy task, to evacuate the Soudan is an impossibility for a single person. 

t This is the only clearly worded despatch that I have been able to find 
in the Blue Book of the period. 


The English press, which had been so wise respecting 
the chances of Valentine Baker Pasha, were very much 
in the condition of the people of Khartoum, that is, 
devoted to General Gordon and sanguine of his success. 
He had periormed such wonders in China — he had 
laboured so effectually in crushing the slave-trade in 
the Soudan, he had won the affection of the sullen 
Soudanese, that the press did not deem it at all 
improbable that Gordon with his white wand and six 
servants could rescue the doomed garrisons of Senaar, 
Bahr-el-Ghazal and Equatoria — a total of 29,000 men, 
besides the civil employees and their wives and families ; 
and af>:er performing that more than herculean — 
nay utterly impossible task — establish an organized 

On February 29th Gordon telegraphs, " There is not 
much chance of improving, and every chance is getting 
worse, ' and on the 2nd ci the month " I have no option 
about staying at Khartoum, it has passed out of my 
hands." On the 16th March he predicts that before 
long " we shall be blocked." At the latter end of March 
he telegraphs, " We have provisions for five months, and 
are hemmed in." 

It is clear that a serious misunderstanding had 
occurred in the drawing up of the instructions by 
Sir Evelyn Baring and their comprehension of them by 
General Gordon, for the latter expresses himself to the 
former thus : — 

" You ask me to state cause and reason of my intention 
for my staying at Khartoum. I stay at Khartoum 
because Arabs have shut us up, and will not let us out." 

Meantime public opinion urged on the British Govern- 
ment the necessity of despatching an Expedition to 
withdraw General Gordon from Khartoum. But as it 
was understood between General Gordon and Lord 
Granville that the former's mission was for the purpose 
of dispensing with the services of British troops in the 
Soudan, and as it was its declared policy not to employ 
English or Indian troops in that region, the Government 
were naturally reluctant to yield to the demand of the 


public. At last, however, as the clamour increased and 
Parliament and public joined in affirming that it was a 
duty on the country to save the brave man who had so 
willingly volunteered to perform such an important 
service for his country, Mr. Gladstone rose in the House 
of Commons on the 5 th August to move a vote of 
credit to undertake operations for the relief of Gordon. 

Two routes were suggested by which the Belief 
Expedition could approach Khartoum — the short cut 
across the desert from Suakim to Berber, and the other 
by the Nile. Gordon expressed his preference for that 
up the Nile, and it was this latter route that the 
Commanding General of the Relief Expedition adopted. 

On the 18th September, the steamer "Abbas," with 
Colonel Stewart (Gordon's companion), Mr, Power, the 
Times correspondent, Mr. Herbin, the French Consul, 
and a number of Greeks and Egyptians on board — forty- 
four men all told — on trying to pass by the cataract 
01 Abu Hamid was wrecked in the cataract. The Arabs 
on the shore invited them to land in peace, but unarmed. 
Stewart complied, and he and the two Consuls (Power 
and Herbin) and Hassan Effendi went ashore and entered 
a house, in which they were immediately murdered. 

On the 17th November, Gordon reports to Lord 
Wolseley, who was then at Wady Haifa, that he can hold 
out for forty days yet, that the Mahdists are to the 
south, south-west, and east, but not to the north of 

By Christmas Day, 1884, a great part of the Expedi- 
tionary Force was assembled at Korti. So far, the ad- 
vance of the Expedition had been as rapid as the energy 
and skill of the General commanding could command. 
Probably there never was a force so numerous animated 
with such noble ardour and passion as this under Lord 
Wolseley for the rescue of that noble and solitary 
Englishman at Khartoum. 

On December 30th, a part of General Herbert Stewart's 
force moves from Korti towards Gakdul Wells, with 
2099 camels. In 46 hours and 50 minutes it has 
reached Gakdul Wells ; 1 1 hours later Sir Herbert Stewart 


with all the camels starts on his return journey to Korti, 
which place was reached January 5th. On the 12th 
Sir Herbert Stewart was back at Gakdul Wells, and 
at 2 p.m. of the 13th the march towards Abu Klea was 
resumed. On the 17th, the famous battle of Abu 
Klea was fought, resulting in a hard-won victory to the 
English troops, with a loss of 9 officers and 65 men 
killed and 85 wounded, out of a total of 1800, while 
1100 of the enemy lay dead before the square. It ap- 
pears probable that if the 3000 English sent up the 
Nile Valley had been with this gallant little force, it 
would have been a mere walk over for the English army. 
After another battle on the 19th near Metammeh, where 
20 men were killed and 60 wounded of the English, and 
250 of the enemy, a village on a gravel terrace near the 
Nile was occupied. On the 21st, four steamers belonging 
to General Gordon appeared. The officer in command 
stated that they had been lying for some weeks near an 
island awaiting the arrival of the British column. The 
22nd and 23rd were expended by Sir Chas. Wilson in 
making a reconnaissance, building two forts, changing the 
crews of the steamers, and preparing fuel. On the 24th, 
two of the steamers started for Khartoum, carrying only 
20 English soldiers. On the 26th two men came aboard 
and reported that there had been fighting at Khartoum ; 
on the 27 th a man cried out from the bank that the town 
had fallen, and that Gordon had been killed. The next day 
the last news was confirmed by another man. Sir Charleg 
Wilson steamed on until his steamers became the target 
of cannon from Omdurman and from Khartoum, besides 
rifles from a distance of from 75 to 200 yards, and turned 
back only when convinced that the sad news was only 
too true. Steaming down river then at full speed he 
reached Tamanieb when he halted for the night. From 
here he sent out two messengers to collect news. One 
returned saying that he had met an Arab who informed 
him that Khartoum had been entered on the night of the 
26th January through the treachery of Farag Pasha, and 
that Gordon was killed ; that the Mahdi had on the next 
day entered the city and had gone into a mosque to re- 


turn thanks and had then retired, and had given the city 
up to three days' pillage. 

In Major Kitchener's report we find a summary of the 
results of the taking of Khartoum. " The massacre in 
the town lasted some six hours, and about 4000 persons 
at least were killed. The Bashi Bazouks and white 
regulars numbering 3327, and the Shaigia irregulars 
numbering 2330, were mostly all killed in cold blood 
after they had surrendered and been disarmed." The 
surviving inhabitants of the town were ordered out, and 
as they passed through the gate were searched, and then 
taken to Omdurman where the women were distributed 
among the Mahdist chiefs, and the men were stripped and 
turned adrift to pick a living as they could. A Greek 
merchant, who escaped from Khartoum, reported that the 
town was betrayed by the merchants there, who desired 
to make terms with the enemy, and not by Farag Pasha. 

Darfur, Kordofan, Senaar, Bahr-el-Ghazal, Khartoum, 
had been possessed by the enemy ; Kassala soon followed, 
and throughout the length and breadth of the Soudan 
there now remained only the Equatorial Province, whose 
Governor was Emin Bey Plakim — the Faithful Physician. 

Naturally, if English people felt that they were in 
duty bound to rescue their brave countryman, and a 
gallant General of such genius and reputation as Gordon, 
they would feel a lively interest in the fate of the last of 
Gordon's Governors, who, by a prudent Fabian policy, 
it was supposed, had evaded the fate which had befallen 
the armies and garrisons of the Soudan. It follows also 
that, if the English were solicitous for the salvation of 
the garrison of Khartoum, they would feel a propor- 
tionate solicitude for the fate of a brave officer and his 
little army in the far South, and that, if assistance could 
be rendered at a reasonable cost, there would be no 
difficulty in raising a fund to eifect that desirable object. 

On November 16, 1884, Emin Bey informs Mr. A. M. 
Mackay, the missionary in Uganda, by letter written at 
Lado, that " the Soudan has become the theatre of an 
insurrection ; that for nineteen months he is without 
news from Khartoum, and that thence he is led to 


believe that the town has been taken by the insurgents, 
or that the Nile is blocked " ; but he says : — 

" Whatever it proves to be, please inform your correspondents and 
through them the Egyptian Government that to tliis day we are well, and 
that we propose to hold out until help may reach us or until we perish." 

A second note from Emin Bey to the same missionary, 
on the same date as the preceding, contains the fol- 
lowing : — 

" The Bahr- Ghazal Province being lost and Lupton Bey, the p'overnor, 
carried away to Kordofan, we are unable to inform our Government of 
what happens here. For nineteen months we have had no communication 
from Khartoum, so I suppose the river is blocked up." 

" Please therefore inform the Egyptian Government by some means that 
we are well to this day, but greatly in need of help. We shall hold out 
until we obtain such help or until we perish." 

To Mr. Charles H. Allen, Secretary of the Anti- 
Slavery Society, Emin Bey writes from Wadelai, De- 
cember 31, 1885, as follows : — 

" Ever since the month of May, 1883, we have been cut off from all 
communication with the world. Forgotten, and abandoned by the 
Government, we have been compelled to make a virtue of necessity. 
Since the occupation of the Bahr-Ghazal we have been vigorously 
attacked, and I do not know how to describe to you the admirable 
devotion of my black troops throughout a long war, which for them at 
least, has no advantage. Deprived of the most necessary things for a long 
time without any pay, my men fought valiantly, and when at last 
hunger weakened them, when, after nineteen days of incredible privation 
and sufferings, their strength was exhausted, and when the last torn 
leather of the last boot had been eaten, then they cut away through the 
midst of their enemies and succeeded in saving themselves. All this 
hardship was undergone without the least arriere-pensee, without even the 
hope of any appreciable reward, prompted only by their duty and the 
desire of showing a proper valour before their enemies." 

This is a noble record of valour and military virtue. 
I remember the appearance of this letter in the Times, 
and the impression it made on myself and friends. It 
was only a few days after the appearance of this letter 
that we began to discuss ways and means of relief for 
the writer. 

The following letter also impressed me very strongly. 
It is written to Dr. R. W, Felkin on the same date, 
December 31, 1885. 

• :<E IN >|i III 1)1 

** You will probably know through the .daily papers that poor Lupton, 


after having bravely held the Bahr-Ghazal Province was compelled, through 
the treachery of his o\\ n people, to surrender to the emissaries of the late 
Madhi, and was carried by them to Kordofan." 

" My province and also myself I only saved from a like fate by a 
stratagem, but at last I was attacked, and many losses in both men and 
ammunition were the result, imtil 1 delivered such a heavy blow to the 
rebels at Rimo, in Makraka, that compelled them to leave me alone. 
Before this took place they informed us that Khartoum iell, in January, 

1885, and that Gordon was Idlled." 

" Naturally on account of these occurrences I have been compelled to 
evacuate our more distant stations, and withdraw onr soldiers and their 
families, still hoping that our Government will send us help. It seems, 
however, that 1 have deceived mysell, for since April, 1883, I have 
received no news of any kind from the north." 

" The Government in Khartoum did not behave well to us. Before they 
evacuated Fashoda, they ought to have remembered that Government 
oflBcials were living here (Equatorial Provinces) who had performed 
their duty, and had not deserved to be left to their fate without more 
ado Even if it were the intention of the Government to deliver us over 
to our fate, the least they could have done was to have released us from 
our duties ; we should then have known that we were considered to have 
become valueless." 

if * * * * * 

" Anyway it was necessary for us to seek some way of escape, and in 
the first place it was urgent to send news of our existence in Egypt. 
With this object in view 1 went south, after having made the necessary 
arrangements at Lado, and came to Wadelai." 

* 4> * * 4= * 

" As to my future ]ilans, I intend to hold this country as long as 
possible, I hope that when our letters arrive in Egypt, in seven or eight 
months, a reply will be sent to me via Khartoum or Zanzibar. If the 
Egyptian Government still exists in the Soudan we naturally expect 
them to send us help. If, however, the Soudan has been evacuated, I 
shall take the whole of the people towards the south. 1 shall then send 
the whole of the Egyptian and Khartoum officials via Uganda or Karagwe 
to Zanzibar, but shall remain myself with my black troops at Kabba- 
Eege's until the Government inform me as to their wishes." 

This is very clear that Emin Pasha at this time 
proposed to relieve himself of the Egyptian officials, 
and that he himself only intended to remain until the 
Egyptian Government could communicate to him its 
wishes. Those " wishes " were that he should abandon 
his province, as they were unable to maintain it, and 
take advantage of the escort to leave Africa. 

In a letter written to Mr. Mackay dated July 6 th, 

1886, Emin says : — 

" In the first place believe me that I am in no hurry to break away 
from here, or to leave those countries in which I have now laboured for 
ten years." 


" All my people, but especially the negro troops, entertain a strong 


objection against a march to the south and thence to Egypt, and mean to 
remain here until they can be taken north. Meantime, if no danger 
overtakes us, and our ammunition holds out for some time longer, I mean 
to follow your advice and remain here until help comes to us from some 
quarter. At all events, you may rest assured that we will occasion no 
disturbance to you in Uganda." 

" I shall determine on a march to the coast only in a case of dire 
necessity. There are, moreover, two other routes before me. One from 
Kabba-Eega's direct to Karagwe ; the other via, Usongora to the stations 
at Tanganika. I hope, however, that I shall have no need to make use of 


"My people have become impatient through long delay, and are 
anxiously looking for help at last. It would also be most desirable that 
some Commissioner came here from Etu'ope, either direct by the Masai 
route, or from Karagwe via Kabba-Eega's country, in order that my people 
may actually see that there is some interest taken in them. I would 
defray with ivory all expenses of such a Commission." 

" As I once more repeat, I am ready to stay and to hold these 
countries as long as I can until help comes, and I beseech you to do what 
you can to hasten the arrival of such assistance. Assure Mwanga that he 
has nothing to fear from me or my people, and that as an old friend of 
Mtesa's I have no intention to trouble him." 

In the above letters we have Emin Bey s views, 
wherein we gather that his people are loyal — that is 
they are obedient to his commands, but that none ot 
them, judging from the tenour of the letters, express 
any inclination to return to Egypt, excepting the 
Egyptians. He is at the same time pondering upon 
the routes by which it is possible to retreat — elsewhere 
he suggests the Monbuttu route to the sea ; in these 
letters he hints at Masai Land, or through Unyoro, 
and west of Uganda to Usongora, and thence to Tan- 
ganika ! If none of the black troops intended to follow 
him, he certainly could not have done so with only the 
Egyptian officials and their families. 

From the following; letters from the Consul-General, 
F. Holmwood, to Sir Evelyn Baring, dated September 
25 th and September 27th, we gather Mr. Holmwood's 
views, who, from his position and local knowledge, 
was very competent to furnish information as to what 
could be done in the way of the proposed relief 

" In Emin's letters to me he only reports his situation up to 27th 
February, 1886, when he proposed evacuating his province by detach- 
ments, the first of which he proposed to despatch at the close of the rains 
toward the end of JuJy ; but both Dr. Junker and Mr. Mackay inform me 


that they have since heard from Emin that the majority of tlie 4000 
loyal Egyptian subjects who have remained faithful to Egypt throughout, 
and have supported him in the face of the constant attacks from the 
Mahdi's adherents, aggravated by an imminent danger of starvation, 
refuse to leave their country, and he had therefore determined, if he 
could possibly do so, to remain at his post, and continue to protect 
Egyptian interests till relief arrived." 


"Were Uganda freed from this tyrant (Mwanga), the Equatorial 
Province, even should the present elementary system of communication 
remain unmodified, would be within eight weeks' post of Zanzibar, and a 
safe depot on the Albert Nyanza would provide a base for any further 
operations that might be decided upon." 

" Dr. Junker states that the country to the east of the Eipon Falls* 
has proved impracticable, and that Emin has lost many troops in en- 
deavouring to open communication through it. If such be the case the 
alternative line by which Dr. Fischer tried to relieve Junker, and which 
I believe he still recommends, could not be relied on for turning Uganda 
and its eastern dependency, and the well-known route via Uganda would 
be the only one available for an Expedition of moderate size." 


" As far as I am able to judge, without making any special calculation, 
I consider that 1200 porters would be the smallest number that would 
suffice, and a well-armed guard of at least 500 natives would be 

* * * * * * 

" General Matthews, whom I had consulted as to the force necessary 
for the safety of the Expedition, is of opinion that I have formed far too 
low an estimate, but after weighing the testimony of many experienced 
persons acquainted with Uganda, I must adhere to my opinion that 500 
native troops armed with modern riiies and under experienced persons, 
would, if supplemented by the irregular force, fully suffice." 

An American officer of the Khedivial Government 
writes to' Mr. Portal, and suggests that communication 
with Emin might be opened by the Zanzibar Arabs, but 
that to send stores and ammunition to him was im- 
possible ; that the Arabs might manage for his passage, 
though his safest line of retreat was westward to reach 
the Congo. 

Mr. Fred Holmwood, in his despatch to the Foreign 
Office of September 23rd, 1886, writes that, "had it 
not been for the dangerous attitude of the King of 
Uganda, the question of relieving Emin would have 
been merely one of expenditure to be settled at Cairo ; 
but under present circumstances, many other serious 
considerations are involved in it which will have to be 
referred to Her Majesty's Government. 

* This routewould be through Masai Land. 


" I would call attention to the account contained in 
Mr. Mackay's letter regarding tlie alternative route to 
Wadelai which Dr. Fischer endeavoured to take and, I 
believe, still recommends. If this statement be correct, 
any attempt to turn Uganda or its Eastern dependency 
by this unexplored line would probably fail." 

Mr. A. M. Mackay writes from Uganda, May 14th, 
1886 :— 

" From Dr. Junker's letter you will have seen thcat Emin Bey has had 
the good fortune to have secured the loyalty of the people he governs. 
Emin seems to have learned Gordon's secret of securing the affection of 
his subjects, and has bravely stuck to them. There can be no doubt 
at all but that had he been anxious to leave he would with a few hundred 
of his soldiers have easily made a dash for the coast either through the 
Masai Land or this way, asking no permission from Mwanga (King of 
Uganda) or anyone else. He knows that there is no power here able to 
stop him. In fact years ago he wrote me that it would be nothing 
to him to storm this wretched village and drive off the cattle." 

" But what would be the fate of thousands of people who have 
remained loyal on the Upper Nile ? Dr. Junker speaks of thousands. 
They do not want to be taken out of their own fertile country, and taken 
to the deserts of Upper Egypt." 

" Dr. Emin is on all hands allowed to be a wise and able Governor. 
But he cannot remain for ever where he is, nor can he succeed himself, 
even should the Mahdi's troops leave him undisturbed in the future. 
His peculiar position should be taken advantage of by our country, which 
undertook to rescue the garrisons of the Soudan." 

" Mwanga's action with respect to the letters forwarded him for 
Dr. Emin, was as disrespectful as possible to the British Government 
which had received with such kindness his father's envoys. We asked 
him merely to forward the letters in the first place until he should 
receive word from Emin as to whether or not he was prepared to come 
this way, but he detained your packet altogether." 

In Mr. Mackay's letter to Sir John Kirk, June 28th, 
1886, he says : — 

" Dr. Fischer's diflBculties would also only really begin after Kavirondo, 
as he then had the country of the dreaded Bakedi to cross, and Dr, 
Junker tells me that whole parties of Dr. Emin's soldiers have been 
repeatedly murdered by them." 

Dr. Fischer, it will be remembered, was engaged to 
proceed to Equatoria in search of Dr. Junker by that 
traveller's brother, and chose the road ind East coast of 
the Victoria Lake. Arriving at the N.E. corner of the 
Lake he returned to the coast. 

Mr. Mackay proceeds : — 


" Dr. Junker is living here with us. He brought mo a letter from Emin 
Bey dated the 27th January (1886). He then proposed sending his people 
at once this way — some 4000 — in small detachments. This policy would 
be fatal. He also asked me to go to meet him with a view to bringing 
here two steamers which otherwise he would have to abandon. One of 
them he meant for the King, and the other for the mission." 

" Since then, however, he finds that his people, officers and men, refuse 
to leave the Soudan, hence he is prepared to remain some years with 
them provided only he can get supplies of cloth, etc." 

Mr. Mackay always writes sensibly. I obtained a 
great deal of solid information from these letters. 

Naturally he writes in the full belief that Emin's 
troops are loyal. We all shared in this belief. We 
now see that we were grossly misled, and that at no 
time could Emin have cut his way to the coast through 
Uganda or any other country with men of such fibre as 
his ignorant and stolid Soudanese. 

Mr. Joseph Thomson, in a letter to the Times, 
suggested a route through the Masai Land, and proposed 
to be responsible for the safe conduct of a Relief Expe- 
dition through that country. 

Mr. J. T. Wills suggested that the Mobangi-Welle 
would prove an excellent way to Emin. 

Mr. Harrison Smith expressed himself assured that a 
way by Abyssinia would be found feasible. 

Another gentleman interested in the African Lakes 
Company proposed that the Expedition should adopt 
the Zambezi- Shire-Nyassa route, and thence via Tanga- 
nika north to Muta Nzige and Lake Albert, and a 
missionary from the Tanganika warmly endorsed it, as 
not presenting more difficulties than any other. 

Dr. Felkin, in the ' Scottish Geographical Magazine,' 
after examining several routes carefully, came to the 
conclusion that a road west of Lake Victoria and Ka- 
ragwe, through Usongora to Lake Albert, possessed 
some advantages over any other. 

Early in October, 1886, Sir William Mackinnon and 
Mr. J. F. Hutton, ex-President of the Manchester 
Chamber of Commerce, had spoken with me respecting 
the possibilities of conveying relief to Emin, with a 
view to enable him to hold his own. To them it seemed 
that he only required ammunition, and I shared their 


opinion, and they were very earnest in their intention 
to collect funds for the support he required. But many 
of their friends were absent from town, and they could 
not decide alone what should be done without consulta- 
tion. We discussed estimates and routes, and Mr 
Hutton informs me that the rough estimate I furnished 
him then exceeds by £500 the actual cost of the 

As for routes, I intimated to them that there were 
four almost equally feasible. 

The first, via Masai Land, was decidedly objectionable 
while carrying a vast store of ammunition which abso- 
lutely must reach Emin. Mr Thomson had tried it, 
and his account of the extremities to which he was driven 
on returning from the Lake Victoria, for want of water 
and grain, were extremely unfavourable. Li proceeding to 
the lake his people were dispirited, and deserted in such 
numbers that he was obliged to return a short distance, 
to Kilima Njaro, leave his camp there, and proceed with a 
few men back to the coast to recruit more men. In case 
of a pressing necessity like this it would be extremely 
unwise to return a mile after commencing the march. 
The tendency of the Zanzibaris to desert also was 
another disadvantage, and desertion of late from East 
Coast Expeditions had assumed alarming proportions 
owing to the impunity with which they could decamp 
with rifles and loads, and the number of opportunities 
presented to them. Many of the Zanzibaris had become 
professional advance -jumpers, and the greater the 
expedition the greater would be the loss in money, 
rifles and stores. 

The second, via Victoria Nyanza and Uganda, which 
was naturally the best, was rendered impossible for a 
small expedition because of the hostility of Uganda, 
Even this hostility could be avoided if there were any 
vessels on Lake Victoria capable of transporting across 
the lake such an expedition as was needed. The danger 
of desertion was just as imminent on this as on the first. 

The third was via Msalala, Karagwe and Ankori, and 
Unyoro and Lake Albert. Immense loss of men and 


foods would assuredly follow any attempt from the 
last Coast. Fifty per cent, loss was unavoidable, and 
no precautions would avail to prevent desertion. 
Besides, Karagwe was garrisoned by the Waganda, and 
no expedition could pass through that country without 
persistent hostility from the Waganda. If fortunate 
enough to force our way through Karagwe, we should 
have to reckon with the Wanyankori, who number 
200,000 spears, and if introduced to them by fighting 
the Karagwe natives the outlook would be dismal in the 
extreme. As for going through any country west of 
Karagw6 to avoid the Waganda that would be impos- 
sible, except at a cost that I did not suppose the sub- 
scribers would contemplate paying. 

" The whole question resolves itself into that of money. 
With money enough every route is possible ; but as 
I understand it, you propose to subscribe a moderate 
amount, and therefore there is only one route which 
is safely open for the money, and that is the Congo. 
This river has the disadvantage of not having enough 
transport vessels in its upper portion. I would propose 
then to supplement the Upper Congo flotilla with 
fifteen whale-boats, which will take an Expedition to 
within 200 miles, at least, of the Albert Nyanza. A 
heavy labour will be carrying the whale-boats from the 
Lower Congo to the Upper, but we can easily manage 
it by sending agents at once there to prepare carriers. 
There is one thing, however, that must be done — which 
is to obtain the sanction of King Leopold. 

" But it may be we are rather premature in dis- 
cussing the matter at all. You know I am aware 
of many projects mooted, and much ' talk ' has been 
expended on each and this may end in smoke — collect 
your funds, and then call upon me if you want me. 
If you do not require me after this exposition of 
my views, let Thomson take his Expedition through 
the Masai Land, and put me down for £500 subscrip- 
tion for it." 

As the middle of November drew near. Sir William 
Mackinnon requested me to write him a letter upon the 
VOL. I. D 


subject that lie might show it to his friends, who would 
soon be returning to town. 

A few days after the despatch of the letter, I sailed 
for America, and on arrival at New York, the lecture 
*' Tour," as it is called, commenced. But on the 
11th December, the fifteenth day after arrival, I received 
the following : — 

" London. 

" Your plan and offer accepted. Authorities approve. Funds provided. 
Business urgent. Come promptly. Eeply. 


A reply was sent from St. Johnsbury, Vermont, for 
thus far the lecture tour had reached, as follows : — 

' Just received Monday's cablegram. Many thanks. Everything all 
right. Will sail per Eider 8 a.m. Wednesday morning. If good weather 
and barring accidents arrive 22nd Decemlier, Southampton. It is only 
one month's delay after all. Tell the authorities to prep ire Holmwood 
(Consul General) Zanzibar, and Seyyid Barghash (Prince of Zanzibar). 
Best compliments to you. 

" Stanley." 

My agent was in despair — the audiences were so kind 
— the receptions were ovations, but arguments and 
entreaties were of no avail. 

I arrived in England the day preceding Christmas, 
and within a few hours Sir William Mackinnon and 
myself were discussing the Expedition. 

Of course, and without the least shade of doubt, I 
was firmly convinced that the Congo Eiver route was 
infinitely the best and safest, provided that I should get 
my flotilla of whale-boats, and the permission of King 
Leopold to pass through his territory with an armed 
force. I knew a route from the East Coast, and was 
equally acquainted with that from the West Coast. 
From the furthest point reached by me in 1876, along 
the East Coast road, the distance was but 100 miles 
to Lake Albert — from Yambuya Rapids the distance 
was 322 geographical miles in an air line to the lake. 
Yet to the best of my judgment the Congo route was 
preferable. We should have abundance of water — 
which was so scanty and bad along the Eastern route ; 
food there must be- — it was natural to expect it from my 
knowledge that unsurpassed fertility such as the Upper 



Congo regions possesses would have been long ago 

discovered by the aborigines, whereas we knew from 

Thomson, Fischer, and Hannington's experiences that 

food and water was scanty in Masai Land ; then again, 

that wholesale desertion so frequent on the East Coast 

would be avoided on the West Coast. 

Yet notwithstanding they admitted that I might be 

right, it was the opinion of the Committee that it would 

be best to adopt the Eastern route. 

" Very good, it is perfectly immaterial to me. Let us decide on the East 
Coast route, via Msalala, Kara^jwe, Ankori, and Unyoro. If jon hear of 
some hard-fighting, I look to you that you will defend the absent. If I 
could drop this ammunition iu Emin's camiJ from a balloon I certainly 
would do so, and avoid coming in contact with those warlike natives, but 
it is decided that the means of defence must be put into Emin's hands, 
and you have entrusted me with the escort of it. So be it." 

A Relief Fund was raised, the subscriptions to which 

were as follows : — £ 

Sir William Mackinnon, Bart. . . 2,000 

Peter Mackinnon, Esq 1,000 

John Mackinnon, Esq 300 

Baroness Burdett-Coutts .... 100 

W. Burdett-Coutts, Esq 400 

James S. Jameson, Esq 1,000 

Countess de Noailles 1,000 

Peter Denny, Esq. , of Dumbarton . 1,000 
Henry Johnson Younger, Esq., of the 

Scottish Geographical Society . . 500 
Alexander L. Bruce, Esq., of the 

Scottish Geographical Society . . 500 

Messrs. Gray, Dawes k Co., of London 1,000 

Duncan Mac Neil, Esq 700 

James F. Hutton, Esq., of Manchester 250 

Sir Thos. Fowell Buxton .... 250 

James Hall, Esq., of Ar^yleshire . . 250 

N. McMichael, Esq., of Glasgow . . 250 

Royal Geographical Society, London . 1,000 
Egyptian Government . . . .10,000 

* See Appendix for full statement of Keceipts and Expenditure. 



In order to increase the funds and create a provision 
against contingencies, I volunteered to write letters 
from Africa, which the Committee might dispose of to 
the press as they saw fit, and accept whatever moneys 
that might receive as my contribution to it. 

The estimate of time required to reach Emin Pasha, 
after a careful calculation, was formed on the basis that 
whereas I travelled in 1874-5 a distance of 720 miles 
in 103 days, therefore : — 

1st route. — By Masai Land, march to Wadelai and return to coast 
14 months. Reserve for delays 4 months = 18 months. 

2nd route. — By Msalala, Karagwe, Ankori, and Usongora to Lake 
Albert. Land march to and return 16 mouths, delays 
4 months = 20 months. 

3rd route. — Via Congo. 

Zanzibar to Congo . . 1 mth. = 1st April, 1887 
Overland route to Stanley Pool 1 „ = 1st May „ 
By steam up the Congo . li „ = 15th June „ 

Halt 25th „ 

Yambuya to Albert Nyanza. 3 mths = 25th Sept., 1887 

Halt 9th Jan., 1888 

Albert Nyanza to Zanzibar,) 

land march 


= 8th Sept. 
= 18 months. 

The actual time, however, occupied by the Expedition 
is as follows : — 

Arrive at Congo . 

„ „ Stanley Pool 

„ „ Yambuya 
Halt at Yambuya . 
Albert Nyanza 
Eeturn to Fort Bodo 
Halt while collecting convalescents 
The Albert Nyanza, 2nd time 
Halt until .... 
Fort Bodo again . 
Banalya 90 miles from Yambuya 
Fort Bodo again . 
Albert Nyanza, 3rd time 
Halt near Albert Nyanza until 
March to Zanzibar, 1400 miles, 6 months 

So that we actually occupied a little over 

Zanzibar to the Albert Nyanza, and 

from the Nyanza to the Indian Ocean. 
Halt at the Albert .... 

18th Mar., 


21st Apr. 


15th June 

28th „ 


13th Dec. 

8th Jan., 


2nd Apr. 


18th „ 


25th May 


8th June 

17th Aug. 


20th Dec. 


26th Jan., 


8th May 


6th Dec. 


lOi months from 

6 „ 

n ., 




I was formally informed by letter on the 31st of 
December, 1886, that I might commence my preparations. 

The first order I gave in connection with the Expedi- 
tion for the relief of Emin Bey was by cable to Zanzibar 
to my agent, Mr. Edmund Mackenzie, of Messrs. Smith, 
Mackenzie & Co., to engage 200 Wanyamwezi porters 
at Bagamoyo to convey as many loads of rice ( = 6 tons) 
to the missionary station at Mpwapwa, which was about 
200 miles east of Zanzibar, the cost of which was 
2,700 rupees. 

The second order, after receiving the consent of His 
Highness the Seyyid of Zanzibar, was to enlist 600 
Zanzibari porters, and also the purchase of the following 
goods, to be used for barter for native provisions, such as 
grain, potatoes, rice, Indian corn, bananas, plantains, etc. 

400 pieces (30 yards each 


„ (8 


„ (8 


„ (8 , 


„ (8 


„ (8 


„ (8 


„ (8 


„ (24 , 


„ (8 


„ (8 


„ (4 


„ (4 


» (24 


„ (24 


„ (8 


„ (30 


,. (4 


» (4 


„ (4 


„ (4 


„ (30 

24 long shirts, white 


» » ' 


of brown sheeting 

of kaniki . 









kikoi . 

daole . 


joho . 
silk kikoi 
silk daole 
fine dabwani 
sohari . 
fine sheeting 

Total yards 

























Also 3,600 lbs. of beads and 1 ton of wire, brass, copper, 


The third order was for the purchase of forty pack 
donkeys and ten riding asses, which necessitated an 
order for saddles to match, at an expense of £400. 

Messrs. Forrest & Son received a design and order 


for the construction of a steel boat 28 ft. long, 6 ft. 
beam, and 2 ft. 6 in. deep. It was to be built of 
Siemens steel galvanized, and divided into twelve 
sections, each weighing about 75 lbs. The fore and 
aft sections were to be decked and watertight, to give 
buoyancy in case of accident. 

From Egypt were despatched to Zanzibar 510 
Remington rifles, 2 tons of gunpowder, 350,000 per- 
cussion caps, and 100,000 rounds Remington ammuni- 
tion. In England the War Office furnished me with 
30,000 Gatling cartridges, and from Messrs. Kynoch & 
Co., Birmingham, I received 35,000 special Remington 
cartridges. Messrs. Watson & Co., of 4, Pall Mall, 
packed up 50 Winchester repeaters and 50,000 Win- 
chester cartridges. Hiram Maxim, the inventor of the 
Maxim Automatic Gun, donated as a gift one of his 
wonderful weapons, with shield attached mounted on 
a light but effective stand. 

We despatched to Zanzibar 100 shovels, 100 hoes, 
for forming breastworks, 100 axes for palisading the 
camp, 100 bill-hooks for building zeribas. 

Messrs. Burroughs & Welcome, of Snowhill Buildings, 
London, the well-known chemists, furnished gratis nine 
beautiful chests replete with every medicament neces- 
sary to combat the endemic diseases peculiar to Africa. 
Every drug was in tablets mixed with quick solvents, 
every compartment was well stocked with essentials for 
the doctor and surgeon. Nothing was omitted, and we 
all owe a deep debt of gratitude to these gentlemen, not 
only for the intrinsic value of these chests and excellent 
medicines, but also for the personal selection of the best 
that London could furnish, and the supervision of the 
packing, by which means we were enabled to transport 
them to Yambuya without damage. 

Messrs. John Edgington & Co., of Duke Street, 
London, took charge of our tents, and made them out 
of canvas dipped in a preservative of sulphate of copper, 
which preserved them for three years. Notwithstanding 
their exposure to three hundred days of rain, for the 
first time in my experience in Africa I possessed a tent 


which, after arrival at Zanzibar in 1889, was well able 
to endure two hundred days more of rain, 

Messrs. Forlnum & Mason, of Piccadilly, packed up 
forty carrier loads of choicest provisions. Every article 
was superb, the tea retained its flavour to the last, the 
coffee was of the purest Mocha, the Liebig Company's 


Extract was of the choicest, and the packing of all was 

I need not enumerate what else was purchased. Four 
expeditions into Africa, with my old lists of miscellanea 
before me, enabled me to choose the various articles, 
and in Sir Francis de Winton and Captain Grant Elliott 
I had valuable assistants who would know what 


magazines to patronize, and who could check the 

Colonel Sir Francis de Winton was my successor on 
the Congo, and he gave me gratuitously and out of 
pure friendship the benefit of his great experience, and 
his masterly knowledge of business to assist me in the 


despatch of the various businesses connected with the 
expedition, especially in answering letters, and selecting 
out of the hundreds of eager applicants for membership 
a few officers to form a staff. 

The first selected was Lieutenant W. Grant Stairs, of 
the Royal Engineers, who had applied by letter. The 
concise style and directness of the application appealed 



strongly in his favour. We sent for him, and after a 
short interview enlisted him on condition that he could 
obtain leave of absence. Lord Wolseley kindly granted 

The next was Mr. William Bonny, who, having failed 
in his epistolary ventures on former expeditions, thought 


the best way was to present himself in person for 
service in any capacity. The gentleman would not 
take a mild negative. His breast was covered with 
medals. They spoke eloquently, though dumb, for his 
merits. The end of it was Mr. Bonny was engaged as 
medical assistant, he having just left service m a 
hospital of the A.M.D. 



The third was Mr. John Rose Troiip, who had per- 
formed good service on the Congo. He was intimate 
with Swahili, the vernacular of Zanzibar. He was not 
dainty at work, was exact and metliodical in preserving 
accounts. Mr. Troup was engaged. 

The fourth volunteer who presented himseif was 


Major Edmund Musgrave Barttelot, of the 7th Fusileers. 
He was accompanied by an acquaintance of mine who 
spoke highly of him. What passed at the interview will 
be heard later on. After a few remarks he was also 

The fifth was Captain R. H. Nelson, of Methuen's 
Horse, fairly distinguished in Zulu campaigns. There 



was merit in his very face. Captain Nelson agreed to 
sign the articles of enlistment. 

Our next volunteer was Mr. A. J. Mounteney Jephson, 
inexperienced as yet in foreign travel, and quite un- 
accustomed to " roughing " in wilds. On some members 
of the Committee Mr. Jephson made the impression 
that he was unfitted for an expedition of this kind, 
being in their opinion of too " high class." But the 
Countess de Noailles made a subscription in his favour 
to the Relief Fund of £1,000, an argument that the 
Committee could not resist, and Mr. Jephson signed the 
articles of agreement with unshaken nerves. Poor 
young Jephson ! he emerged out of Africa after various 
severe trials which are herein related. 

One of the latest to apply, and when the list was 
about to be closed, was Mr. James S. Jameson. He 
had travelled in Mashona and Matabele lands in South 
Africa to collect trophies of the wild chase, to study 
birds, and to make sketches. He did not appear re- 
markably strong. We urged that, but he as quickly 
defended his slight appearance, and argued that as he 
had already spent a long time in Africa his experience 
disproved our fears. Besides, he was willing to sub- 
scribe £1,000 for the privilege of membership, and do 
faithful and loyal service, as though it was indispensable 
for the Expedition to employ him. Mr. Jameson was 
firm, and subscribed to the articles. 

We were in the full swing of preparations to meet 
the necessities of the overland march from Zanzibar, 
east to the Victoria Nyanza, when, as will be shown by 
the tenor of the following letter, it became necessary 
to reconsider our route. 

" Palais de Bruxelles, 
"Dear Me. Stanley, "7th January, 1887. 

" The Congo State has nothing to gain by the Expedition for the 
relief of Emin Pasha passing through its territory. The King has 
suggested this road merely so as to lend your services to the Expedition, 
which it would be impossible for him to do were the Expedition to 
proceed by the Eastern coast. According to your own estimate, the 
Expedition proceeding by the Eastern coast would occupy about eighteen 
months. His Majesty considers that he would be failing in his diity 
towards the State were he to deprive it of your services, especially as the 
latter will be certainly needed before the expiration of this lapse of time. 


"If the Expedition proceeds by the Congo the State will promise to 
show it all good will. The State likewise gratuitously places at the 
disposal of the Expedition the whole of its naval stock, inasmuch as will 
allow the working arrangements of its own administration, which it is, 
above all, desirous of ensuring, as you know. The Stanley is the largest 
steamer on the Upper Congo. We are forwarding a second one by the 
mail of the 15th inst., and we will hasten as much as possible the 
launching of this steamer at Stanley Pool ; she will be a valuable and 
much-needed adjunct to our flotilla. In the meanwhile the mission 
steamer Peace would no doubt gratuitously effect certain transports. 

" Should the Expedition desire it, we would facilitate the recruiting of 
Bangala; we are very pleased with the latter, as they are excellent 
soldiers, and do not fear the Arabs like the Zanzibaris. 

" You will have remarked that the official documents, published this 
week in Berlin, limit the territory of Zanzibar to a narrow striji of land 
along the seashore. Beyond this strip the entire territory is German. 
If the Germans allow the Expedition to cross their territory, the Zanzi- 
baris would be precisely as on the Congo, on foreign soil. 
" With kind regards, I am, dear Mr. Stanley, 

" Yours very truly, 


That this was not a light matter to be hastily decided 
will be evident by the following note which was sent me 
by Sir William Mackinnon : — 

" Western Club, Glasgow, 
" My dear Staklet, " January m, 1887. 

" I had a pleasant short letter from the King showing how anxious 
he is the Congo route should be taken, and how unwilling to allow a 
break in the continuity of your connection with the Congo State, as he 
considers you a pillar of the State. He asks me to banish (?) any diver- 
gent sentiments, and get all parties to agree to the Congo route. I have 
explained fvilly all that has been done and is doing, and the difficulties 
in the way of cancelling existing engagements, and get the authorities, 
home and Egyptian and the Sultan of Zanzibar, to acquiesce in making 
such a change. I also mentioned the great additional charge involved 
by sending 600 men, even if the Sultan should consent to their going 
from Zanzibar to the Congo and bringing them back. 

" I promised, however, to ascertain whether all interested in the present 
arrangements would agree in taking the Congo route. 

In my diary of January 5th I find written briefly 
the heads of businesses despatched this day. 

As suggested by Mackinnon, who has been written 
to by King Leopold upon the subject of the Congo 
route, I saw Sir Percy Anderson, and revealed the 
King's desire that the Expedition should proceed via 
Congo. I was requested to state what advantages the 
Congo route gave, and replied : — 


1st. Certainty of reaching Emin. 

2nd. Transport up the Congo River by state steamers 
to a point 320 geographical miles from Lake Albert. 

3rd. Allaying suspicion of Germans that underlying 
our acts were political motives. 

4th. Allaying alleged fears of French Government 
that our Expedition would endanger the lives of French 

5th. If French Missionaries were endangered, then 
English Missionaries would certainly share their fate. 

6th. Greater immunity from the desertion of the 
Zanzibaris who were fickle in the neighbourhood of 
Arab settlements. 

Lord Iddesleigh writes me that the French ambassador 
has been instructed to inform him that if the Emin 
Pasha Relief Expedition proceeds by a route east of the 
Victoria Nyanza it will certainly endanger the lives of 
their Missionaries in Uganda. He suggests that I 
consider this question. 

Visited Admiralty, inquired of Admiral Sullivan 
respecting the possibility of Admiralty supplying 
vessel to carry Expedition to Congo. He said if 
Government ordered it would be easy, if not, im- 

Wrote to the King urging him to acquaint me how 
far his assistance would extend in transport on the 
Upper Congo. 

January Sth. — Received letters from the King. He 
lays claim to my services. Offers to lend whole of his 
naval stock for transport except such as may be necessary 
for uses of administration. Wired to Mackinnon that 
I felt uneasy at the clause ; that it was scarcely 
compatible with the urgency required. Colonel de 
Winton wrote to the same effect. 

Effects of Expedition are arriving by many cwts, 

De Winton worked with me until late in the 
night. • 

January 9th, 1887. — Colonel J. A. Grant, Colonel Sir 
F. de Winton, and myself sat down to consider His 


Majesty's letter, and finally wrote a reply requesting he 
would graciously respond with greater definiteness 
respecting quantity of transport and time for which 
transport vessels will be granted as so many matters 
depend upon quick reply, such as hire of Soudanese, 
detention of mail steamer for shipment of ammunition, 
etc. We therefore send special messenger 

January 10th, 1887 — De Winton visited Foreign 
Office and was promised as soon as possible to attend to 
the detention of mail steamer and Government transport 
round the Cape of Good Hope, 

Messrs. Gray, Dawes & Co write Postmastei -General 
willing to detain Zanzibar mail steamer at Aden to 
wait Navarino, which sails from London on the 
20th with the ammunition and officers. I overtake 
Navarino at Suez after settling matters of Expedition 
in Egypt. 

January 12th. — Answer arrived last night. Meeting 
was called by Honourable Guy Dawnay, Colonel Sir 
Lewis Pelly, Colonel Sir F. de Winton and self The 
answer as regards Congo route being satisfactory was 
decided upon, and this has now been adopted unani- 

Was notified at 2 p.m. by the Earl of Iddesleigh that 
he would see me at 6 p.m. But at 3.13 p.m. the Earl 
died suddenly from disease of the heart. 

January ISth. — Foreign office note received from Sir 
J. Pauncefote transmitting telegram from Sir E. Baring, 
also letters concerning Admiralty transport. No help 
from Admiralty. 

Goods arriving fast. Will presently fill my house. 

Went down with Baroness Burdett-Coutts to Guildhall, 
arriving there 12.45 p.m. I received Freedom of City 
of London, and am called youngest citizen. Afterwards 
lunched at Mansion House, a distinguished party 
present, and affair most satisfactory. 

Telegraphed to Brussels to know if Friday convenient 
to King. Eeply, " Yes at 9.30 a.m." 

January lUh. — Crossed over Channel last night 
towards Brussels vid Ostend to see ELing Leopold. Saw 


King and gave my farewell. He was very kind. Left 
for London in evening at 8 p.m. 

Telegram arrived from Sandringham requesting 

January 15th. — Sir Percy Anderson requested inter- 

Mr. Joseph Thomson at this late hour has been 
writing to Geographical Society wanting to go with 

Arranged with Ingham to collect Congo carriers. He 
goes out shortly. 

Telegraphed Zanzibar to recall rice carriers from 
Mpwapwa. This will cost 2,500 rupees more. 

Wrote some days ago to the donor of the Peace 
Mission Steamer on the Congo requesting loan of her 
for the relief of Emin Pasha. Received the following 
quaint reply : — 

" Dear Mr. Stanley, " '^^^^^' January mh, 1887. 

" I have much regard for you personally, although I cannot, dare not, 
sanction all your acts. 

" I am very sorry if I cannot give assent to yonr request ; but I fully 
believe you will be no sufferer by the circumstance of not having the 
s.s. Peace. Yesterday I was able to come to a decision. 

"Mr. Baynes, of the Baptist Missionary Society, Holborn, will, he 
hopes, make to you any communication he judges proper. If you have 
any reverential regard for ' the Man of Sorrows,' the ' King of Peace ' 
may He mercifully preserve and save your party. 

" I have no doubt of the safety of Emin — till his work is done. I 
believe he will be brought through this trial in perfect safety. God 
seems to have given you a noble soul (covers for the moment, if on jour 
sad sin and mistakes), and I should like you should ' repent and believe 
the Gospel ' — with real sense, and live hereafter in happiness, light, and 
joy — for ever. Bere delay in you is more dangerous than delay for Emin. 
" Your faithful friend, 

"(Signed) Robert Arthinqton." 

January l^th. — Colonel J. A. Grant off ered to arrange 
with Mr. J. S. Keltic, Editor of Nature, to discuss Mr. 
Thomson's off"er. 

Letters accumulate by scores. All hands employed 

January 17 th. — Wrote Sir Percy Anderson would call 
Wednesday 2 p.m. Correspondence increases. 

Mr. Joseph Thomson's off"er discussed. Mr. J. S. 


Keltie is to write to him privately — decision of com- 

Arranged with G. S. Mackenzie about Zanzibar 
matters. He despatched two telegrams. General 
Brackenbury wrote about coal being furnished re- 
quiring Treasury sanction. 

January 18th. — Worked off morning's business. 

Travelled to Sandringham with Colonel de Winton to 
see His Royal Highness. With African map before us 
gave short lecture to their Eoyal Highnesses respecting 
route proposed to reach Emin Pasha. Had a very 
attentive audience. 

January 19th. — Sir William Mackinnon mustered his 
friends at the Burlington Hotel at a farewell banquet to 

Have said " good-bye " to a host of friends to-day. 

Ja7niari/ 20th. — The s.s. Navarino sailed this afternoon 
carrying goods of Expedition and officers. Lieutenant 
Stairs, Captain Nelson, and Mr. Mounteney Jephson. 
Mr. William Bonny started from my rooms with black 
boy Baruti to Fenchurch Station at 8 a.m. Arriving 
there he leaves Baruti after a while and proceeds to 
Tower of London ! He says that returning to station 
at 2 p.m. he found boat had gone. He then went to 
Gray, Dawes & Co., shipping agents, and is discouraged 
to find that the matter cannot be mended, Baruti 
found deserted in Fenchurch Station, very hungry and 
cold. Colonel J. A. Grant finds him and brings him 
to me. 

January 21si. — Despatch Mr. Bonny by rail to Ply- 
mouth to overtake a steamer bound for India and 
instruct him to debark at Suez with boy and await me. 

Left London at 8.5 p.m. for Egypt. Quite a crowd 
collected to take a final shake of the hands and to bid 
me a kindly " God speed." 



Surgeon T. H. Parke — Views of Sir Evelyn Baring, Nubar Pasha, Pro- 
fessor Schweinfurth and Dr. Junker on the Emin Belief Expedition 
— Details relating to Emin Pasha and his Province — General Grenfell 
and the ammunition — Breakfast with Khedive Tewfik : message to 
Emin Pasha — Departure for Zanzibar — Description of Mombasa 
town — Visit to the Sultan of Zanzibar — Letter to Emin Pasha sent 
by messenger through Uganda — Arrangements with Tippoo Tib — 
Emin Pasha s Ivory — Mr. Mackenzie, Sir John Pender and Sir James 
Anderson's assistance to the Belief Expedition. 

January 27t}i, 1887. — Arrived at Alexandria 6 a.m. issv. 
Surgeon t. H. Parke of the A.M.D. came to my hotel J^"^- 27- 
and applied for the position of surgeon to the Expe- Vrii" 
dition. It was the one vacancy not yet filled to my 
satisfaction. I considered it a Godsend, though I 
appeared distant, as I had had two most unpleasant 
experiences with medical men, both of whom were 
crotchetty, and inconsistent in England. An extremely 
handsome young gentleman — diffident somewhat — but 
very prepossessing. To try if he were in earnest I said, 
" If you care to follow me to Cairo, I will talk further 
with you. I have not the time to argue with you here." 

Left Alexandria at 10 a.m. for Cairo. At the station 
I met Sir Evelyn Baring, whom I had read of in Gordon's 
journals. We drove to Sir Evelyn's house and was 
told in his- straightforward and clearest manner that 
there was a hitch somewhere. The Khedive and Nubar 
Pasha, the Prime Minister, were doubtful as to the 
wisdom of the Congo route. Professor Schweinfurth 
and Dr. Junker had both been struck with consternation, 
and by their manner had expressed that the idea was 




Jan. 27 


" Well, Sir Evelyn," I said, " do you not think that 
there are as clever men in England as Messrs. Schwein- 
furth and Junker ? On the Relief Committee we have 
Colonel James Augustus Grant — companion of Speke. 
Colonel Sir Francis de Winton, late Administrator 
General of the Congo, Colonel Sir Lewis Pelly — late 


Political Agent at Zanzibar, the Honourable Guy 
Dawnay of the War Office, Sir John Kirk — late Consul- 
General at Zanzibar, the Eev, Horace Waller and 
several other distinguished and level-headed men. 
Nothing has been settled without the concurrence and 
assent of the Foreign Office. We have considered 


everything, and I have come thus far resolved to carry 
the project out as the committee and myself have agreed." 
And then I gave Sir Evelyn the pros and cons of the 
routes, which satisfied him. We then drove to the 
Prime Minister, Nubar Pasha, and tlie same explanations 
had to be entered into with him. Nu bar, with a kin dly 


benevolent smile, deferred to Sir Evelyn's superior 
judgment. Nubar assented to the wisdom and discretion 
of the change, and as a reward I was invited to break- 
fast for the morrow. 

January 2Sth, Cairo. — I breakfasted with Nubar 
Pasha. He introduced me to Mason Bey — the circum- 


Jan. 27. 



1887. navigator of Lake Albert in 1877, Madame Nubar 
Jan. 28. and three daughters, Tigrane Pasha, his son-in-law, 
Cairo. ]^/[p Fane, formerly Secretary of Legation at Brussels. 
During breakfast Nubar Pasha conversed upon many 
things, principally Egypt, Soudan, Africa and Gordon. 
Of Gordon he is clearly no admirer. He accredits the 
loss of the Soudan to him. His views of Baker were that 
he was a fighter — an eager pioneer — a man of great 

Showed map to Nubar after breakfast. He examined 
the various routes carefully, and was convinced the 
Congo route was the best. He proposes to write 
instructions to Emin to return to Egypt on the ground 
that Egypt cannot afford to retain the Soudan under 
present circumstances. He permits us the use of the 
Egyptian Flag as the banner of the Expedition. He 
says he would like to see Emin return with as much 
ivory as possible and bringing his Makrakas with him. 
Should any ivory be brought out he will lay claim to 
some of the money on behalf of the Egyptian Govern- 
ment — because of the £ 1 0,000 furnished by it. Uniforms 
are being ordered for Emin Pasha and principal officers, 
for which the Relief Fund will have to pay. Pank and 
pay due to each officer assured. 

I saw Schweinfurth and Junker, who have been con- 
sidered experts here, and I have had a long and 
interesting conversation, the pith of which I here 

Schweinfurth and Junker, it seems, had formed the 
curious idea that because the Expedition was to be 
armed with several hundred Pemingtons and a machine 
gun of the latest invention, it was to be an offensive 
force conducted after strict military rules. 

If they had reflected at all the very title of the 
Expedition ought to have warned them that they were 
astray ; the character of the people who subscribed the 
major portion of the fund ought to have still more 
assured them that their conception of the Expedition 
was wide of the mark. It is the relief of Emin Pasha 
that is the object of the Expedition, the said relief 



consisting of ammunition in sufficient quantity to i887. 
enable him to withdraw from his dangerous position in ^'^^- ^^' 
Central Africa in safety, or to hold his own if he decides 
to do so for such length of time as he may see fit. 
Considering the quality of the escort, being mainly 
Zanzibaris or freed slaves, it w^ould be rash to expect too 
much from them. It is already known in Zanzibar that 
Uganda is hostile, that Mwanga massacred some sixty of 
the followers of Bishop Hannington, that the Masai 
route has its dangers, that Karagwe is tributary to 
Mwanga, that the Wahha are numerous and aggressive, 
that Ruanda has never yet been penetrated, that 
beyond a certain line whether on the Masai route or the 
Karagwe route there is certain danger ; and no matter 
with what cheerfulness they would assert at Zanzibar 
their readiness to defy all and every belligerent, 
African travellers remember how weak they are 
proved to be when in actual presence of danger. 
Assuming, however, that this band of 600 Zanzibaris 
were faithful, consider their inexperience of these new 
rifles, their wild, aimless, harmless firing, their want of 
discipline and tone, their disposition to be horrified at 
sight of the efi'ects of fighting — remember that in 
reality they are only porters and do not pretend to be 
warriors — and you will see how very unequal such men 
are to the duties of defending munitions of war in the 
face of an enemy. It was only by stratagem that I 
secured their services for the desperate work of dis- 
covering the issue of the great river along which we 
had travelled with Tippu-Tib, when that now famous 
Arab deserted me in mid-Africa. It was only that 
there were no other means of escape that enabled me 
with their help to obtain a quiet retreat from savage 
Ituru. In many other instances they proved that when 
menaced with instant death they could be utilized to 
assist in the preservation of their own lives ; but to 
expect them to march faithfully forward to court the 
dangers of fighting with the seductions of Unyamwezi 
and Zanzibar in their rear would be too much. In this 
Expedition we cannot turn aside as formerly in presence 


1887. of a pronounced hostility and seek more peaceful 
Jan. 28. countiics ; but our objective point must be reached, and 
^'^"^' risk must be run, and the ammunition must be de- 
posited at the feet of Emin Pasha. Therefore to arm 
these people with Eemingtons or machine guns is not 
enough — you must cut off their means of retreat, allow 
no avenue of escape — then they will stand together like 
men, and we may expect the object of the Expedition to 
be attained, even if we have now and again to meet 
bows and spears or guns, 

Eegarding Emin Pasha my information is various. 

From Dr. Junker I learn that Emin Pasha is tall,* 
thin and exceedingly short-sighted ; that he is a great 
linguist, Turkish, Arabic, German, French, Italian and 
English being familiar to him ; to these languages may 
be added a few of the African dialects. He does not 
seem to have impressed Junker with his fighting 
qualities, though as an administrator, he is sagacious, 
tactful and prudent. His long isolation seems to have 
discouraged him. He says, " Egypt does not care for us 
and has forgotten us ; Europe takes no interest in what 
we do." He is German by birth, and is about forty- 
seven years old. 

His force is distributed among eight stations, from 
200 to 300 men in each, say about 1,800 in all. The 
garrisons of the four northernmost stations were 
discontented and mutinous at last accounts. They 
answered Emin's advice to consolidate with reproaches ; 
his suggestions that they should all withdraw from the 
equatorial province via Zanzibar, were responded to by 
accusations that he intended only to sell them to 
Zanzibar as slaves. 

Junker cannot give an exact figure of the force itself, 
or of the Egyptians or clerks or Dongolese with Emin, 
but being questioned closely as to details replied that 
the approximate number of those likely to return with 
the Expedition would be as follows : — 

White Egyptian Officers, 10 ; non-commissioned 

* We consequently bade the tailor make long pantaloons, and they 
were quite six inches too long. 



(black), 15; wliite clerks (Copts), 20; blacks from iss; 
Dongola, Wady Haifa, etc., 300, = men 345. White- •^^'"- ^^ 
women, 22; blackwomen, 137; = women 159, children ^*'"' 
of officers, 40; soldiers' children, 60 = children 100.= 
Total 604. 

Besides these the native troops on perceiving a 


general withdrawal, may also desire to return with their 
friends and comrades to Egypt. It is impossible to state 
what may be the effect on their minds of the appearance 
of the Relief Expedition. The decision of Emin Pasha, 
to remain or withdraw, will probably influence the 



1887. I expect my men from Wady Haifa to be here this 
Jan. 2& afternoon. They will be armed, equipped and rationed 
at the Citadel, and on Thursday will accompany me to 
Suez. The Navarino is supposed to arrive at Suez the 
day following, when we will embark and be off. 

Received telegrams from London. Reports from a 
well-known person at Cairo has reached newspapers 
that Emin Pasha had fought his way through Uganda 
after some desperate struggles, and that the Egyptian 
Government had placed difficulty in way of Expedition. 
Replied that such facts were unknown in Cairo. 

February 1st. — ^Saw Sir Evelyn Baring at 10.45 a.m. 
Accompanied him to Khedive Tewfik. His Highness 
is most amiable and good-looking. Fine palace within, 
abundance of room, a host of attendants, &c. Am 
invited to breakfast with Khedive at noon to-morrow. 

Taken later by Sir Evelyn to General Grenfell's office 
respecting suggestion made to me last night, at 
General Stephenson's by Valentine Baker Pasha, that I 
must assure myself that the Remington ammunition 
furnished by Egyptian Government was sound, as his 
experience of it was that 50 per cent, was bad. " You 
must think then," said he, " if the ammunition is so 
poor already what it will be about a year hence when 
you meet Emin, after humidity of tropics." 

General Grenfell said he had already tested the 
ammunition, and would make another trial, since 
Valentine Baker Pasha entertained such an opinion of it. 

February 2nd. — Breakfast with Khedive Tewfik. He 
protests his patriotism, and loves his country. He is 
certainly most unaffected and genial. 

Before leaving Khedive, the following Firman or 
High Order, was given to me open with the English 


Copy of a High Arabic Order to Emin Pasha, dated 
Sth, Gamad Awal 1304, {1st February, 1887. No. 3). 

" We have already thanked you and your officers for 
the plucky and successful defence of the Egyptian 



Equatorial provinces entrusted to your charge, and for iss?. 
the firmness you have shown with your fellow-officers ^^^- '^^ 
under your command. 

And we therefore have rewarded you in raising your 
rank to that of Lewa Pasha (Brigadier-General). We 
have also approved the ranks you thought necessary to 
give to the officers under your charge. As I have already 
written to you on the 29 November, 1886, No. 31, and 
it must have reached you with other documents sent by 
His Excellency Nubar Pasha, President of the Council of 

And, since it is our sincerest desire to relieve you with 
your officers and soldiers from the difficult position you 
are in, our Government have made up their mind in 
the manner by which you may be relieved with officers 
and soldiers from your troubles. 

And as a mission for the relief has been formed under 
the command of Mr. Stanley, the famous and experienced 
African Explorer, whose reputation is well known 
throughout the world ; and as he intends to set out on 
his Expedition with all the necessary provisions for you 
so that he may bring you here with officers and men to 
Cairo, by the route which Mr. Stanley may think proper 
to take. Consequently we have issued this High Order 
to you, and it is sent to you by the hand of Mr. Stanley 
to let you know what has been done, and as soon as it 
will reach you, I charge you to convey my best wishes 
to the officers and men — and you are at full liberty with 
regard to your leaving for Cairo or your stay tliere with 
officers and men. 

Our Government has given a decision for paying your 
salaries with that of the officers and men. 

Those who wish to stay there from the officers and 
men they may do it on their own responsibility, and 
they may not expect any assistance from the Govern- 

Try to understand the contents well, and make it 
well-known to all the officers and men, that they may 
be aware of what they are going to do. 

(Signed) Mehemet Tewfik." 


1887. In tlie evening Tigrane Paslia brought to me Nubar 
Feb. 2. Pasha's — the Prime Minister — letter of recall to Emia 
cairo^ It was read to me and then sealed. 

We stand thus, then ; Junker does not think Emin will 
abandon the Province ; the English subscribers to the 
fund hope he will not, but express nothing ; they leave 
it to Emin to decide ; the English Government would 
prefer that he would retire, as his Province under present 
circumstances is almost inaccessible, and certainly he, so 
far removed, is a cause of anxiety. The Khedive sends 
the above order for Emin to accept of our escort, but 
says, " You may do as you please. If you decline our 
proffered aid you are not to expect farther assistance 
from the G-overnment." Nubar Pasha's letter conveys 
the wishes of the Egyptian Government which are in 
accordance with those of the English Government, as 
expressed by Sir Evelyn Baring. 

February 3rd. — Left Cairo for Suez. At the station 
to wish me success were Sir Evelyn and Lady Baring, 
Generals Stephenson, Grenfell, Valentine Baker, Abbate 
Pasha, Professor Schweinfurth and Dr. Junker. The 
latter and sixty-one soldiers (Soudanese) from Wady 
Haifa accompanied me. At Zagazig, Surgeon T. H. 
Parke, now an enrolled member of the Expedition, joined 
me. At Ismailia our party were increased by Giegler 
Pasha. At Suez met Mr. James S. Jameson, the 
naturalist of the Expedition. Mr. Bonny of the Hospital 
Staff Corps, and Baruti, will arrive to-morrow per 
Garonne of the Orient line. 

Fehruary Qth. — Breakfasted with Captain Beyts, Agent 
of the British India Steam Navigation Company. At 
2 P.M. Capt. Beyts embarked with us on board Bob Roy, 
a new steamer just built for him, and we steamed out to 
the Suez harbour where the Navarino from London is at 
anchor. At 5 P.M., after friendly wishes from Captain 
Beyts and my good friend Dr. Junker, to whom I had 
become greatly attached for the real worth in him, the 
Navarino sailed for Aden. 

February Sth. — Weather grows warm. Ther. Fah. 74* 
at 8 A.M. in Captain's cabin. My European servant 



asked me if this was the Red Sea through which we were i887. 
sailing. " Yes," I replied. " Well, sir, it looks more ^f; ^■'^• 
like a black sea than a red one, ' was his profound re- 

Fehuary Vlth. — Reached Aden at 2 a.m. We now 
change steamers. Navarino proceeds to Bombay. The 
B.I. S.N. steamer Oriental takes us to Zanzibar. On 
board the latter steamer we met Major Barttelot. Cabled 
to Zanzibar following : — 

" Mackenzie, Zanzibar. 

" YoTir telegram very gratifying. Please engage twenty young lads 
as oflBcers' servants at lower rate than men. We leave to-day with eight 
Europeans, sixty-one Soudanese, two Syrians, thirteen Somalis. Pro- 
vision transport steamer accordingly." 

The first-class passengers include self, Barttelot, Stairs, 
Jephson, Nelson, Parke, Bonny, Count Pfeil, and two 
German companions bound for Rufiji River. 

February I9th. — Arrived ofl' Lamu at 3 p.m. Soon 
after s.s. Baghdad came in with Dr. Lenz, the Austrian 
traveller, who had started to proceed to Emin Bey, but 
failing, came across to Zanzibar instead. He is on his 
way home. Having failed in his purpose, he will blame 
Africa and abuse the Congo especially. It is natural 
wdth all classes to shift the blame on others, and I feel 
assured Lenz will be no exception. 

February 20 fh. — Arrived at Mombasa. Was told that 
a great battle had been fought lately between the Gallas 
and Somalis. The former are for the Germans, the latter 
are declared enemies to them. We also hear that 
Portugal has declared war against Zanzibar, or something 
like it. 

Best place for commercial depot is on right hand of 
northern entrance, first point within harbour ; it is 
bluffy, dips sheer down into deep water, with timber 
floated along base of bluff, and long-armed derricks on 
edge of bluff, steamers might be unloaded and loaded 
with ease. Cocoa-nut palms abundant. Good view of 
sea from it. If Mombasa becomes an English port — 
as I hope it will shortly — the best position of new 
town would be along face of bluff fronting seaward 



1887. on island just where old Portuguese port is ; a light 
Feb. 22. railway and some draught mules would land on train 
all goods from harbour. 

February 2'lnd. — Arrived at Zanzibar. Acting Con- 
sul-General Holmwood warmly proffered hospitality. 

Instructed officers to proceed on board our transport, 
B.I. S.N. Co. Madura, SivA to take charge of Somalis and 
Soudanese, and Mackenzie to disembark forty donkeys 
and saddles from Madura — route being changed there 
was no need for so many animals. 

Eeceived compliments from the Sultan of Zanzibar ; 
visits from the famous Tippu-Tib, Jaffar, son of Tarya 
Topan, his agent, and Kanji the Vakeel of Tarya. 

Zanzibar is somewhat changed during my eight years' 
absence. There is a telegraphic cable, a tall clock- tower, 
a new Sultan's palace, very lofty and conspicuous, with 
wide verandahs. The Custom House has been enlarged. 
General Lloyd Mathews has new barracks for his Mili- 
tary Police ; the promenade to Fiddler's grave has been 
expanded into a broad carriage-way, which extends to 
Sultan's house beyond Mbwenni. There are horses and 
carriages, and steam-rollers, and lamp-posts, at convenient 
distances, serve to bear oil-lamps to light the road when 
His Highness returns to city from a country jaunt. 

There are six German war-vessels in port, under 
Admiral Knorr, H.B.M.S. Turquoise and Reindeer, ten 
merchant steamers, and a few score of Arab dhows. Bag- 
galas, Kanjehs, and boats. 

February 2 3 re?. — Paid what is called a State visit to 
His Highness. As a special mark of honour the troops, 
under stout General Lloyd Mathews, were drawn up in 
two lines, about 300 yards in length. A tolerable mili- 
tary band saluted us with martial strains, while several 
hundreds of the population were banked behind the 
soldiers. The most frequent words I heard as I passed 
through with Consul Holmwood were : " Ndio huyu " — 
" Yes, it is he !" by which I gathered that scattered 
among the crowds must have been a large number of my 
old followers, pointing me out to their friends. 

State visits are nearly always alike. The *' Present 



arms I" by General Matliews, the martial strains, the isar. 
large groups of the superior Arabs at the hall porch, ^^^' "^■ 
the ascent up the lofty flights of stairs — the Sultan at 
the head of the stairs — the grave bow, the warm clasp, 
the salutation word, the courteous wave of the hand to 
enter, the slow march towards the throne — another cere- 
monious inclination all round — the Prince taking his 
seat, which intimates we may follow suit, the refresh- 
ments of sherbet after coffee, and a few remarks about 
Europe, and our mutual healths. Then the ceremonious 
departure, again the strains of music, — Mathews' sonorous 
voice at " Present arms !" and we retire from the 
scene to doff our London dress-suits, and pack them up 
with camphor to preserve them from moths, until we 
return from years of travel "Through the Dark Con- 
tinent" and from ''Darkest Africa." 

In the afternoon, paid the business visit, first pre- 
senting the following letter :— 

" To His Highness Seyyid Barghash bin Said, 
" Sultau of ZaBzibar. 

" Burlington Hotel, 

" Old Burlington Street, London, W. 

" IWi January, 1887. 

" Tour Highness, 

" I cannot allow another mail to pass without writing to express 
to you my grateful appreciation of the kindly response you made to my 
telegram "^in regard to assisting the Expedition, which proceeds under 
the leadership of Mr. H. M. Stanley to relieve Emin Pasha. The cor- 
diality with which you instructed your officers to assist in selecting the 
best men available is indeed a most important service to the Expedition, 
and I have reason to know that it has given great satisfaction in 
England. Mr. Stanley will reach Zanzibar In about four weeks. He is 
full of enthusiasm as the leader of his interesting Expedition, and his 
chief reasons for selecting the Congo route are that he may be able to 
convey the men your Highness has so kindly assisted him in procuring 
without fatigue or risk by sea to the Congo, and up the river in boats in 
comparative comfort, and they will arrive within 350 miles of their 
destination fresh and vigorous instead of being worn out and jaded by 
the fatigue of a long march inland. His services will be entirely devoted 
to the Expedition during its progress, and he cannot deviate from its 
course to perform service for the Congo State. 

" It is probable also he will return by the east coast land route, 
and as I know him to be deeply interested in your Highness's prosperity 
and welfare, I am sure if he can render any service to Your Highness 
during his progress back to the coast, he will do so most heartily. I 
have had many conversations with him, and have always found him 
most friendly to Your Highness's interests, and I believe also the 



1887 confidence of our mutual good friend. I pray you in these circum- 
Feb 23. stances to communicate freely with Mr. Stanley on all points— as freely 
as if I had the honour of being there to receive the communications 

" With the repeated assurance of my hearty sympathy in all the affairs 
that concern Your Highness's interests. 

" T remain, 
" Your very obedient servant and friend, 


We then entered heartily into our business ; how abso- 
lutely necessary it was that he should promptly enter 
into an agreement with the English within the limits 
assigned by Anglo-German treaty. It would take too 
long to describe the details of the conversation, but I 
obtained from him the answer needed. 

" Please God we shall agree. "When you have got the papers ready we 
shall read and sign without further delay and the matter will be over." 

At night, wrote the following letter to Emin Pasha, 
for transmission to-morrow by couriers overland, who 
will travel through Uganda into Unyoro secretly. 

" To His Excellency Emin Pasha, 
" Governor of the Equatorial Provinces. 

" H. B. Majesty's Consulate. Zanzibar. 
" Dear Sir, " February 23rc?, 1887. 

" I have the honour to inform you that the Government of His High- 
ness the Khedive of Egypt, upon the receipt of your urgent letters 
soliciting aid and instructions, have seen fit to depute me to equip an 
Expedition to proceed to Wadelai to convey such aid as they think you 
require, and to assist you in other ways agreeably with the written 
instructicms which have been delivered to me for you. 

" Having been pretty accurately informed of the nature of your neces- 
sities from the perusal of your letters to the Egyptian Government, the 
Expedition has been equipped in such a manner as may be supposed to 
meet all your wants. As you will gather from the letters of His High- 
ness and the Prime Minister of Egypt to you, and which I bring with 
me, all that could possibly be done to satisfy your needs has been done 
most heartily. From the translation of the letters delivered to me, I 
perceive that tliey will give you immense satisfaction. Over sixty 
soldiers from Wady Haifa have been detailed to accompany me in order 
that they may be able to encourage the soldiers under your command, 
and confirm the letters. We also march under the Egyptian standard. 

" The Expedition includes 600 Zanzibari natives, and probably as 
many Arab followers from Central Africa. 

" We sail to-morrow from Zanzibar to the Congo, and by the 18th June 
next we ho]ie to be at the head of navigation on the Upper Congo. 
From the point where we debark to the southern end of Lake Albert is a 
distance of 820 miles in a straight line, say 500 miles by road, which will 


probably occupy us fifty days to march to the south-western or southern jggy 
end, in the neighbourhood of Kavalli. Feb. 23. 

" If your steamers are in that neighbourhood, you will be able to leave „ ., 
word perhaps at Kavalli, or in its neighbourhood, informing me of your **"" '" 

" The reasons which have obliged me to adopt this route for the con- 
veyance of your stores are various, but principally political. I am also 
impressed with the greater security of that route and the greater 
certainty of success attending the venture with less trouble to the 
Expedition and less annoyance to the natives. Mwanga is a formidable 
opponent to the south and south-east. The Wakedi and other warlike 
natives to the eastward of Fatiko oppose a serious obstacle, the natives 
of Kishakka and Euanda have never permitted strangers to enter their 
country. En route I do not anticipate much trouble, because there are 
no powerful chiefs in the Congo basin capable of interrupting our 

" Besides abundance of ammunition for your needs, ofl5cial letters from 
the Egyptian Government, a heavy mail from your numerous friends and 
admirers, I bring with me personal equipments for yourself and oflBcers 
suitable to the rank of each. 

" Trusting that I shall have the satisfaction of finding you well and 
safe, and that nothing will induce you to rashly venture your life and 
liberty in the neighbourhood of Uganda, without the ample means of 
causing yourself and men to be respected which I am bringing to you, 
" I beg you to believe me, 

" Yours very faithfully, 

"(Signed) Henry M. Stanlky." 

February 2ith and 25th. — On arriving at Zanzibar, I 
found our Agent, Mr. Edmund Mackenzie, had managed 
everything so well that the Expedition was almost ready 
for embarkation. The steamer Madura, of the British 
India Steam Navigation Company, was in harbour, pro - 
visioned and watered for the voyage. The goods for 
barter, and transport animals, were on board. There were 
a few things to be done, however — such as arranging with 
the famous Tippu-Tib about our line of conduct towards 
one another. Tippu-Tib is a much greater man to-day than 
he was in the year 1877, when he escorted my caravan, pre 
liminary to our descent down the Congo, He has invested 
his hard-earned fortune in guns and powder. Adven 
turous Arabs have flocked to his standard, until he is now 
an uncrowned king of the region between Stanley Falls 
and Tanganika Lake, commanding many thousands of 
men inured to fighting and wild Equatorial life. If I dis- 
covered hostile intentions, my idea was to give him a 
wide berth ; for the ammunition I had to convey to 
Emin Pasha, if captured and employed by him, would en- 



1887. danger tlie existence of the infant State of the Congo, and 
Feb. 24. ij^peril all our hopes. Between Tippu-Tip and Mwanga, 
King of Uganda, there was only a choice of the frying- 
pan and the fire. Tippu-Tib was the Zubehr of the 
Congo Basin — just as formidable if made an enemy, as 
the latter would have been at the head of his slaves. 
Between myself and Gordon there had to be a difference 
in dealing with our respective Zubehrs ; mine had no 
animus against me personally ; my hands were free, and 
my movements unfettered. Therefore, with due caution, 
I sounded Tippu-Tib on the first day, and found him 
fully prepared for any eventuality — to fight me, or be 
employed by me. I chose the latter, and we proceeded 
to business. His aid was not required to enable me to 
reach Emin Pasha, or to show the road. There are four 
good roads to Wadelai from the Congo ; one of them 
was in Tippu-Tib's power, the remaining three are clear 
of him and his myriads. But Dr. Junker informed me 
that Emin Pasha possessed about 75 tons of ivory. 
So much ivory would amount to £60,000, at 8s. per lb. 
The subscription of Egypt to the Emin Pasha Fund is 
large for her depressed finance. In this quantity of 
ivory we had a possible means of recouping her Treasury 
— with a large sum left towards defraying expenses, and 
perhaps leaving a handsome present for the Zanzibari 
survivors. - 

Why not attempt the carriage of this ivory to the 
Congo ? Accordingly, I wished to engage Tippu-Tib and 
his people to assist me in conveying the ammunition to 
Emin Pasha, and on return to carry this ivory. After a 
good deal of bargaining I entered into a contract with 
him, by which he agreed to supply 600 carriers at £6 
per loaded head — each round trip from Stanley Falls to 
Lake Albert and back. Thus, if each carrier carries 
70 lbs. weight of ivory, one round trip will bring to the 
Fund £13,200 nett at Stanley Falls. 

On the conclusion of this contract, which was entered 
into in presence of the British Consul-General, I 
broached another subject in the name of His Majesty 
King Leopold with Tippu-Tib. Stanley Falls station 



was established by me in December 1883. Various i887, 
Europeans have since commanded this station, and Mr. ^"^^ ^'** 
Binnie and Lieut. Wester of the Swedish Army had 
succeeded in making it a well-ordered and presentable 
station. Captain Deane, his successor, quarrelled with 
the Arabs, and at his forced departure from the scene 
set fire to the station. The object for which the station 
was established was the prevention of the Arabs from 
pursuing their devastating career below the Falls, not 
so much by force as by tact, or rather the happy com- 
bination of both. By the retreat of the officers of the 
State from Stanley Falls, the floodgates were opened 
and the Arabs pressed down river. Tippu-Tib being of 
course the guiding spirit of the Arabs west of Tanganika 
Lake, it was advisable to see how far his aid might be 
secured to check this stream of Arabs from destroying 
the country. After the interchange of messages by 
cable with Brussels — on the second day of my stay at 
Zanzibar — I signed an engagement wifh Tippu-Tib by 
which he was appointed Governor of Stanley Falls at a 
regular salary, paid monthly at Zanzibar, into the British 
Consul-General's hands. His duties will be principally 
to defend Stanley Falls in the name of the State against 
all Arabs and natives; The flag of the station will be 
that of the State. At all hazards he is to defeat and 
capture all persons raiding territory for slaves, and to 
disperse all bodies of men who may be justly suspected 
of violent designs. He is to abstain from all slave traffic 
below the Falls himself, and to prevent all in his com- 
mand trading in slaves. In order to ensure a faithful 
performance of his engagement with the State, an Euro- 
pean officer is to be appointed Resident at the Falls. 
On the breach of any article in the contract being 
reported, the salary is to cease. 

Meantime, while I was engaged with these negotia- 
tions, Mr. Mackenzie had paid four months' advance 
pay — $12,415 — to 620 men and boys enlisted in the 
Relief Expedition, and as fast as each batch of fifty men 
was satisfactorily paid, a barge was hauled alongside and 
the men were duly embarked, and a steam launch towed 

VOL. I. F 



1887. the barge to the transport. By 5 p.m. all hands were 
Feb. 25. aboard, and the steamer moved off to a more distant 
anchorage. By midnight Tippu-Tib and his people and 
every person connected with the Expedition was on 
board, and at daybreak next day, the 25th February, 
the anchor was lifted, and we steamed away towards the 
Cape of Good Hope. 

So far there had not been a hitch in any arrangement. 
Difficulties had been smoothed as if by magic. Every- 
body had shown the utmost sympathy, and been prompt 
with the assistance required. The officers of the Expe- 
dition were kept fully employed from morning to 
evening at laborious tasks connected with the repacking 
of the ammunition for Emin Pasha's force. 

Before concluding these entries, I ought to mention 
the liberal assistance rendered to the Relief Expedition 
by Sir John Pender, K.C.M.G., and the Eastern Tele- 
graph Company. All my telegrams from Egypt, Aden 
and Zanzibar, amounting in the aggregate to several 
hundred words were despatched free, and as each word 
from Zanzibar to Europe ordinarily costs eight shillings 
per word, some idea of the pecuniary value of the favour 
conferred may be obtained. On my return from Africa 
this great privilege was again granted, and as I received 
a score of cablegrams per day for several days, and 
answers were expected, I should speedily have paid 
dearly for the fortunate rescue of Emin Pasha, and most 
probably my stirring career had ended in the Bank- 
ruptcy Court had not Sir John Pender and Sir James 
Anderson quickly reassured me. Among the contri- 
butors to the Relief Fund to a very generous amount 
I therefore may fairly place the names of Sir John 
Pender and Sir James Anderson in behalf of the Eastern 
Telegraph Company. I should also state that they were 
prepared to lend me the Telegraph steamer at Zanzibar 
to convey my force of carriers and soldiers to the Congo 
had there been any difficulty in the way of engaging 
the B.I. S.N. Company's s.s. Madura. 



The Sultan of Zanzibar— Tippu-Tib and Stanley Falls— On board 
s.s. Madura — " Shindy " between the Zanzibaris and Soudanese- 
Sketches of my various officers -Tipjiu-Tib and Cape Town- 
Arrival at the mouth of the Congo River — Start up the Congo — 
Visit from two of tlie Executive Committee of the Congo State- 
Unpleasant thoughts. 

The following private letter to a friend will explain i887. 
some things of general interest : — ^^^''^^ ^• 

Cape of 
Good Hope. 

SS. Madura, March 9th., 1887, 

My dear , ^'^' ^^P' °^ ^°°^ ^°i^"- 

Apart from the Press letters which are to be published 
for the benefit of the Relief Fund, and which will contain 
all that the public ought to know just now, I shall have 
somewhat to say to you and other friends. 

The Sultan of Zanzibar received me with unusual 
kindness, much of which I owe to the introduction of 
Mr. William Mackinnon and Sir John Kirk. He pre- 
sented me with a fine sword, a shirazi blade I should 
say, richly mounted with gold, and a magnificent 
diamond ring, which quite makes Tippu-Tib's eyes 
water. With the sword is the golden belt of His 
Highness, the clasp of which bears his name in Arabic. 
It will be useful as a sign, if I come before Arabs, 
of the good understanding between the Prince and 
myself; and if I reach the Egyptian officers, some of 
whom are probably illiterate, they must accept the 
sword as a token that we are not traders. 

You will have seen by the papers that I have taken 
with me sixty-one soldiers — Soudanese. My object has 



1887. been to enable them to speak for me to the Soudanese 

March 9. q£ Equatoila. The Egyptians may affect to disbelieve 

Go^od Hope firmans and the writing of Nubar, in which case these 

Soudanese will be pushed forward as living witnesses of 

my commission. 

I have settled several little commissions at Zanzibar 


satisfactorily. One was to get the Sultan to sign the 
concessions which Mackinnon tried to obtain a long 
time ago. As the Germans have magnificent territory 
east of Zanzibar, it was but fair that England should 
have some portion for the protection she has accorded 
to Zanzibar since 1841. The Germans appeared to 


have recognized this, as you may see by the late Anglo- i887. 
German Agreement. France had already obtained an ^"^^'""^ ^" 
immense area in West Africa. All the world had agreed Go^d Hoje 
to constitute the domain of King Leopold, on which he 
had spent a million sterling, as the Independent State 
of the Congo. Portugal, which is a chronic grumbler, 
and does little, and that little in a high-handed, illiberal 
manner, has also been graciously considered by the 
European Powers ; but England, which had sent out her 
explorers, Livingstone, Burton, Speke, Grant, Baker, 
Keith Johnston, Thomson, Elton, &c., had obtained 
nothing, and probably no people had taken such interest 
in the Dark Continent, or had undergone such sacrifices 
in behalf of the aborigines, as the English. Her 
cruisers for the last twenty years had policed the ocean 
along the coast to suppress slave-catching ; her missions 
were twenty-two in number, settled between East and 
West Africa. This concession that we wished to obtain 
embraced a portion of the East African coast, of which 
Mombasa and Melindi were the principal towns. For 
eight years, to my knowledge, the matter had been 
placed before His Highness, but the Sultan's signature 
was difficult to obtain. 

Arriving at Zanzibar, I saw the Sultan was aging, 
and that he had not long to live.* Englishmen could 
not invest money in the reserved " sphere of influence " 
until some such concessions were signed. 

" Please God," said the Sultan, " we shall agree ; 
there will be no further doubt about the matter." But 
his political anxieties are wearing him fast, and unless 
this matter is soon completed it will be too late. 

The other aff'air was with Tippu-Tib. He had actu- 
ally in his possession three Krupp shells, unloaded, 
which he had brought with him from Stanley Falls, on 
the Upper Congo, to Zanzibar, to exhibit to his friends 
as the kind of missiles which the Belgians pelted his 
settlements with— and he was exceedingly wroth, and 
nourished a deep scheme of retaliation. ^ It took me 
some time to quiet his spasms of resentment. People 

* Seyyid Barghash died six months later. 


1887. very furious must be allowed time to vent their anger. 
March 9. ^y}^^^ he had poured out his indignation some time, I 
G^oTnope. quietly asked him if he had finished, saying, in a bland 
way, that I knew well how great and powerful he was, etc. , 
and I told him that it was scarcely fair to blame all the 
Europeans and King Leopold because an officer at 
Stanley Falls had been pleased to heave Krupp shells at 
his settlements ; that this trouble had been caused by 
the excess of zeal of one man in defending a slave woman 
who had sought his protection, in the same way that 
Kashid, his nephew, had been carried away by the fury 
of youth to defend his rights. The Governor of the 
Congo State was absent nearly 1500 miles down the 
river, and Tippu-Tib, the owner of the settlements, was 
several hundred miles eastward on the way to Zanzibar. 
Now I look upon this affair as the result of a match 
between one young white man and a young Arab. The 
gray heads are absent who would have settled the 
trouble without fighting : youths are always " on their 
muscle," you know. 

" Do you know," I continued, " that that station has 
given us a great deal of trouble. We sent Amelot, you 
remember. Well,, he just left the station without 
orders, and died somewhere near Nyangwe ; then the next, 
Gleerup, a Swede, followed suit, and travelled across 
Africa instead ; then we sent Deane, and for a change 
he would have war with the Arabs. King Leopold is 
not to blame for all this. It is a difficult thins^ to oret 
men who are always wise, and understand thoroughly 
what their orders are. If King Leopold had sent Deane 
to fight you, he would not have sent him with thirty 
men, you may be sure." 

Now, look here. He proposes that you try your 
hand at governing that station. He will pay you every 
month what he would pay an European officer. There 
are certain little conditions that you must comply wdth 
before you become Governor." 

Tippu-Tib opened his eyes and snapped them rapidly, 
as his custom is, and asked, " Me ? " 

" Yes, you. You like money ; I offer you money. 


You have a grudge against white men being there, imi. 
Well, if you do your work rightly there will be no need ^^""^^ ^• 
for any white men, except him whom we shall have to gwThopc 
place under you, to see that the conditions are not 

" Well, what are they ? " 

" You must hoist the flag of the State. You must 
allow a Eesident to be with you, who will write your 
reports to the King. You must neither trade in slaves, 
nor allow anybody else to trade in them below Stanley 
Falls. Nor must there be any slave-catching ; you under- 
stand. Such trade as you make in ivory, gums, rubber, 
cattle, and anything else, you may do as much as you 
please. But there is to be no pillaging native property 
of any description whatever below your station. A 
monthly allowance will be paid into the hands of your 
Agent at Zanzibar. Don't answer right away. Go and 
discuss it with your friends, and think of what I offer 
you. My ship sails on the third day. Give me your 
answer to-morrow." 

A favourable answer was given, a proper agreement 
was drawn up before the Consul-General, and we both 

I made another agreement with him about the en- 
gagement of carriers to carry ammunition to Lake 
Albert from the Congo. If there is no ivory I shall be 
indebted to Tippu-Tib for the sum of £3,600. But 
there must be some, as both Emin Pasha and Dr. Junker 
declare there is a large store of it. At the same time 
I shall not risk the Expedition for the sake of the 

In consideration of these services which Tippu-Tib 
has solemnly contracted to perform, I permitted him 
free passage for himself and ninety-six of his kinsmen 
from Zanzibar to the Congo, with board included. I 
also undertook the responsibility of conveying the 
entire party safely to Stanley Falls, thus incurring not 
a small expense, but which if faithfully performed will 
))e amply paid for by the services mentioned in the 
articles of agreement. These negotiations with Tippu- 


1887. Tib also ensure for us a peaceful march from the Congo 
March 9. through his territory, a thing that would have been 
Go^d Hoje. by no means possible without him — as his various 
hordes of raiders will be widely scattered throughout 
the region ; and it is scarcely likely that we should be 
allowed to pass in peace, resenting, as they must naturally 
do, their late rupture with Deane. Having bound Tippu- 
Tib to me I feel somewhat safe against that constant 
fear of desertion of the Zanzibaris. No Arab will now 
persuade the people to desert, as is their custom when 
a white man's Expedition passes near their settlements. 
Tippu-Tib dare not countenance such proceedings in 
this case. 

The Madura is a comfortable steamer. On the 
Oriental and Navarino we were uncomfortably crowded. 
Tween decks abreast of the boilers is rather a hot place 
for the people ; but we have had agreeable weather, and 
the men have preferred to stow themselves in the boats, 
and among the donkeys, and on deck, to the baking 
heat below. 

Two hours from Zanzibar, what is called a " shindy " 
took place between the Zanzibaris and Soudanese. 
For a short time it appeared as though we should have 
■ to return to Zanzibar with many dead and wounded. 
It rose from a struggle for room. The Soudanese had 
been located directly in the way of the Zanzibaris, who, 
being ten times more numerous, required breathing 
space. They were all professed Moslems, but no one 
thought of their religion as they seized upon firewood 
and pieces of planking to batter and bruise each other. 
The battle had raged some time before I heard of it. 
As I looked down the hatchway the sight was fearful — 
blood freely flowed down a score of faces, and ugly 
pieces of firewood flew about very lively. A command 
could not be heard in that uproar, and some of us 
joined in with shillelaghs, directing our attacks upon 
the noisiest. It required a mixture of persuasiveness and 
sharp knocks to reduce the fractious factions to order, 
especially with the Soudanese minority, who are huge 
fellows. The Soudanese were marched out of their 

'shindy' between ZANZIBARI8 AND SOUDANESE. 73 

place and located aft, and the Zanzibaris had all the i887. 
forward half of the ship to themselves. After we had ^^'''^ ®- 
wiped the blood and perspiration away I compli- cooTHope 
mented the officers, especially Jephson, Nelson, and 
Bonny, for their share in the fray. They had be- 
haved most gallantly. The result of the scrimmage 
is ten broken arms, fifteen serious gashes with spears 
on the face and head, and contusions on shoulders 
and backs not worth remark, and several abrasions of 
the lower limbs. 

Surgeon Parke has been very busy vaccinating the 
entire community on board ship. Fortunately I had 
procured a large supply of lymph for this purpose, 
because of the harsh experience of the past. 

We also divided the people into seven companies of 
about ninety men each. 

I have ordered my Agent to send me 200 loads of 

various goods to meet the Expedition at Msalala, south 

end of Lake Victoria. They will be sent about October 

or November, 1887, arriving at Msalala in February or 

March, 1888, because if everything proceeds as I should 

wish, we shall be somewhere near there not very long 

after that date. 


I have been in the company of my officers since I 
left Aden, and I have been quietly observing them. I 
will give you a sketch of them as they appear to me 

Barttelot is a little too eager, and will have to be 
restrained. There is abundance of work in him, and this 
quality would be most lovely if it were always according 
to orders. The most valuable man to me would be he 
who had Barttelot's spirit and " go " in him, and who 
could come and ask if such and such a work ought to 
be done. Such a course suggests thoughtfulness and 
willingness, besides proper respect. 

There is a great deal in Mounteney Jephson, though 
he was supposed to be effeminate. He is actually fierce 
when roused, and his face becomes dangerously set and 
fixed. I noted him during the late battle aboard, and 


1887. I came near crying out " Bravo, Jephson ! " though 1 

March 9. j^^^j ^y ^^^^.^-^ stick, " big as a mast," as the Zanzibaris 

Go^Kpe. say, to wield. It was most gallant and plucky He 

will be either made or marred if he is with this 

Expedition long enough. 

Captain Nelson is a fine fellow, and without the 
ghost of a hobby : he is the same all round, and at all 

Stairs, of the Royal Engineers, is a splendid fellow, 
painstaking, ready, thoughtful, and industrious, and is 
an invaluable addition to our staff, 

Jameson is still the nice fellow we saw ; there is 
not an atom of change in him. He is sociable and 

Bonny is the soldier. He is not initiative. He 
seems to have been under a martinet's drill. 


March Ufh, 1887. 

At Cape Town, Tippu-Tib, after remarking the pros- 
perity and business stir of the city, and hearing its 
history from me, said that he formerly had thought all 
white men to be fools. 

" Really," I said ; " Why ? " 

*' That was my opinion." 

" Indeed ! and what do you think of them now ? " 1 

" I think they have something in them, and that 
they are more enterprising than Arabs." 

" What makes you think so, particularly now ? " 

" Well, myself and kinsmen have been looking at 
this town, these big ships and piers, and we have 
thought how much better all these things appear com- 
pared to Zanzibar, which was captured from the 
Portuguese liefore this town was built, and I have been 
wondering why we could not have done as well as you 
white people. I begin to think you must be very 

" If you have discovered so much, Tippu-Tib, you are 
on the high road to discover more. The white men 


require a deal of study before you can quite make them 1887. 
out. It is a pity you never went to England for a ^^'"''^ ^^' 

• ., , r y y & CapeTown. 


" I hope to go there before I die." 

" Be faithful to us on this long journey, and I will 
take you there, and you will see more things than you 
can dream of now." 

" Inshallah ! if it is the will of Allah we shall go 



On the 18th March the Madura entered the mouth of 
the Congo River, and dropped her anchor about 200 
yards abreast of the sandy point, called Banana. 

In a few minutes I was in the presence of Mr. Lafon- 
taine Ferney, the chief Agent of the Dutch Company, 
to whom our steamer was consigned. Through some 
delay he had not been informed of our intending to 
arrive as soon. Everybody professed surprise, as they 
did not expect us before the 25th, but this fortunate 
accident was solely due to the captain and the good 
steamer. However, I succeeded in making arrangements 
by which the Dutch Company's steamer K. A. Nieman 
— so named after a fine young man of that name, who 
had lately died at St. Paul de Loanda — would be placed 
at my disposal, for the transport to Mataddi of 230 
men next day. 

On returning to the ship, I found my officers 
surrounding two English traders, connected with the 
British Congo Company of Banana. They were saying 
some unpleasant things about the condition of the State 
steamers. " There is a piece of the Stanley on shore 
now, which will give you an idea of that steamer. The 
Stanley is a perfect ruin, we are told. However, will 
you leave the Pool ? The State has not one steamer in 
service. They are all drawn up on the banks for 
repairs, which will take months. We don't see how you 
are to get away from here under six weeks ! Look at 
that big steamer on the sands ! she has just come out 
from Europe ; the fool of a captain ran her on shore 
instead of waiting for a pilot. She has got the sections 


1887. of a steamer in her hold. The Heron and Belgique, both 
March 18. g^^^g steamers, have first, of course, to float that steamer 

jjljfr. off- You are in for it nicely, we can tell you." 

Naturally, this news was very discouraging to our 
ofiicers, and two of them hastened to comfort me with 
the disastrous news. They were not so well acquainted 
with the manners of the " natives " of the Lower Congo 
as I was. I only marvelled why they had not been 
politely requested to accompany their new aquaintances 
to the cemetery, in order that they might have the 
exquisite gratification of exhibiting the painted head- 
boards, which record the deaths of many fine young 
men, as promising in appearance as they. 

I turned to the Agent of the British Congo, and 
requested permission to charter his steamer, the Albu- 
querque. The gentleman graciously acceded. This 
assured me transport for 140 men and 60 tons cargo. 
I then begged that he and his friend would negotiate for 
the charter of the large paddle boat the Serpa Pinto. 
Their good offices were entirely successful, and before 
evening I knew that we should leave Banana Point 
with 680 men and 160 tons cargo on the next day. 
The State steamer Heron I was told would not be able 
to leave before the 20 th. 

On the 19th the steamers K. A. Kieman, Albuquerque, 
and Serpa Pinto, departed from Banana Point, and 
before night had anchored at Ponta da Lenha. The 
next day the two former steamers steamed straight 
up to Mataddi, The Serpa Pinto hauled into the pier 
at Boma, to allow me to send an official intimation of 
the fact that the new Governor of Stanley Falls was 
aboard, and to receive a hurried visit from two of the 
Executive Committee charged with the administration 
of the Congo State. 

We had but time to exchange a few words, but in 
that short time they managed to inform me that there 
was a " famine in the country " ; that " the villages along 
the road to the Pool were abandoned " ; that " the Stanley 
was seriously damaged " ; that " the Mission steamers 
Pea/ie and Henry Reed were in some unknown parts of 


the Upper Congo " ; that " the En Evant was on shore i887. 
without machinery or boiler ; " that " the A. I. A. was ^^^"'^ ^^• 
500 miles above Stanley Pool " ; and that " the Royal ^^yf^^ 
was perfectly rotten ; " and had not been employed for a 
year ; in fact, that the whole of the naval stock 
promised did not exist at all except in the imagina- 
tion of the gentlemen of the Bureau at Brussels ; and, 
said one, who seemed to be the principal of the Executive 
Committee, with deliberate emphasis : " The boats were 
only to assist you if they could be given without 
prejudice to the service of the State." 

The gruff voice of the Portuguese captain of the 
Seiya Pinto ordered the gentlemen on shore, and we 
proceeded on our way up the Congo. 

My thoughts were not of the pleasantest. With my 
flotilla of fifteen whale boats I might have been 
independent ; but there was an objection to the Congo 
route, and therefore that plan was abandoned. We had 
no sooner adopted the East Coast route than the 
Sovereign of the Congo State invited the Expedition to 
pass through his territory ; the Germans had murmured, 
and the French Government protested at the idea of 
our marching through East Africa. When it was too 
late to order the flotilla of whale boats from Forrest and 
Son we then accepted the Congo route, after stipulating 
for transport up the Lower Congo, for porterage to 
Stanley Pool, and the loan of the steamers on the Upper 
Congo which were now said to be WTCcked, rotten, or 
without boilers or engines, or scattered inaccessible. In 
my ears rang the cry in England : " Hurry up, or you 
may be too late ! " and singing through my memory 
were the words of Junker : " Emin will be lost unless 
immediate aid be given him ; " and Emin's appeal for 
help ; for, if denied, " we shall perish." 

" Well, the aspect of our work is ominous. It is not 
my fault, and what we have to do is simple enough. 
We have given our promise to strive our level best. 
It is no time for regret, but to struggle and " steer 
right onward." Every article of our verbal bond, 
having accepted this responsibility, we must perform. 


1887. and it is the manner of this performance that I now 
March 19. pj-Qp^gg ^q relate. 

Ri"e?! I shall not delay the narration to give descriptions of 
the route overland to the Pool, or of the Upper Congo 
and its banks, as these have been sufficiently treated of 
in ' Through the Dark Continent/ and ' The Congo and 
the Founding of its Free State ' ; and I now propose to 
be very brief with the incidents of our journey lO 
Yambuya, at the head of navigation on the Aru wimi. 



Details of the journey to Stanley Pool — The Soudanese and the Somalis 
— Meeting with Mr. Herbert Ward — Camp at Congo la Lemba — 
Kindly entertained by Mr. and Mrs. Eichards — Letters from up 
river — Letters to the Rev. Mr. Bentley and others for assistance — 
Arrival at Mwembi — Necessity of enforcing discipline — March to 
Vombo— Incident at Lukungu Station — The Zanzibaris — Incident 
between Jephson and Salim at the Inkissi Eiver — A series of 
complaints — The Eev. Mr. Bentley aud the steamer Peact- — We 
reach Makoko's village — Leopoldville — DiflBculties regarding the use 
of the Mission steamers— Monsieur Liebrichts sees Mr. Billington — 
\isit to Mr. Swinburne at Kinshassa — Orders to and duties of the 

On the 21st of March the Expedition debarked at the ^^^^^-^^ 
landing-place of the Portuguese trading-house of Senor jyjataddi 
Joda Ferrier d'Abren, situate at Mataddi, at a distance of 
108 miles from the Atlantic. As fast as the steamers 
were discharged of their passengers and cargo they cast 
off to return to the seaport of Banana, or the river 
port below. 

About noon the Portuguese gunboat Kacongo hove in 
sight. She brought Major Barttelot, Mr. Jephson, and 
a number of Soudanese and Zanzibaris ; and soon after 
the state steamer Heron brought up the remainder of 
the cargo left on board the Madura. 

We set up the tents, stored the immense quantity of 
rice, biscuits, millet, salt, hay, etc., and bestirred our- 
selves like men with unlimited w^ork before us. Every 
officer distinguished himself — the Zanzibaris showed by 
their celerity that they were glad to be on shore. 

Our European party now consisted of Messrs. Barttelot, 
Stairs, Nelson, Jephson, Parke, Bonny, who had voyaged 
with me from Aden, Mr. Walker, an engineer, who had 


1887. joined us at the Cape, Mr. Ingham, an ex-Guardsman, 

March 21. ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ Cougo Agent foi collection of native 

'^ ' "■ carriers, Mr. John Rose Troup, who had been despatched 

to superintend native porterage to the Pool from Man- 

yanga, and a European servant. 

On the following day 171 porters, carrying 7 boxes 
biscuits = 420 lbs., 157 bags of rice = 10,205 lbs., and 
beads, departed from Mataddi to Lukungu as a reserve 
store for the Expedition on arrival. There were 
180 sacks of 170 lbs. each = 30,600 lbs. besides, ready 
to follow or precede us as carriers offered themselves, 
and which were to be dropped at various places 
en route, and at the Pool. Couriers were also sent 
to the Pool with request to the Commandant to hurry 
up the repairs of all steamers. 

On the second day of arrival, Mr. Ingham appeared 
with 220 carriers, engaged at a sovereign per load for 
conveying goods to the Pool. Lieutenant Stairs practised 
with the Maxim automatic gun, which fired 330 shots 
per minute, to the great admiration of Tippu-Tib and his 

On the 25th the trumpets sounded in the Soudanese 
camp at 5.15 a.m. By 6 o'clock tents were folded, the 
companies were ranged by their respective captains, and 
near each company's stack of goods, and by 6.15 a.m. I 
marched out with the vanguard, behind which streamed 
the Expedition, according to their company, in single 
file, bearing with us 466 separate " charges " or porter- 
loads of ammunition, cloth, beads, wire, canned pro- 
visions, rice, salt, oil for engines, brass rods, and iron 
wire. The setting out was admirable, but after the first 
hour of the march the mountains were so steep and 
stony, the sunshine was so hot, the loads so heavy, the 
men so new to the work after the glorious plenty on 
board the Madura, and we ourselves were in such an 
overfed condition, that the Expedition straggled in the 
most disheartening manner to those not prepared for 
such a sight. Arriving at the first river, the Mpozo, 
the Advance was already jointed, and we were ferried 
over to the other bank by fifties, and camped. 





The Soudanese were a wretched sight. The Somalis 
were tolerable, though they had grumbled greatly March 25 
because there were no camels. The former showed ^p^^^" 
remarkably bad temper. Covered with their hooded 
great-coats, they had endured a terrible atmosphere, 
and the effects of heat, fatigue, and little worries were 
very prominent. 

The next day we camped in the grounds of Palaballa, 
belonging to the Livingstone Inland Mission, and were 


most hospitably treated by Mr. Clarke, the superin- 
tendent, and ladies. As our men were so new to their 
work, we halted the next day. By the officers' returns 
I found that nine had died since leaving Zanzibar, and 
seventeen were so ill that we were compelled to leave 
them at Palaballa to recuperate. 

We resumed the march on the 28th, and reached 
Maza Mankengi. On the road Mr. Herbert Ward was 
met, and volunteered as a member of the Expedition. 


isd7. He was engaged, and sent to Mataddi to assist Mr. 

March -26. jjjg}^am witK the native transport. Mr. Ward had been 

Maakengi. of l^tc jears in the service of the Congo State, and 

previously had wandered in New Zealand and Borneo, 

and was always regarded by me as a young man of great 


We were in camp by noon of the 29th at Congo la 
Lemba, on the site of a place I knew some years ago as 
a flourishing village. The chief of it was then in his 
glory, an undisputed master of the district. Prosperity, 
however, spoiled him, and he began to exact tolls from 
the State caravans. The route being blocked by his 
insolence, the State sent a force of Bangalas, who cap- 
tured and beheaded him. The village was burnt, and 
the people fled elsewhere. The village site is now 
covered with tall grass, and its guava, palm, and lemon- 
trees are choked with reeds. 

There was a slight improvement in the order of the 
march, but the beginning of an Expedition is always a 
trying time. The Zanzibaris carry 65 lbs. of ammuni- 
tion, 9 lbs. per rifle, four days' rations of rice, and their 
own kit, which may be from 4 to 10 lbs. weight of cloth 
and bedding mats. After they have become acclimated 
this weight appears light to them ; but during the first 
month we have to be very careful not to make long 
marches, and to exercise much forbearance. 

A heavy rain detained us the early part of next day, 
but soon after nine we moved on and reached the Lufu 
Kiver. It was a terribly fatiguing march. Until mid- 
night the people came streaming in, tired, footsore, and 
sour. The officers slept in my tent, and supped on 
biscuits and rice. 

Near the Mazamba Wood we passed Baron von 
Eothkirch supervising a party of Kabindas, who 
were hauling the Florida's shaft. At the rate of 
progress they would probably reach the Pool about 
August next ; and at the Bembezi Ford a French trader 
was met descending with a fine lot of ivory tusks. 

We passed the Mangola River on the 31st, when I 
was myself disabled by a fit of sickness from indulging 


in the guavas of Congo la Lemba, and on the 1st April les?. 
we travelled to Banza Manteka. At the L. I. Mission ^f"*' ^ 
Mr. and Mrs. Richards most kindly entertained us. At Mantek* 
this place a few years' mission work has produced a 
great change. Nearly all the native population had 
become professed Christians, and attended Divine 
service punctually with all the fervour of revivalists. 
Young men whom I had known as famous gin-drinkers 
had become sober, decent men, and most mannerly in 

I received three letters from up river, one from 
Troup at Manyanga, Swinburne at Kinshassa, and Glave 
at Equator Station, all giving a distressing account of 
the steamers Stanley, Peace, Henry Reed, and En 
Avant. The first is damaged throughout according to 
my informants, the Mission steamers require thorough 
overhauling, the En Avant has been reduced to a 
barge. Mr. Troup suggests that we carry a lighter or 
two from Manyanga to the Pool, a thing utterly impos- 
sible. We were already overloaded because of the 
rice we carried to feed nearly 800 people through 
the starving country. In order to lighten our work 
slightly Messrs. Jephson and Walker were despatched 
with our steel boat, the Advance, by the Congo to 

We passed by the Lunionzo River on the 3rd, and 
the next day camped on the site of the abandoned 
village of Kilolo. During the march I passed a 
Soudanese trying to strangle a Zanzibari because the 
wearied man had slightly touched his shoulder with his 
box. The spleen the Soudanese show is extremely ex- 
asperating, but we must exercise patience yet awhile. 

A march of three hours brought us to the Kwilu 
River, with the usual ups and downs of hills, which tire 
the caravan. At the river, which is 100 yards wide and 
of strong current, was a canoe without an owner. We 
took possession of it, and began to cross the Advance 
Company by tens. 

The opportunity afforded by the ferriage was seized 
by me to write appealing letters to the Commandant at 


1887. Stanley Pool to interpret the orders of the Minister of 
A|.ni s. ^i^g Interior, Strauch, according to the generous spirit 
Ri'ver! expressed by King Leopold when he invited us to seek 
Emin Pasha via the Congo. Another was directed to 
the Rev. Mr. Bentley, of the Baptist Mission, requesting 
him to remember the assistance I gave the Baptists in 
1880-84, and to be prepared to lend the steamer Peace 
that I might hurry the Expedition away from the 
poverty-stricken region around Stanley Pool, Another 
was despatched to Mr. Billington, superintendent of the 
Henry Reed, in similar terms, reminding him that it 
was I who had given them ground at Stanley Pool. 
Another to the Commandant of Lukungu Station, request- 
ing him to collect 400 carriers to lighten the labours of 
ray men. 

On reaching Mwembi the 6th April, I was particularly 
struck with the increase of demoralization in the 
caravan. So far, in order not to press the people, I 
had been very quiet, entrusting the labour of bringing 
the stragglers to the younger men, that they might 
become experienced in the troubles which beset Expedi- 
tions in Africa ; but the necessity of enforcing discipline 
was particularly demonstrated on this march. The 
Zanzibaris had no sooner pitched the tents of their 
respective officers than they rushed like madmen among 
the neighbouring villages, and commenced to loot native 
property, in doing which one named Khamis bin 
Athman was shot dead by a plucky native. This fatal 
incident is one of these signal proofs that discipline is 
better than constant forbearance, and how soon even an 
army of licentious, insubordinate, and refractory men 
would be destroyed. 

Jt had probably been believed by the mass of the 
people that I was rather too old to supervise the march, 
as in former times ; but on the march to Vombo, on the 
7th, everyone was undeceived, *and the last of the 
lengthy caravan was in camp by 11 a.m., and each officer 
enjoyed his lunch at noon, with his mind at ease for 
duty done and a day's journey well made. There is 
nothing more agreeable than the feeling one possesses 


after a good journey briefly accomplished. We are 1887. 
assured of a good day's rest ; the remainder of the day is ^p*"'' ^' 
our own to read, to eat, to sleep, and be luxuriously "^ °' 
inactive, and to think calmly of the morrow ; and there 
can scarcely be anything more disagreeable than to know 
that, though the journey is but a short one, yet relaxa- 
tion of severity permits that cruel dawdling on the road 
in the suifocating high grass, or scorched by a blistering 
sun — the long line of carriers is crumpled up into per- 
spiring fragments — water far when most needed ; not a 
shady tree near the road ; the loads robbed and scattered 
about over ten miles of road ; the carriers skulking 
among the reeds, or cooling themselves in groves at a 
distance from the road ; the officers in despair at the day's 
near close, and hungry and vexed, and a near prospect of 
some such troubles to recur again to-morrow and the 
day after. An unreflecting spectator hovering near our 
line of march might think we were unnecessarily cruel ; 
but the application of a few cuts to the confirmed 
stragglers secure eighteen hours' rest to about 800 
people and their officers, save the goods from being 
robbed — for frequently these dawdlers lag behind pur- 
posely for such intentions — and the day ends happily 
for all, and the morrow's journey has no horrors for us. 

On the 8 th the Expedition was welcomed at Lukungu 
Station by Messrs. Francqui and Dessauer. These hos- 
pitable Belgians had of their own impulse gathered four 
days' rations for our 800 people, of potatoes, bananas, 
brinjalls, Indian corn, and palm nuts. 

No sooner had we all assembled than the Soudanese 
gathered in a body to demand more food. In fifteen 
days they had consumed each one 40 lbs, of biscuit and 
rice ; and they announced their intention of returning to 
the Lower Congo if more rations were not served out. 
The four days' rations of vegetables they disdained to 
touch. I had resolved to be very patient ; and it was 
too early yet to manifest even the desire to be other- 
wise. Extra rations of rice and biscuits were accord- 
ingly served out. 

Fortunately for me personally there were good officers 


1887. wdth me who could relieve me of the necessity of coming 
Aprils. -j^i-Q conflict with wilful fellows like these sulky, 
u"gu- oi^stinate Soudanese. I reserved for myself the role of 
mediator between exasperated whites and headstrong, 
undisciplined blacks. Provided one is not himself 
worn out by being compelled throughout the day to 
shout at thick-headed men, it is a most agreeable 
work to extenuate oflences and soothe anger. Probably 
the angry will turn away muttering that we are partial ; 
the other party perhaps thirsts for more sympathy on 
its side ; but the mediator must be prepared to receive a 
rub or two himself. 

Thinking that there would be less chance of the 
Soudanese storming so furiously against the Zanzibaris 
on the road, I requested Major Barttelot to keep his 
Soudanese a day's march ahead of the Zanzibaris. 

It will not be surprising that we all felt more 
sympathy for the loaded Zanzibaris. These formed our 
scouting parties, and foragers, and food purveyors ; they 
pitched our tents, they collected fuel, they carried the 
stores ; the main strength of the Expedition consisted of 
them ; without them the Europeans and Soudanese, if 
they had been ten times the number, would have been 
of no use at all for the succour of Emin. The Soudanese 
carried nothing but their rifles, their clothing, and their 
rations. By the time they would be of actual utility we 
should be a year older ; they might perhaps fail us when 
the hour of need came, but we hoped not ; in the mean- 
time, all that was necessary was to keep them moving on 
with as little trouble as possible to themselves, the 
Zanzibaris, and us. The Major, however, without doubt 
was sorely tempted. If he was compelled to strike 
during these days, I must admit that the Soudanese 
were uncommonly provoking. Job would have waxed 
wrathful, and become profane. 

The heat was terrible the day we left Lukungu — 
the 10th. The men dropped down on all sides; 
chiefs and men succumbed. We overtook the Soudanese 
again, and the usual scuffling and profanity occurred as 
an unhappy result. 


On Easter Monday, the 11th, the Soudanese Company irr?. 
was stricken down with fever, and lamentation wa^ ^i"'^^ 
general, and all but two of the Somalis were prostrated. " ""^* 
Barttelot was in a furious rage at his unhappy Company, 
and expressed a wish that he had been doing Jephson's 
duty with the boat. I received a letter from Jephson 
in the evening, wherein he wrote that he wished to be 
with us, or anywhere rather than on the treacherous and 
turbulent Congo. 

The following day saw a foundering caravan as we 
struggled most wretchedly into camp. The Soudanese 
were miles from each other, the Somalis were all ill ; 
one of those in the boat with Mr. Jephson had died. 
Liebig, and meat soups, had to be prepared in sufficient 
quantities to serve out cupfuls to each weakened man 
as he staggered in. 

Lutete's was reached the next day, and the ex- 
periences of the march were similar. We suffer losses 
on every march — losses of men by desertion, by illness, 
of rifles, boxes of canned provisions, and of fixed am- 

At Nselo, on the Inkissi River, we encountered 
Jephson, who has seen some novelties of life during 
liis voyage up the Congo rapids to Manyanga. 

The sun has commenced to paint our faces a vermilion 
tint, for I see in each officer's face two inflamed circles 
glowing red and bright under each eye, and I fancy 
the eyes flash with greater brilliancy. Some of them 
have thought it would be more picturesque, more of the 
ideal explorer type, to have their arms painted also, and 
have bared their milk-white arms until they seem 
bathed in flame. 

The 16th April we employed in ferrying the Expe- 
dition across the Inkissi River, and by 5.30 p.m. every 
soul was across, besides our twenty donkeys and herd of 
Cape goats. 

During the ferriage some hot words were exchanged 
between Salim, son of Massoud, a brother-in-law of 
Tippu-Tib, and Mr. Mounteney Jephson, who is the 
master of the boat. Salim, since he has married a 


1887. sister of Tippu-Tib, aspires to be beyond censure; 
April 16. j^^g conceit has made him abominably insolent. At 

^*^'°' Mataddi's he chose to impress his views most arro- 
gantly on Lieutenant Stairs ; and now it is with Mr. 
Jephson, who briefly told him that if he did not mind 
his own business he would have to toss him into the 
river. Salim savagely resented this, until Tippu-Tib 
appeared to ease his choler. 

At the next camp I received some more letters from 
Stanley Pool. Lieutenant Liebrichts, the commissaire of 
the Stanley Pool district, wrote that the steamer Stanley 
would be at my disposition, and also a lighter ! The 
En Avant would not be ready for six weeks. Another 
was from Mr. Billington, who declined most positively 
to lend the Henry Reed. 

One of my most serious duties after a march was to 
listen to all sorts of complaints — a series of them were 
made on this day. A native robbed by a hungry 
Zanzibari of a cassava loaf required restitution ; Binza, 
the goat-herd, imagined himself slighted because he was 
not allowed to participate in the delicacy of goat tripe, 
and solicited my favour to obtain for him this privilege ; 
a Zanzibari weakling, starving amidst a well-rationed 
camp and rice-fed people, begged me to regard his 
puckered stomach, and do him the justice to see that he 
received his fair rations from his greedy chief. Salim, 
Tippu-Tib's henchman, complained that my ofiicers did 
not admire him excessively. He said, "They should 
remember he no Queen man now he Tippu-Tib's brudder- 
in-law " (Salim was formerly an interpreter on board a 
British cruiser). And there were charges of thefts of a 
whinstone, a knife, a razor, against certain incorrigible 

At our next camp on the Nkalama River, which we 
reached on the 18th April, I received a letter by a 
courier from Rev. Mr. Bentley, who informed me that 
no prohibition had been received by him from England 
of the loan of the Baptist mission steamer Peace, and 
that provided I assured him that the Zanzibaris did 
nothing contrary to missionary character, which he as a 


missionary was desirous of maintaining, that he would i887. 
be most happy to surrender the Peace for the service of ^p"' ^^• 
the " Emin Pasha Relief Expedition." Though very Riven* 
grateful, and fully impressed with his generosity, in this 
unnecessary allusion to the Zanzibaris, and to this covert 
intimation that we are responsible for their excesses, Mr. 
Bentley has proved that it must have cost him a struggle 
to grant the loan of the Peace. He ought to have 
remembered that the privilege he obtained of building 
his stations at Leopoldville, Kinshassa, and Lukolela 
was gained by the labours of the good-natured Zanzi- 
baris, who though sometimes tempted to take freedoms, 
were generally well behaved, so much so that the 
natives preferred them to the Houssas, Kabindas, Kru- 
boys, or Bangalas. 

On the 19 th we were only able to make a short march, 
as each day witnessed a severe downpour of rain, and 
the Luila near which we camped had become dangerously 

On the 20th we reached Makoko's village. The 
Zanzibaris were observed to be weakening rapidly. They 
have been compelled to live on stinted rations lately, 
and their habit of indulging in raw manioc is very 
injurious. A pound of rice per day is not a large ration 
for working men, but if they had contrived to be con- 
tented on this scanty but wholesome fare for a while 
they would not be in a robust condition, it is true, but 
there certainly would be less illness. During this march 
from the Lower Congo we had consumed up to date 
27,500 lbs. of rice — about 13 tons — so that the resources 
of the entire region had been severely taxed to obtain 
this extra carriage. The natives having fled from the 
public paths, and our fear that the Zanzibaris, if per- 
mitted to forage far from the camp, would commit 
depredations, have been the main cause of their plucking 
up the poisonous manioc tubers, and making themselves 
wretchedly sick. There were about a hundred men oh 
this date useless as soldiers or carriers. 

Arriving at Leopoldville on the 21st to the great 
delight of all, one of my first discoveries was the fact 


1887. that the Stanley, a small lighter, our steel boat the 

April 21. jidi^fjiYice, and the mission steamer Peace were the only 

^viil'!' boats available for the transport of the Expedition up 

the Congo. I introduce the following notes from my 

diary : — 

Leopoldville, April 22nd. — We are now 345 miles 
from the sea in view of Stanley Pool, and before us free 
from rapids are about 1100 miles of river to Yambuya 
on the Aruwimi whence I propose resuming the land 
journey to Lake Albert. 

Messrs. Bentley and Whitley called on me to-day. 
We spoke concerning the Peace. They said the vessel 
required many repairs. I insisted that the case was 
urgent. They finally decided after long consultation 
that the repairs could be finished by the 30th. 

In the afternoon I took Major Barttelot and Mr. 
Mounteney Jephson into my confidence, and related to 
them the difficulties that we were in, explained my 
claims on the consideration of the missionaries and the 
urgent necessity of an early departure from the foodless 
district, that provisions were so scarce that the State 
were able to procure only 60 full rations for 146 people, 
and that to supply the others the State officers had 
recourse to hunting the hippopotami in the Pool, and 
that we should have to pursue the same course to eke 
out the rice. And if 60 rations can only be procured for 
146 people by the State authorities, how were w^e to 
supply 750 people ? I then directed them to proceed 
to Mr. Billington and Dr. Sims, and address themselves 
to the former principally — inasmuch as Dr. Sims was an 
unsuccessful applicant for a position on this Expedition 
— and explain matters fairly to him. 

They were absent about an hour and a half, and 
returned to me crestfallen, — they had failed. Poor 
Major ! Poor Jephson ! 

Monsieur Liebrichts, who had formerly served with 
me on the Congo at Bolobo, was now the Governor of 
the Stanley Pool district. He dined with me this 
evening and heard the story as related by Major Barttelot 
and Mr. Mounteney Jephson. Nothing was kept back 


from liim. He knew much of it previously. He agreed isg?. 
heartily with our views of things and acknowledged that ^'" '' ^^• 
there was great urgency. Jephson said, " I vote we seize ^"v^^n^**" 
the Henry Reed.' 

" No, my friend Jephson. We must not be rash. 
We must give Mr. Billington time to consider, who 
would assuredly understand how much his mission was 
indebted to me, and would see no difficulty in chartering 
his steamer at double the price the Congo State paid to 
him. Those who subsist on the charity of others 
naturally know how to be charitable. We will try again 
to-morrow, when I shall make a more formal requisition 
and offer liberal terms, and then if she is not conceded 
we must think what had best be done under the cir- 

April 2^rd. — Various important matters were at- 
tended to this morning. The natives from all parts in 
this neighbourhood came to revive acquaintance, and it 
was ten o'clock before I was at liberty. 

Ngalyema was somewhat tedious with a long story 
about grievances that he had borne patiently, and 
insults endured without plaint. He described the 
change that had come over the white men, that of 
late they had become more imperious in their manner, 
and he and other chiefs suspecting that the change 
boded no good to them had timidly absented them- 
selves from the stations, the markets had been 
abandoned, and consequently food had become scarce 
and very dear. 

Having given my sympathy to my old friends I called 
Barttelot and Jephson and read to them a statement of 
former kindnesses shown to the ' Livingstone Inland 
Mission.' " When you have spoken, request in the name 
of charity and humanity, and all good feeling, that Mr. 
Billington allow me to offer liberal terms for the charter 
of the Henry Reed for a period of sixty days. 

Barttelot was inspired to believe that his eloquence 
would prevail, and asked permission to try in his way 
once more. 

" Very good, Major, go, and success attend you." 


1887. " I'm sure I shall succeed like a shot," said the Major 
April 23. confidently. 

^'vSie.'^' The Major proceeded to the Mission House, and Mr. 
Jephson accompanied him as a witness of the proceedings. 
Presently I received a characteristic note from the Major, 
who wrote that he had argued ineffectually with the 
missionaries, principally with Mr. Billington, but in the 
presence of Dr. Sims, who sat in a chair contenting 
himself with uttering remarks occasionally. 

Lieutenant Liebrichts was informed of the event, 
and presented himself, saying that this affair was the 
duty of the State. 

Monsieur Liebrichts, who is undoubtedly one of the 
iiost distinguished officers in the Congo State, and who 
has well maintained the high character described in a 
former book of mine, devoted himself with ardour to 
the task of impressing Mr. Billington with the irration- 
ality of his position, and of his obstinacy in declining 
to assist us out of our difficulties in which we had been 
placed by the fault of circumstances. To and fro 
throughout the day he went demanding, explaining, 
and expostulating, and finally after twelve hours pre- 
vailed on Mr. Billington to accept a charter upon the 
liberal terms offered ; namely, £100 per month. 

April 24:th. — Mustered Expedition and discovered we 
are short of 57 men, and 38 Remington rifles. The 
actual number now is 737 men and 496 rifles. Of bill- 
hooks, axes, shovels, canteens, spears, &c., we have lost 
over 50 per cent. — all in a twenty-eight days' march. 

Some of the men, perhaps, will return to their duties, 
but if such a large number deserts 3000 miles from 
their native land, what might have been expected had 
we taken the East Coast route. The Zanzibar head-men 
tell me with a cynical bitterness that the Expedition 
would have been dissolved. They say, " These people 
from the clove and cinnamon plantations of Zanzibar 
are no better than animals — they have no sense of 
feeling. They detest work, they don't know what silver 
is, and they have no parents or homes. The men who 
have homes never desert, if they did they would be so 


laughed at by their neighbours that they could not i887. 
live." There is a great deal of truth in these remarks, ^v^^i'^- 
but in this Expedition are scores of confirmed bounty- "^vSL* 
jumpers who are only awaiting opportunities. In in- 
specting the men to-day I was of the opinion that only 
about 150 were free men, and that all the remainder 
were either slaves or convicts. 

Mr. J. S. Jameson has kindly volunteered to proceed 
to shoot hippopotami to obtain meat. We are giving 
1 lb. of rice to each man — ^just half rations. For the 
officers and our Arab guests I have a flock of goats, 
about thirty in number. The food presents from the 
^-arious chiefs around have amounted to 500 men's 
rations and have been very acceptable. 

Capt. Nelson is busy with the axemen preparing fuel 
for the steamers. The Stanley must depart to-morrow 
with Major Barttelot and Surgeon Parke's companies, 
and debark them at a place above the Wampoko, when 
they will then march to Mswata. I must avail myself 
of every means of leaving Stanley Pool before we shall 
be so pinched by hunger that the men will become un- 

April 25th. — The steamer Stanley, steamed up river 
with 153 men under Major Barttelot and Surgeon 

I paid a visit to Kinshassa to see my ancient secretary, 
Mr. Swinburne, who is now manager of an Ivory Trading 
Company, called the " Sanford Exploring Company." 
The hull of his steamer, Florida, being completed, he 
suggested that if we assisted him to launch her he 
would be pleased to lend her to the Expedition, since she 
was of no use to anybody until her machinery and shaft 
came up with Baron von Rothkirch, who probably would 
not arrive before the end of July. I was only too glad, 
and a number of men were at once ordered up to begin 
the operations of extending the slip to the river's edge. 

Our engineer, Mr. John Walker, was detailed for 
service on the Henry Reed, to clean her up and prepare 
her for the Upper Congo. 

One Soudanese and one Zanzibari died to-day. 



April 27 


April 27th. — Thirteen Z<inzil)ai'is and one Soudanese, 
of those left behind from illness, at stations on the 
way have arrived. They report having sold their rifles 
and sapper's tools ! 

April 2Sth. — Struck camp and marched Expedition 
overland to Kinshassa that I might personally super- 
intend launching of hull of steamer, Florida, which we 
hope to do the day after to-morrow, when the ship is 
finished. We are being hospitably entertained mean- 


while by Mr. Antoine Greshofl", of the Dutch Company, 
and Mr. Swinburne of the San ford Company. 

April 29th.- — In camp at Kinshassa under the baobabs. 
The steamers Stanley and Henry Reed, towing-barge 
Fm Avant arrived. 

April 30th. — The hull of the Florida was launched 
this morning. Two hundred men pulled her steadily 
over the extended slip into the river. She was then 
taken to the landing-place of the Dutch Company and 
fastened to the steamer Stanley. 



Each officer was furnished with the plan of embarka- iss?. 
tion, and directed to begin work of loading the steamers .-^p'"' ^^' 
according to programme. 

The following orders were also issued : — 

The Officers commanding companies in this Expedition are — 


E. M. Barttelot . . Major . . - No. 1, Soudanese, 

W. G. Stairs . . . Captain . . „ 2, Zanzibaris. 
K. H. Nelson . . . „ . . „ 3 

A. J. Mounteney Jephson „ . . „ 4 „ 

J S. Jameson . . „ . . „ 5 „ 

John Eose Troup . . „ . . „ 6 „ 

T. H. Parke . . . Captain and Surgeon „ 7, Somalis and 


Mr. William Bonny takes charge of transport and riding animals and 
live stock, and assists Surgeon Parke when necessary. 

" Each officer is personally responsible for the good 
behaviour of his company and the condition of arms and 
accoutrements. " 

" Officers will inspect frequently cartridge-pouches of 
their men, and keep record to prevent sale of ammu- 
nition to natives or Arabs." 

" For trivial offences — a slight corporal punishment 
only can be inflicted, and this as seldom as possible. 
Officers will exercise discretion in this matter, and en- 
deavour to avoid irritating the men, by being too 
exacting, or showing unnecessary fussiness." 

" It has been usual for me to be greatly forbear- 
ing — let the rule be, three pardons for one punish- 

" Officers will please remember that the labour of the 
men is severe, their burdens are heavy, the climate hot, 
the marches fatiguing, and the rations poor and often 
scanty. Under such conditions human nature is ex- 
tremely susceptible, therefore punishments should be 
judicious, not vexatious, to prevent straining patience 
too much. Nevertheless discipline must be taught, 
and when necessary enforced for the general well- 

" Serious offences affecting the Expedition generally 
will be dealt with by me." 

VOL. I. H 


1887. " While on shipboard one officer will be detailed to 

April 30. pgpfQj.jji ^]je duties of the day. He must see to the dis- 

Kinshassa. ^j-^j^^^Jq^ ^f ratious, ship cleaned, and that no fighting 

or wrangling occurs, as knifing soon follows unless 

checked, that the animals are fed and watered regularly. 

For all petty details apply to the senior officer, Major 





Upper Congo scenery— Accident to the Peace — Steamers reach Kimpoko 
—Collecting fuel— The good-for-nothing Peace— The Stanley in 
trouble — Arrival at Bolobo— The Relief Expedition arranged in two 
columns — Major Barttelot and Mr. Jameson chosen for command of 
Bear Column— Arrival at Equator and Bangala Stations — The 
Basoko villages : Baruti deserts us — Arrival at Yambuya. 


As I have already expatiated at large upon the descrip- May i. 
tion of scenes of the Upper Congo, I intend to expunge upper 
altogether any impressions made on us according to our 
varying moods during our river voyage of about 1100 
miles to Yambuya. I will confine myself to the in- 

The days passed quickly enough. Their earlier hours 
presented to us every morning panoramas of forest-land, 
and myriads of forest isles, and broad channels of dead 
calm water so beshone by the sun that they resembled 
rivers of quicksilver. In general one might well have 
said that they were exceedingly monotonous, that is if the 
traveller was moving upward day by day past the same 
scenes from such a distance as to lose perception of the 
details. But we skirted one bank or the other, or 
steered close to an island to avail ourselves of the deep 
water, and therefore were saved from the tedium of the 

Seated in an easy-chair scarcely 40 feet from the 
shore, every revolution of the propeller caused us to see 
new features of foliage, bank, trees, shrubs, plants, buds 
and blossoms. We might be indiff'erent to, or ignorant 
of the character and virtues of the several plants and 
varied vegetation we saw, we might have no interest in 



Ma7 1. 


any portion of the sliore, but we certainly forgot the 
lapse of time while observing the outward forms, and 
were often kindled into livelier interest whenever an 
inhabitant of the air or of the water appeared in the 
field of vision. These delightful views of perfectly 
calm waters, and vivid green forests with every sprig 
and leaf still as death, and almost unbroken front line 
of thick leafy bush sprinkled with butterflies and moths 
and insects, and wide rivers of shining water, will remain 
longer in our minds than the stormy aspects which 


disturbed the exquisite repose of nature almost every 

From the middle of March to the middle of May 
was the rainy season, and daily, soon after 2 p.m., 
the sky betokened the approach of a lowering tempest ; 
the sun was hidden by the dark portents of storms, and 
soon after the thunderbolts rent the gloom, lightning 
blazed through it, the rain poured with tropical copious- 
ness, and general misery prevailed and the darkness of 
the night followed. 

Nature and time were at their best for us. The river 
was neither too high nor too low. Were it the former 


we should have had the difficulty of finding uninundated i887. 
ground ; had it been the latter we should have been ^"^ ^• 
tediously delayed by the shallows. We were permitted qH^o. 
to steer generally about 40 yards from the left bank, 
and to enjoy without interruption over 1000 miles of 
changing hues and forms of vegetable life, which for 
their variety, greenness of verdure, and wealth and scent 
of flowers, the world cannot equal. Tornadoes were rare 
during the greater portion of the day, whereby we escaped 
many ten Drs and perils ; they occurred in the evening 
or the night oftener, when we should be safely moored to 
the shore. Mosquitoes, gadflies, tsetse and gnats were 
not so vicious as formerly. Far more than half the jour- 
ney was completed before we were reminded of their 
existence by a few incorrigible vagrants of each species. 
The pugnacious hippopotami and crocodiles were on this 
occasion well-behaved. The aborigines were modest in 
their expectations, and in many instances they gave 
goats, fowls, and eggs, bananas and plantains, and 
were content with " chits " on Mr. John Rose Troup, 
who would follow us later. Our health was excellent, 
indeed remarkably good, compared with former expe- 
riences ; whether the English were better adapted phy- 
sically, or whether they declined to yield, I know not, 
but I had fewer complaints on this than on any previous 

On the 1st of May the start up the Congo was com- 
menced with the departure of the Henry Reed and two 
barges, with Tippu-Tib and 96 followers and 35 of 
our men. Soon after her followed the Stanley and her 
consort the Florida, with 336 people, besides 6 donkeys, 
and cargoes of goods ; and half-an-hour later the 
Peace attempted to follow, with 135 passengers on 
board ; but the good wishes of the people on shore had 
scarcely died away, and we were breasting the rapid 
current, when her rudder snapped in two. Her captain 
commanded the anchors to be dropped, which happened 
to be over exceedingly rugged ground where the current 
was racing six knots. The boat reeled to her beam ends, 
the chains tore her deck, and as the anchors could not 


1887. be lifted, being foul among the rocks below, we had to 
^^^ ^' cut ourselves loose and to return to Kinshassa landing- 
Congo, place. Captain Whitley and Mr, David Charters the 
engineer set to to repair the rudder, and at 8 p.m. their 
task was completed. 

The next morning we had better fortune, and in due 
time we reached Kimpoko at the head of the Pool, where 
the other steamers awaited us. 

The Peace led the advance up river on the 3rd ; but 
the Stanley drew up, passed us, and reached camp an 
hour and a half ahead of us. The Henry Reed was last 
because of want of judgment on the part of her captain. 

The Peace was spasmodic. She steamed well for a 
short time, then suddenly slackened speed. We waited 
half an hour for another spurt. Her boiler was a system 
of coiled tubes, and her propellers were enclosed in twin 
cylindrical shells under the stern, and required to be 
driven at a furious rate before any speed could be 
obtained. She will probably give us great trouble. 

As soon as we camped, which we generally did about 
5 P.M., each officer mustered his men, for wood cutting 
for the morrow's fuel. This was sometimes very hard 
work, and continued for hours into the night. The 
wood of dead trees required to be sought by a number of 
men and conveyed to the landing-place for the cutters. 
For such a steamer as the Stanley it would require fifty 
men to search for and carry wood for quite two hours ; 
it would require a dozen axemen to cut it up into 30-inch 
lengths for the grates. The Peace and Henry Reed re- 
quired half as many axes and an equal amount of time to 
prepare their fuel. It must then be stored on board the 
steamers that no delay might take place in the morn- 
ing, and this required some more work before silence, 
which befits the night, could be obtained, and in the 
meantime the fires were blazing to afford light, and the 
noise of crashing, cutting, and splitting of logs continued 

The good-for-nothing Peace continued to provoke 
us on the 4th May. She was certainly one of the 
slowest steamers any shipbuilder could build. We 


halted every forty-five minutes or so to " oil up," 1887. 
and sometimes had to halt to clear out the cylinders of *^*^*' 
the propellers, had to stop to raise steam, to have the congi 
grate cleared out of charcoal, while five minutes after 
raising steam up to 60°, she fell to 40°, and then 35°, and 
the poor miserable thing floated down stream at the rate 
of a knot an hour. We lost seven days at Stanley Pool 
through her ; a day was lost when the rudder broke ; 
we were fated to be belated. 

The next day, the 5 th, we made fast to the landing- 
place of Mswata. The Major and Dr. Parke had arrived 
four days previously. They had prepared quantities of 
fuel, and had purchased a large pile of provisions — 
loaves of bread from the manioc root and Indian 

On the 6th the Major and his companions received 
orders to march their men to Kwamouth, and await the 
steamer. The Stanley was ordered to proceed to Bolobo, 
debark her passengers, and descend to Kwamouth to 
convey Barttelot and men, while we reorganized com- 
panies at Bolobo. 

On the 7th we observed the Stanley steamer ashore 
on the left bank near Chumbiri, and proceeding to her 
to inquire into the delay discovered that she was badly 
injured by running on a rocky reef. The second section 
had been pierced in four separate places and several 
rivets knocked out and others loosened. We therefore 
set to with the engineers of all the other steamers to 
repair her, but Messrs. Charters and Walker, both 
Scotchmen, were the most effective at the repairs. We 
cut up some old sheet iron oil drums, formed plates of 
them, and screwed them in from the outside. This was 
a very delicate labour, requiring patience and nicety of 
touch, as there were two feet of water in the hold, and 
the screws required to be felt to place the nuts on, as 
well as the punching of holes through the bottom of the 
steamer. The engineer was up to his waist in water, and 
striking his chisel through an element that broke the blow, 
then there was the preparation of the plate to correspond 
with the holes in the steamer, spreading the minium, 


1887. then a layer of canvas, and another layer of minium. 
May 7. '\Y}-^eQ everything was ready for fixing the iron plate, a 
cJngo. diver was sent down, the iron plate with its canvas patch 
and minium layers in one hand, and the end of a string 
attached to a hole in the plate in the other hand. The 
diver outside had to feel for the corresponding hole in 
the steamer, and the engineer up to his hips in water 
within the hold felt for the end of the twine, which 
when found, w^as drawn in gently, and the plate carefully 
guided, or the bolt was slipped in, and the engineer placed 
the nut on. For hours this tedious work went on, and 
by evening of the 7th, one large rent in the steel 
hull had been repaired ; the 8 th and 9 th were 
passed before the steamer was able to continue her 

On the 10th the Stanley caught the asthmatic Peace 
up, and passed us in company with the Henry Reed. 
A few hours later the Peace sulked altogether, and 
declined to proceed. Only 30 lbs. steam could be 
maintained. We were therefore compelled to make fast 
to the shore. At this period Mr. Charters' face possessed 
more interest than anything else in the world. We 
hung on his words as though they were decrees of Fate. 
He was a sanguine and cheerful little man, and he 
comforted us exceedingly. He was sure we would arrive 
in Bolobo in good time, though we did not appear to be 
proceeding very rapidly while tied to the shore. 

The next day we tried again, starting at 4 a.m., 
resolved to distinguish ourselves. For an hour the 
Peace behaved nobly, but finally she showed symptoms 
of relapse. The steam descended lower and lower, and 
could not retain 5 lbs., and we therefore cast anchor. At 
10 A.M. the case appearing hopeless, I despatched Mr. 
Ward in the whale boat to obtain assistance from the 
Henry Reed, and at eight at night she appeared and 
anchored sixty yards from us, and all the day we had 
been idly watching the dark brown current flow by, 
anchored in mid-stream at least 500 yards from either 
shore or island, seeing nothing but hippopotami, grassy 
clumps, weeds, and debris of woods floating by. On 


the 12tli we arrived ignominiously at Bolobo iu tow of i887. 
the Henri/ Eeed. ^^^^^^ 

When the traveller reaches Uyanzi such a thing as congl 
famine is scarcely possible, and one of the best river 
ports for abundance and variety of food is Bolobo. 
Here, then, after reaching a district where the people 
could recuperate and forget the miseries of limited 
rations endured since leaving Lukungu, was the place to 
form the Relief Expedition into two columns. 

It was decided that as the force could not be trans- 
ported on one voyage to the Upper Congo, that the 
healthiest men should be selected to proceed to Yambuya, 
and that the weakly should remain in Bolobo as a 
portion of Major Barttelot's column under Messrs. Her- 
bert Ward, and William Bonny, until the Stanley 
should return from Yambuya. We had started from 
England with the cry of 'urgency" in our ears and 
memories, and it behoved us to speed on as well as 
circumstances would permit in obedience to the necessity, 
trusting that the rear column would be able to follow 
on our tracks some six or seven weeks later. 

We accordingly selected 125 men who appeared 
weakest in body, and left them at Bolobo to fatten up 
on the bananas and excellent native bread and fish that 
were easily procurable here. The Stanley in the mean- 
time had descended to Kwamouth with Major Barttelot, 
Dr. Parke, and 153 men. 

The vexed question was also settled here as to who 
should take charge of the rear column. It being the 
most important post next to mine, all eyes were natu- 
rally directed to the senior officer, Major Barttelot. It , 
was said that he had led a column of a thousand men from 
Kosseir on the Red Sea to Keneh on the Nile, and that 
he had distinguished himself in Afghanistan and in the 
Soudan Campaign. If these facts were true, then un- 
doubtedly he was the fittest officer for the office of 
commanding the rear column. Had there been a person 
of equal rank with him, I should certainly have dele- 
gated this charge to another, not because of any known 
unfitness, but because he was so eager to accompany the 



1887. advance column. On reflecting on the capacities and 
Mav 12 j.j^jj]^ Qf i\^Q other gentlemen, and their eagerness being 
too well known to me, I informed the Major that I could 
not really undertake the responsibility of appointing 
youthful lieutenants to fill a post that devolved on him 
by rank, experience, and reputation. 

" One more steamer like the Stanley would have 
done it, Major, completely," I said, cheerfully, for 
the young officer was sorely depressed. " Only 125 
men and a cargo of goods left of the Expedition. All 
the rest are on board comfortably. If you can discover 
some better person than yourself to take your place 
between here and Yambuya, I would gladly know him. 
I hope you will not take it too much to heart. For 
what does it matter after all ? You who bring up the 
rear are as much entitled to credit as we in the advance. 
If Tippu-Tib will only be faithful, you will only be six 
weeks behind us, and you may overtake us, for we shall 
be naturally delayed a great deal, finding the track and 
boring our way through all kinds of obstacles. You 
will follow an indicated path, and frequently you may 
be able to make two of our marches in one day. If 
Tippu-Tib does not join us, you will be master of your 
own column, and you will be so occupied with your task 
that the days will slip by you fast enough. And I tell 
you another thing for your comfort, Major ; there is 
plenty of work ahead of us, wherein you shall have the 
most important part. Now tell me, who would you 
wish for your second ? " 

" Oh, I would rather leave it to you." 

" Nay, I would prefer you would select some one friend 
as your companion, to share your hopes and thoughts. 
We all of us have our partialities, you know." 

*' Well, then, I choose Jameson." 

" Very well, Mr. Jameson shall be appointed. I will 
speak to him myself I will then leave Mr. Rose Troup, 
who is a capital fellow, I have reason to believe, and 
young Ward and Bonny. Both Troup and Ward speak 
Swahili, and they will be of vast service to you." 

In this manner the matter was arranged, and on the 


1 Sth of May the flotilla resumed the up-river voyage, i887. 
conveying 511 persons of the Expedition, and Tippu- ^^^ ^^' 
Tib and ninety of his followers. Congo. 

We made a fair journey on the 16th, the repairs on 
the Peace having greatly improved her rate of progress, 
and on the 19th made fast to the shore near the Baptist 
Mission of Lukolela, though the Stanley did not make 
her appearance until late on the 19 th. 

We halted on the 20th at Lukolela, to purchase food 
for our journey to Equator Station, and we were 
extremely grateful for the kind hospitality shown to us 
by the missionaries at this station. 

On the 24th of May we arrived at Equator Station, 
now owned by the Sanford Company, which was repre- 
sented by Mr. E. J. Glave, a young and clever York- 
shireman. Captain Van Gele was also here, with five 
Houssa soldiers lately returned from a futile effort to as- 
cend the Mobangi higher than Mr. Grenfell, the mission- 
ary, had succeeded in doing some months previously. 

We reached Bangala Station on the 30th May. This 
place was now a very large and prosperous settlement. 
There was a garrison of sixty men and two Krupps, for 
defence. Bricks were made, of excellent quality ; 40,000 
had already been manufactured. The establishment was 
in every way very creditable to Central Africa. The 
chief. Van Kirkhoven, was absent at Langa-Langa. He 
had lately succeeded in releasing twenty-nine Houssa 
soldiers from slavery. During the escape ofDeane from 
Stanley Falls, these Houssas had precipitately retreated 
into a canoe, and had floated as far as Upoto when they 
were captured as runaways by the natives of the district. 

Among other good qualities of Bangala, there is a 
never-failing supply of food. The station possessed 
130 goats and a couple of hundred fowls, which supplied 
the officers with fresh eggs. Ten acres were green with 
a promising rice crop. The officers enjoyed wine of palm 
and banana, and fermented beer made of sugar-cane, 
and exceedingly potent I found the latter to be. 

At Bangala I instructed Major Barttelot to proceed 
with Tippu-Tib and party direct to Stanley Falls, having 


1887. first taken out thirty -five Zanzibaris from the boats, and 

May 30. replaced them with forty Soudanese, that none of the 

co^n^go. Zanzibaris might become acquainted with the fact that 

Stanley Falls was but a few days' march from Yambuya. 

With the exception of certain irregularities in the 
behaviour of the steamer Stanley, which by some 
mysterious manoeuvres disappeared amid intricate 
passages, on the plea that sufficient fuel of a right 
quality could be found, we steamed up to the Aruwimi 
River without any incident, and arrived at our ancient 
camp, opposite the Basoko villages, on June 12th. 

The Basoko were the countrymen of Baruti, or 
" Gunpowder," who had been captured by Karema when 
a child, in 1883, and had been taken to England by Sir 
Francis de Winton, with a view of impressing on him 
the superiority of civilized customs. From Sir Francis' 
care Baruti passed into mine, and here we were at last 
in view of his natal village and tribe, from which he had 
been absent six years. 

Seeing Baruti eyeing with excessive interest the place 
of his birth, he was encouraged by me to hail the 
Basoko, and invite them to visit us. My previous 
attempts at winning the confidence of these forest 
natives had been failures, though in time I was sure 
there would be no difficulty. For a long period it had 
been an interesting question to me why aborigines of 
the forest were more intractable and coy than natives of 
the open country. The same methods had been applied, 
the dangling of some bright or gaudy article of barter, 
the strings of beads of dazzling colour, suspended 
patiently, the artful speech, the alluring smile and 
gesture, all were resorted to for long hours, but always 
ending with disappointment and postponement to a 
more leisurely occasion. But the reason is that the 
forest has been always a handy fastness for retreat, 
the suspicion of the stranger, and the convenient depth 
of trackless woods plead strongly against some indefinite 
risk. The least advance causes a precipitate backward 
movement until he gains the limits of the forest, and 
then he stands to take a last survey, and finally dis- 



appears into the gloom with an air of "It won't do, you 
know ; you can't come over me." Whereas in the open 
country the native has generally some coign of vantage, 
some eminence, a tree or an ant-hill, from the crest of 
which he has taken his observations, and been warned 
and informed of the character of the strangers, in the 
forest the strano^er meets the tenant of the woods 
abruptly ; he has advanced out of the unknown, with 

June li 



purpose unfathomed. Surprise is in the face of one, 
terror marks the face of the other. 

Baruti hailed, and the canoes advanced towards us 
with a tediously slow process, but finally they ap- 
proached within easy hearing. He recognized some of 
the canoe-men, and informed them that they had no 
cause for fear. He asked for a person whose name he 
uttered, and the wild men hallooed the word with 
splendid lung-power across the river, until some one 
responded, and embarked in a canoe and approached. 
This turned out to be Baruti's elder brother. Baruti 


1887. demanded to know how his brother fared, after so many 
June 12. ygaj.g Qf absence. The brother eyed him vacantly, could 
ci'ngo. not recognize any feature in him, and grunted his doubt. 

Baruti mentioned the name of his parents, that of his 
father, and afterwards that of his mother. Great in- 
terest now manifested itself in his brother's face, and he 
skilfully drew his canoe nearer. 

" If you are my brother, tell me some incident, that 
I may know you." 

" Thou hast a scar on thy arm — there, on the right. 
Dost thou not remember the crocodile ? " 

This was enough ; the young, broad-chested native 
gave a shout of joy, and roared out the discovery to his 
countrymen on the further bank, and Baruti for the first 
time shed tears. The young fellow drew near to the 
ship, forgot his fears of the strangers, and gave Baruti a 
frantic hug, and the other canoes advanced to participate 
in the joy of the two restored brothers. 

In the evening Baruti was offered his choice of staying 
in his village among his tribe, or of following our 
adventures ; at the same time he was advised not to 
leave us, as life among the Basoko would be very 
insecure with the Arabs in such close proximity as 
Stanley Falls. 

The lad appeared to think so too, and so declined to 
be restored to his native land and tribe ; but a day or 
two after reaching Yambuya he altered his mind, came 
into my tent in the dead of night, armed himself with 
my Winchester rifle and a brace of Smith and Wesson 
revolvers, a supply of rifle and revolver cartridges, took 
possession of a silver road- watch, a silver pedometer, a 
handsome belt with fitted pouches, a small sum of 
money, and, possessing himself of a canoe, disappeared 
down river to some parts unknown, most probably to 
his tribe. At any rate, we have never seen or heard 
of him since. Peace be with him ! 

On the 15th of June we arrived opposite Yambuya 
Tillages, situated on the left bank of the Aruwimi, 
i)6 miles above the confluence of the Aruwimi and the 



We land at Yambuya villages — The Stanley leaves for Equator Station — 
Fears regarding Major Barttelot and the Henry Need — Safe arrival — 
Instructions to Major Barttelot and Mr. Jameson respecting the 
Eear Column — Major Barttelot's doubts as to Tippu-Tib's good 
faith— A long conversation with Major Barttelot — Memorandum for 
the officers of the Advance Column — Illness of Lieutenant Stairs — 
Last night at Yambuya — Statements as to our forces and accoutre- 

We were now over 1300 miles from the sea. Opposite to j^^^^.. 
us were the villages which we hoped, with the goodwill Yami.uyi 
of the natives, to occupy temporarily as a depot for the 
men and stores left at Bolobo and Leopoldville, 125 
men and about 600 porter-loads of impedimenta ; if not 
with the natives' goodwill by fair purchase of the 
privilege, then by force. 

On an exploring visit in 1883 I had attempted 
to conciliate them without any permanent result. 
We had a very serious object in view now. In 
prospective we saw only the distant ports of the 
Nile and the Albert Nyanza, defended by men ever 
casting anxious glances to every cardinal point of the 
compass, expectant of relief, as they must by this time 
be well informed by our couriers from Zanzibar ; but 
between us and them was a broad region justly marked 
with whiteness on the best maps extant. Looking at 
that black wall of forest which had been a continuous 
bank of tall woods from Bolobo hitherto, except when 
disparted by the majestic streams pouring their volu- 
minous currents to the parent river, each of us probably 
had his own thoughts far hidden in the recesses of the 
mind. Mine were of that ideal Governor in the 



1887. midst of his garrisons, cheering and encouraging his 
June 15. yaliant soldiers, pointing with hand outstretched to 
Yambuya. ^^^^ direction wheucc the expected relief would surely 
approach if it were the will of God, and in the dis- 
tance beyond I saw in my imagination the Mahdist 
hordes advancing with frantic cries and thrilling 
enthusiasm crying out, " Yallah, Yallah," until from end 
to end of the swaying lines the cry was heard rolling 
through the host of fervid and fanatical warriors, and 
on the other sides multitudes of savages vowed to exter- 


mination biding their time, and between them and us 
was this huge area of the unknown without a track or a 

Ammunition was served out by the captains of the 
companies, and instructions were issued to them to have 
steam up on board their respective steamers that we 
might commence the first most important move pre- 
paratory to marching towards the Albert Nyanza. 

At six o'>clock in the morning of the 16th of June the 
Peace glided from her berth until she was abreast of 
the Stanley, and when near enough to be heard, I re- 
quested the officers to await my signal. Then, steaming 


gently across the river, we attempted to soothe the fears ,^^^^jg 
and quiet the excitement of the natives by remaining yambuyl 
abreast of the great crowd that stood upon the bluffy bank 
fifty feet above us, regarding us with wonder and curiosity. 
Our interpreter was well able to make himself under- 
stood, for the natives of the lower Aruwimi speak but 
one language. After an hour's interchange of compli- 
ments and friendly phrases, they "were induced to send a 
few of the boldest down to the river's edge, and by a 
slight movement of the helm the current pushed the 


steamer close to the bank, where another hour was 
passed in entreaty and coaxing on our part, denials and 
refusals on the other. We succeeded in the purchase of 
one of their knives for a liberal quantity of beads ! 
Encouraged by this, we commenced to negotiate for 
leave to reside in their village for a few weeks at a price 
in cloth, beads, wire, or iron, but it was met with 
consistent and firm denial for another hour. 

It was now nine o'clock, my throat was dry, the sun was 
getting hot, and I signalled to the steamer Stanley to 

VOL. I. I 


1887. come across and join us, and when near enough, accord- 
Junei6. -j^g ^Q agreement, a second signal caused the steam 
fambuya. ^j^jg^j^g ^q souud, and uudcr cover of the deafening 
sounds, pent up as they were by the lofty walls of the 
forest, both steamers were steered to the shore, and the 
Zanzibaris and Soudanese scrambled up the steep sides 
of the bluff like monkeys, and when the summit was 
gained not a villager was in sight. 

We found Yambuya settlement to consist of a series 
of villages of conical huts extending along the crest of 
the bank, whence far-reaching views of the Aruwimi up 
and down stream could be obtained. The companies 
were marched to their respective quarters. Guards 
were set at the end of every path leading out. Some 
of the men were detailed to cut wood for a palisade, 
others to collect fuel, and several squads were de- 
spatched to ascertain the extent of the fields and their 

In the afternoon two natives from a village below 
Yambuya made their appearance with a flattering con- 
fidence in their demeanour. They belonged to the Baburu 
tribes, to which these various fragments of tribes between 
Stanley Falls and the Lower Aruwimi belong. They 
sold us a few bananas, were well paid in return, and 
invited to return with more food, and assurance was given 
that they need be under no alarm. 

On the next day men were sent to collect manioc 
from the fields, o-thers were sent to construct a palisade, 
a ditch was traced, workers were appointed to dig a 
trench for sinking the stockade poles, woodcutters were 
sent to work to prepare to load the steamers with fuel, 
that with their weakened crews they might not be sur- 
prised on their return journey to the Pool, and every- 
where was life and activity. 

Several captures were made in the woods, and after 
being shown everything, the natives were supplied 
with handfuls of beads to convey the assurance that 
no fear ought to be entertained of us and no harm done 
to them. 

On the 19th fuel sufticient had been cut for six days' 


steaming for the Stanley with which she could proceed 1887. 
to Equator Station. A cheque was drawn for £50 in "^"°* "• 
favour of the Captain, and another for a similar amount *™ "^'*" 
for the engineer, on Ransom, Bouverie & Co., and both 
were handed in their presence to Mr. Jameson to be 
presented to them on their return from Stanley Pool, 
provided they safely reached Yambuya about the middle 
of August. A valuable jewel was sent to Lieutenant 
Liebrichts as a token of my great regard for him. 
The Stanley left next morning with my letters to the 
Emin Relief Committee. 

' The Peace was detained for the sake of accompanying 
her consort, the Henry Reed, which was now hourly 
expected from Stanley Falls according to the instruc- 
tions given to Major Barttelot, as she ought to have 
reached us on the 19 th. 

In a wild country like this, cannibals in the forest on 
either hand, and thousands of slave raiders in such a 
close vicinity as Stanley Falls, we were naturally 
prone to suspect the occurrence of serious events, if 
one's expectations were not promptly and punctually 
realized. Major Barttelot had passed the mouth of the 
Aruwimi on the 11th inst. in command of the steamer 
Henry Reed, conveying Tippu-Tib and party to a settle- 
ment from which an English commandant and garrison 
had been precipitately ousted. True, the Arab chief 
had been very confident in his manner, and earnest in 
the assurance that in nine days after arriving at his 
settlement he would present himself at Yambuya with 
600 carriers in accordance with his agreement, and I was 
loth to believe that he was in any way responsible for 
this detention of the Major. Yet the Major should 
have reached Stanley Falls on the 13th, on the evening 
of the 14th he should have been at the mouth of the 
Aruwimi again, and on the 16th at Yambuya; that 
is, provided the Major was gifted with the spirit of 
literal performance and permitted nothing to tempt him 
to delay. It was now the 21st. The officers were con- 
fident that nothing had occurred but the delays natural 
to circumstances of existence in Africa, but hourly I 


1887. found myself straying to the edge of the bluff sweeping 
June 21. ^YiQ view down river with my glass. 

Yambuya. q^^ ^j^^ 22nd my uneasiness was so great that I penned 
an order to Lieutenant Stairs to take fifty of the best 
men, and the Maxim machine gun, to proceed down river 
on the morning of the 23rd with the Peace to search for 
the Henry Reed, and if all other eventualities mentioned 
and explained had not transpired to proceed to Stanley 
Falls. On arriving before this settlement if the vessel 
was seen at the landing-place, and his friendly signals 
as he advanced were not responded to, he was to 
prepare everything for assault and re-capture of the 
steamer, and to hurry back to me with the news if 

At 5 P.M., however, the Zanzibaris rang out the 
welcome cry of " Sail ho ! " Barttelot was safe, no 
accident had occurred. Tippu-Tib had not captured 
the vessel, the Soudanese had not mutinied against the 
Major, the natives had not assaulted the sleeping camp 
by night, the steamer had not been sunk by a snag nor 
had she been run aground, and the boat for which we 
were morally responsible to the Mission was in as good 
order and condition as when she left Stanley Pool. But 
in Africa it is too wearing to be the victim of such 

The Major had been simply detained by various mis- 
chances — fighting with natives, palaver with Tippu-Tib 
and men, &c. &c. 

Two days later the steamers Peace and Henry Reed 
were loaded with fuel and despatched homeward down 
river, and we had severed the last link with civilization 
for many a month to come. 

On this day I delivered the following letter of instruc- 
tions to Major Barttelot, and a copy of it to Mr, J. S. 
Jameson his second in command. 

June 2ith, 1887. 
To Major Bahttelot, &c., &c., &c. 

Sir, — As the senior of those officers accompanying me on the Emin 
Pasha Relief Expedition, the command of this important post naturally 
devolves on you. It is also for the interest of the Expedition that you 
accept this command, from the fact that your Soudanese company, being 


only soldiers, and more capable of garrison duty than the Zanzibaris, 1337 
will be better utilized than on the road. jm^e 24. 

The steamer Stanley left Yambiiya on the 22nd of this month for y , 
Stanley Pool. If she meets with no mischance she ought to be at ^™ "^** 
Leopoldville on the 2nd of July. In two days more she will be loaded 
with about 500 loads of our goods, which were left in charge of Mr. 
J. E. Troup. This gentleman will embark, and on the 4th of July 
I assume that the Stanley will commence her ascent of the river, and 
arrive at Bolobo on the 9th. Fuel being ready, the 125 men in charge of 
Messrs. Ward and Bonny, now at Bolobo, will embark, and the steamer 
will continue her journey. She will be at Bangala on the I9th of July, 
and arrive here on the 31st of July. (Jf course, the lowness of the river 
in that month may delay her a few days, but, having great confidence in 
her captain, you may certainly expect her before the 10th of August.* 

It is the non-arrival of these goods and men which compel me to 
appoint you as commander of this post. But as I shall shortly expect 
the arrival of a strong reinforcement of men,t greatly exceeding the 
advance force which must, at all hazards, push on to the rescue of Emin 
Pasha, 1 hope you will not be detained longer than a few days after the 
departure of the Stanley on her final return to Stanley Pool in August. 

Meantime, pending the arrival of our men and goods, it behoves you 
to be very alert and wary in the command of this stockaded camp. 
Though the camp is favourably situated and naturally strong, a brave 
enemy would find it no difficult task to capture if the commander is lax 
in discipline, vigour and energy. Therefore I feel sure that I have made 
a wise choice in selecting you to guard our interests here during our 

The interests now entrusted to you are of vital importance to this 
Expedition. The men you will eventually have under you consist of 
more than an entire third of the Expedition. The goods that will be 
brought up are the currency needed for transit through the regions 
beyond the Lakes ; there will be a vast store of ammunition and provi- 
sions, which are of equal importance to us. The loss of these men and 
goods would be certain ruin to us, and the Advance Force itself would 
need to solicit relief in its turn. Therefore, weighing this matter well, I 
hope you will spare no pains to maintain order and discipline in your 
camp, and make your defences complete, and keep them in such a condi- 
tion, that however brave an enemy may be he can make no impression 
on them. For this latter purpose I would recommend you to make an 
artificial ditch 6 feet wide, 3 feet deep, leading from the natural ditch, 
where the spring is round the stockade. A platform, like that on the 
southern side of the camp, constructed near the eastern as well as 
the western gate, would be of advantage to the strength of the camp. 
For remember, it is not the natives alone who may wish to assail you, 
but the Arabs and their followers may, through some cause or other, 
quarrel with you and assail your camp. 

Our course from here will be due east, or by magnetic compass east by 
south as near as possible. Certain marches that we may make may not 
exactly lead in the direction aimed at. Nevertheless, it is the south-west 
corner of Lake Albert, near or at Kavalli, that is our destination. When 
we arrive there we shall form a strong camp in the neighbourhood, 
launch our boat, and steer for Kibero, in Unyoro, to hear from Signor 

* She arrived on the 14th of August. Had been detained a few days 
by running on a snag. 
t Tippu-Tib's 600 carriers. 


1337 Casati, if he is there, of the condition of Emin Pasha. If the latter is 

June 24 alive, and in the neighbourhood of the Lake, we shall communicate with 

Y . " him, and our after conduct must be guided by what we shall learn of the 

yambuya. j^^gj^^jons of Emin Pasha. We may assume that we shall not be longer 

than a fortnight with him before deciding on our return towards the 

camp along the same road traversed by us. 

We will endeavour, by blazing trees and cutting saplings along our 
road, to leave sufficient traces of the route taken by us. We shall always 
take, by preference, tracks leading eastward. At all crossings where paths 
intersect, we shall hoe up and make a hole a few inches deep across all 
paths not used by us, besides blazing trees when possible. 

It may liappen, should Tippu-Tib have sent the full number of adults 
promised by him to me, viz., 600 men (able to carry loads), and the 
Stanley has arrived safely with the 125 men left by me at Bolobo, that 
you will feel yourself sufficiently competent to march the column, with 
all the goods brought by the Stanley, and those left by me at Yambuya, 
along the road pursued by me. In that event, which would be very 
desirable, you will follow closely our route, and before many days we 
should most assuredly meet. No doubt you will find our bomas intact 
and standing, and you should endeavour to make your marches so that 
you could utilise these as you marched. Better guides than those bomas 
of our route could not be made. If you do not meet them in the course 
of two days' march, you may rest assured that you are not on our 

It may happen, also, that though Tippu-Tib has sent some men, he 
has not sent enough to carry the goods with your own force. In that 
case you will, of course, use your discretion as to what goods you can 
dispense with to enable you to march. For this purpose you should 
study your list attentively. 

1st. Ammunition, especially fixed, is most important. 

2nd. Beads, brass wire, cowries and cloth, rank next. 

3rd. Private luggage. 

4th. Powder and caps. 

5th. European provisions. 

6th. Brass rods as used on the Congo. 

7th. Provisions (rice, beans, peas, millet, biscuits). 

Therefore you must consider, after rope, sacking, tools, such as shovels 
(never discard an axe or bill-hook), how many sacks of provisions you 
can distribute among your men to enable you to march — whether half 
your brass rods in the boxes could not go also, and there stop. If you 
still cannot march, then it would be better to make two marches of six 
miles twice over, if you prefer marching to staying for our arrival, than 
throw too many things away. 

With the Stanley's final departure from Yambuya, you should not fail 
to send a report to Mr. William Mackinnon, c/o Gray, Dawes and Co., 
13, Austin Friars, London, of what has happened at your camp in my 
absence, or when I started away eastward ; whether you have heard of 
or from me at all, when you do expect to hear, and what you purpose 
doing. Yoii shoiild also send him a true copy of this order, that the 
Belief Committee may judge for themselves whether you have acted, or 
propose to act, judiciously. 

Your present garrison shall consist of 80 rifles, and from 40 to 50 super- 
numeraries. The Stanley is to bring you within a few weeks 50 more 
rifles and 75 supernumeraries, under Messrs. Troup, Ward and Bonny. 

I associate Mr. J. S. Jameson with you at present. Messrs. Troup, 
Ward and Bonny, will submit to your authority. In the ordinary duties 
of the defence, and the conduct of the camp or of the march, there is 


only one chief, which is yourself; but, should any vital step be proposed ,007 
to be taken, I beg you will take the voice of Mr. Jameson also. And june 24 
when Messrs. Troup and Ward are here, pray admit them to your 
confidence, and let them speak freely their opinions. lambuya. 

I think I have written very clearly upon everything that strikes me as 
necessary. Your treatment of the natives, 1 suggest, should depend 
entirely upon their conduct to you. Suffer them to return to the neigh- 
bouring villages in peace, and if you can in any manner by moderation, 
small gifts occasionally of brass rods, &c., hasten an amicable intercourse, 
I should recommend you doing so. Lose no opportunity of obtaining 
all kinds of information respecting the natives, the position of the various 
villages in your neighbourhood, &c., &c. 

I have the honour to be, your obedient servant, 

Henry M. Stanley. 
Commanding Expedition. 

The Major withdrew to read it, and then requested 
Mr. Jameson to make a few copies. 

About two o'clock the Major returned to me and 
asked for an interview. He said he desired to speak 
with me concerning Tippu-Tib. 

" I should like to know, sir, something more regard- 
ing this Arab. When I was delayed a few days ago at the 
Falls, you were pleased to deliver some rather energetic 
orders to Lieutenant Stairs. It strikes me that you are 
exceedingly suspicious of him, and if so, I really cannot 
see why you should have anything to do with such a 

" Well, sir, I shall be pleased to discuss him with you, 
or any other subject," I replied. 

" Three days before your steamer was sighted coming 
up river, I must confess to have been very anxious about 
you. You were in command of a steamer which 
belonged to other parties to whom we were pledged to 
return her within a certain time. You had a company 
of forty soldiers, Soudanese, as your escort. The vessel 
was well fitted and in perfect order. We knew the time 
you ought to have occupied, provided no accident 
occurred, and as your instructions were positively to 
depart from Stanley Falls, as soon as the cow promised 
by our friend Ngalyema was aboard, and if she was not 
forthcoming within an hour you were to slip away down 
river. Assuming that no accident happened and that 
you obeyed orders, you should have been here on the 


1887. evening of the 16th, or on the 17th at the latest. You 
June 24. ^|j^ ^^^ amve until 5 p.m. on the 22nd. 
Yambuya. ^ ^y^ have uo telegraphs here, or posts. As we could 
gain no intelligence of you, my anxiety about you 
created doubts. As one day after another passed, doubts 
became actual dread that something unaccountable had 
occurred. Had you struck a snag, run aground, like 
the Stanley and Royal did, as almost all steamers do, 
had you been assaulted by natives in the night like 
Captain Deane in the A. LA. at Bunga, had your 
Soudanese mutinied as they threatened to do at Lukungu, 
had you been shot as a Soudanese regiment shot all 
their white officers in the Soudan once, had you been 
detained by force because Tippu-Tib had been over 
persuaded to do by those young fire-eaters of Arabs at 
the Falls, had you quarrelled with those young fellows, 
the two Salims, as Stairs and Jephson did below Stanley 
Pool. If not, what had occurred ? Could I, could 
anybody suggest anything else ? " 

" But I was obliged " 

" Never mind, my dear Major, say no more about it. 
Don't think of defending yourself. I am not mentioning 
these things to complain of you, but replying to your 
question. All is well that ends safely. 

" Now as to Tippu-Tib. I have nothing to do with 
Tippu-Tib, but from necessity, for your sake as well 
as mine. He claims this as his territory. We 
are on it as his friends. Supposing we had not made 
agreement with him, how long should we be left to 
prepare for the march to the Albert, or how long would 
you be permitted to remain here, before you had to 
answer the question why you were on his territory ? 
Could I possibly leave you here, with my knowledge of 
what they are capable of — alone ? With eighty rifles 
against probably 3000, perhaps 5000 guns ? Why, 
Major, I am surprised that you who have seen Stanley 
Falls, and some hundreds of the Arabs should ask 
the question ? 

"You have accompanied Tippu-Tib and nearly a 
hundred of his followers from Zanzibar. You have seen 



what boyish delight they took in their weapons, their iss?. 
Winchesters, and valuable double-barrelled rifles. You ;^""® ^** 
know the story of Deane's fight at Stanley Falls. You 
know that Tippu-Tib is vindictive, that his fiery nephews 
would like a fight better than peace. You know that 
he meditated war against the Congo State, and that I 
had to pass on a relief mission through a portion of his 
territory. Why how can you — grown to the rank of 
Major — ask such questions, or doubt the why and 
wherefore of acts which are as clear as daylight ? 

" Our transport the Madura was in Zanzibar harbour. 
The owner of this district, as he calls himself, was pre- 
paring munitions against all white men on the Congo, 
resenting and resentful. Would it have been prudent 
for me to have left this man in such a state ? That he 
prepared for war against the State did not materially 
affect me, but that he intended doing so while I had to 
pass through his territory, and in his neighbourhood on 
a humane mission was everything. Therefore I was as 
much interested in this affair of patching up a peace 
between the Congo State and King Leopold as His 
Majesty himself was, and more so indeed. 

" And I suppose you will ask me next how does it 
affect your personal interests ? Have you not told me 
over and over again that you are burning to accom- 
pany us, that you would infinitely prefer marching to 
waiting here ? And is it not understood — according 
to your letter of instructions — that failing Tippu- 
Tib's appearance with his 600 carriers, you are to 
make double-stages, or triple-stages rather than stay at 
Yambuya ? 

" Look at these pencilled calculations on this paper — 
nay, you can keep it, if you please. They represent 
what you can do with your own men, and what you can 
do assuming that Tippu-Tib really keeps to the letter of 
his contract. 

" Now I have grounded my instructions principally 
on your impetuous answer to me at Bolobo. ' By Jove ! 
I will not stay a day at Yambuya after I get my column 
together I ' 


1887. " See here ! The letter says — ' It may happen that 
June '24. Xippu-Tib has sent some men, but not sent enough ; 
Vambuya. ^|^gj,gfQj,g^ y^^ kuow, use your discretion ; dispense with 
No. 7, provisions, such as rice, beans, peas, millet, 
biscuits. See how many sacks of provisions you can 
issue out to your men — they will eat them fast enough. 
I warrant you.' 

' It goes on — ' If you still cannot march, then it 
would be better to make marches of six miles twice over 
— that is, to go one march of six miles, and then return 
to fetch another lot, and march forward again. Such as 
my work was on the Congo, when with 68 men I made 
33 round trips on the stretch of 52 miles to take 2000 
loads — 5 immense waggons and make a waggon road, 
building bridges, etc' That pencilled paper in your 
hand informs you how many miles you can do in this 
fashion in six months. 

" But this is how my pact with Tippu-Tib affects you 
personally. If Tippu-Tib performs his contract faith- 
fully, then on the arrival of the Stanley with Messrs. 
Ward, Troup, and Bonny, and their men, you can set 
out from Yambuya within a day or two, and perhaps 
overtake us, or on our return from the Albert we shall 
meet before many days. 

" Now which would you personally prefer doing ? 
Travelling backwards and forwards from camp to camp, 
twice, or perhaps thrice, or have Tippu-Tib with 600 
carriers to help your 200 carriers, and march at a swing- 
ing pace through the woods on our track, straight for 
the Albert Nyanza ? " 

" Oh, there is not a doubt of it. I should prefer 
marching straight away and try and catch up with you. 

" Well, do you begin to understand why I have been 
sweet, and good, and liberal to Tippu-Tib ? Why I have 
given him free passage and board for himself and 
followers from Zanzibar to Stanley Falls ? Why I have 
shared the kid and the lamb with him ? " 

" Quite." 

" Not quite yet, I am afraid, Major, otherwise you 




would not have doubted me. There is still a serious 1887. 

June 24. 


" Assuming, for instance, that I had not brought 
Tippu-Tib here, that the Arabs at Stanley Falls were 
not wrathy with white men for Deane's affair, or that 
they would fear attacking you. They had but to affect 
friendship with you, sell you goats and food, and then 
tell your Zanzibaris that their settlement was but six or 
seven days away — where they had plenty of rice and 
fish and oil to tempt three-fourths of your men to desert 
in a few days, while you were innocently waiting for the 
Bolobo contingent ; and no sooner would the other 
fellows have reached here than they would hear of the 
desertion of their comrades for the Falls, and follow suit 
either wholesale or by twos and threes, sixes and tens, 
until you would have been left stranded completely. Is 
it not the fear of this desertion that was one of the 
reasons I chose the Congo ? Having Tippu-Tib as my 
friend and engaged to me, I have put a stop to the 
possibility of any wholesale desertion. 

" Let these reasons sink into your mind, Major, my 
dear fellow. Yet withal, your column may be ruined if 
you are not very careful. Be tender and patient with 
your people, for they are as skittish as young colts. 
Still, it was with these people, or men like them, that I 
crossed Africa — followed the course of the Congo to the 
sea, and formed the Congo State," 

" Well, now, say do you think Tippu-Tib will keep 
his contract, and bring his 600 people ? " asked the Major, 

" You ought to know that as well as I myself What 
did he say to you before you left him ? " 

" He said he would be here in nine days, as he told 
you at Bangala, Inshallah ! " replied the Major, 
mimicking the Arab. 

" If Tippu-Tib is here in nine days, it will be the 
biggest wonder I have met," 

" Why ? " asked the Major, looking up half wonder- 

" Because to provide 600 carriers is a large order. He 
will not be here in fifteen days or even twenty days. We 


1887. must be reasonable with tlie man. He is not an European 
June 24. — taught to be rigidly faithful to his promise. Inshallah ! 
am uya. ^^^ ^^ j^^ ^^^^ ^ To-morrow — Inshallah means the day 
after — or five days hence, or ten days. But what does 
it matter to you if he does not come within twenty days ? 
The Stanley will not be here until the 10th, or perhaps 
the middle of August ; that will be about seven weeks — 
forty-two days — hence. He has abundance of time. What 
do you want to look after 600 men in your camp doing 
nothing, waiting for the steamer ? Idle men are 
mischievous. No ; wait for him patiently until the 
Stanley comes, and if he has not appeared by that time 
he will not come at all." 

" But it will be a severe job for us if he does not 
appear at all, to carry 500 or 600 loads with 200 
carriers, to and fro, backwards and forwards, day after 

" Undoubtedly, my dear Major, it is not a light 
task by any means. But which would you prefer ; stay 
here, waiting for us to return from the Albert, or to 
proceed little by little — gaining something each day — 
and be absorbed in your work ? " 

" Oh, my God ! I think staying here for months 
would be a deuced sight the worse." 

" Exactly what I think, and, therefore, I made these 
calculations for you. I assure you, Major, if I were 
sure that you could find your way to the Albert, I would 
not mind doing this work of yours myself, and appoint 
you commander of the advance column, rather than 
have any anxiety about you." 

" But tell me, Mr. Stanley, how long do you suppose 
it will be before we meet ? " 

" God knows. None can inform me what lies ahead 
here, or how far the forest extends inland. Whether 
there are any roads, or what kind of natives, cannibals, in- 
corrigible savages, dwarfs, gorillas. I have not the least 
idea. I wish I had ; and would give a handsome sum 
for the knowledge even. But that paper in your hand, on 
which I have calculated how long it will take me to 
march to the Albert Nyanza, is based on this fact. In 


1874 and 1875 I travelled 720 miles in 103 days. The iss?. 
distance from here to the Albert Nyanza is about 330 "^"''^ ""*' 
geographical miles in a straight line. Well, in 1874-75, '*™""^'^ 
I travelled 330 geographical miles— Bagamoyo to 
Vinyata, in Ituru, in 64 days ; from Lake Uhimba to 
Ujiji, 330 miles, in 54 days. These were, of course, 
open countries, with tolerably fair roads, whereas this 
is absolutely unknown. Is it all a forest ? — then it will 
be an awful work. How far does the forest reach 
inland ? A hundred — two hundred — three hundred 
miles ? There is no answer. Let us assume we can 
do the journey to the Albert in three months ; that I 
am detained a fortnight, and that I am back in 
three months afterwards. Well, I shall meet you coming 
toward me, if Tippu-Tib is not with you, the latter 
part of October or November. It is all down on that 

" But it is immaterial. The thing has to be done. 
We will go ahead, we will blaze the trees, and mark our 
track through the forest for you. We will avail ourselves 
of every advantage — any path easterly will suit me 
until I bore through and through it, and come out on 
the plains or pastureland. And where we go, you can 
go. If we can't go on, you will hear from us somehow. 
Are you now satisfied ? " 

" Perfectly," he replied. " I have it all here," touching 
his forehead — " and this paper and letter will be my 
reminders. But there is one thing I should like to 
speak about, it refers to something you said to me in 

" Ah, indeed. What was said that was in any way 
peculiar ? " I asked. 

" Well "^ — here there was a little hesitation — " do you 
remember when Mr. , of the India Office, intro- 
duced me to you ? The words you used sounded 
strangely, as though someone had been warning you 
against me." 

" My dear Barttelot, take my word for it, I don't 
remember to have heard the name of Barttelot before I 
heard your name. But you interest me. What could 


1887. I have possibly said that was any way peculiar to cling 
June 2+. ^Q your mcmory like this ? I remember the circum- 

Vambuya. , 11 q »> 

^ stance well { 

" The fact is," he said, " you said something about 
' forbearance,' which reminded me that I had heard that 

word before, when General pitched into me about 

punishing a Somali mutineer in the desert during the 
Soudan campaign. I was all alone with the Somalis 
when they turned on me, and I sprang upon the ring- 
leader at last when there was no other way of reducing 
them to order and pistolled him, and at once the Somalis 
became quiet as lambs. I thought that General — — , 
who is not remarkable for goodwill to me, had mentioned 
the affair to you." 

" Indeed, I never heard the story before, and I do 

not understand how General could have warned 

me, considering he could not have known you were 
going to apply for membership. It was your own face 
which inspired the word forbearance. Your friend 
introduced you to me as a distinguished officer full of 
pluck and courage ; upon which I said that those 
qualities were common characteristics of British officers, 
but I would prefer to hear of another quality which 
would be of equal value for a peculiar service in Africa 
— and that was forbearance. You will excuse me now, 
I hope, for saying that I read on your face immense 
determination and something like pugnacity. Now, a 
pugnacious fellow, though very useful at times, you 
know, is not quite so useful for an expedition like this — 
which is to work in an atmosphere of irritability — as a 
man who knows not only how and when to fight, but 
also how to forbear. Why, a thousand causes provoke 
irritation and friction here between himself and fellow- 
officers, his own followers and natives, and frequently 
between himself and his own person. Here is bad food 
always, often none at all, a miserable diet at the best, no 
stimulant, incessant toil and worry, intense discomfort, 
relaxed muscles, weariness amounting to fainting, and, 
to cap all, dreadful racking fevers, urging one to curse 
the day he ever thought of Africa. A pugnacious man 



is naturally ill-tempered, and unless he restrains his i887. 
instincts, and can control his impulses, he is in hot "^""^ ^*' 
water every minute of his existence, and will find cross ^^ "^*' 
rubs with every throb of his heart. To be able to 
forbear, to keep down rigorously all bitter feelings, to 
let the thoughts of his duty, his position, plead against 
the indulgence of his passions. Ah, that quality, while 
it does not diminish courage, prevents the waste of 
natural force ; but I don't wish to preach to you, you 
know what I mean. 

" And now to close — one word more about Tippu-Tib. 
Do you see that Maxim out there with its gaping 
muzzle, I regard Tippu-Tib somewhat as I do that. 
It is an excellent weapon for defence. A stream of 
bullets can be poured out of it, but it may get jammed, 
and its mechanism become deranged from rust or want 
of good oil. In that event we rely on our Reming- 
tons, and Winchester Repeaters. If Tippu-Tib is dis- 
posed to help us — he will be a most valuable auxiliary 
— failure becomes impossible, we shall complete our work 
admirably. If he is not disposed, then we must do what 
we can with our own men, and goodwill covers a multi- 
tude of errors. 

" Do you remember that in 1876 Tippu-Tib broke his 
contract with me, and returned to Nyangwe, leaving me 
alone. Well, with about 130 of my own men, I drove my 
way down the Congo despite his sneer. You said you 
met Dr. Lenz, the Austrian traveller, at Lamu, after 
having failed to reach Emin Pasha. Why did he fail ? 
He relied on Tippu-Tib alone ; he had no private reserve 
of force to fall back upon. You have over 200 carriers 
and 50 soldiers, besides servants and efficient companions. 
On the Congo work I was promised a contingent of 
natives to assist me. Only a few came, and those 
deserted ; but I had a faithful reserve of sixty-eight men 
— they were the fellows who made the Congo State. 
You remember my letter to the Times, where I said, 
' We do not want Tippu-Tib to assist us in finding Emin 
Pasha. We want him to carry ammunition, and on his 
return to bring away ivory to help pay the expenses of 


1887 the Mission.' Then, as a last proof of how I regard 
June 24. Xippu-Tib, do not forget that written order to Lieu- 
Yambuya. ^^^^^^ Stairs a few days ago, to rake his settlement 
with the machine gun upon the least sign of treachery. 
You have read that letter. You ought to know that the 
gage of battle is not thrown in the face of a trusted 

" Now, Major, my dear fellow, don't be silly. I know 
you feel sore because you are not to go with us in the 
advance. You think you will lose some kudos. Not a 
bit of it. Ever since King David, those who remain 
with the stuff, and those who go to the war, receive the 
same honours. Besides, I don't like the word ' kudos.' 
The kudos impulse is like the pop of a ginger-beer 
bottle, good for a V.C. or an Albert medal, but it 
effervesces in a month of Africa. It is a damp squib, 
Major. Think rather of Tennyson's lines : — 

" Not once or twice in our fair island story 
Has the path of duty been the way to glory." 

There, shake hands upon this, Major. For us the word 
is ' Right Onward ' ; for you ' Patience and Forbearance.' 
I want my tea. I am dry with talking." 

On the 25th the stockade was completed all round 
the camp, the ditch was approaching completion. Bart- 
telot superintended the works on one side ; Jephson, in 
shirt-sleeves, looked over another. Nelson was dis- 
tributing the European provisions — share and share 
alike ; our Doctor, cheery, smiling, anxious as though he 
were at a surgical operation, was constructing a gate, 
and performed the carpenter's operation in such a manner 
that I wrote in my diary that evening, " He is certainly 
one of the best fellows alive. " Jameson was busy copy- 
ing the letter of instructions. Stairs was in bed with 
a severe bilious fever. 

A Soudanese soldier, as innocent as a lamb cropping 
sweet grass before a fox's covert, trespassed for the sake 
of loot near a native village, and was speared through 
the abdomen. It is tlie second fatal case resulting from 
looting. It will not be our last. We place a Soudanese 


on guard ; his friend comes along, exchanges a word or i887. 
two with him, and passes on, with the completest un- ""* 
consciousness oi danger that can be imagmecl. It not 
slain outright, he returns with a great gash in his 
body and a look of death in his face. The Zanzibari is 
set to labour at cutting wood or collecting manioc ; he 
presently drops his task utters an excuse for with- 
drawing for a moment — a thought glances across his 
vacuous mind, and under the impulse he hastes away, 
to be reported by-and-by as missing. 

On the 26th I drew out a memorandum for the officers 
of the Advance Column, of which the following is a 
copy :— 

We propose to commence our march the day after to-morrow, the 28th 
of June, 1887. 

The distance we have to traverse is about 330 geographical miles in an 
air line — or about 650 miles English, provided we do not find a path more 
than ordinarily winding. 

If we make an average of ten miles per day we ought to be able to 
reach the Albert within two months. 

In 1871 my Expedition after Livingstone performed 360 English miles 
in 54 days = about 62 miles per day. 

In 1874 my Expedition across Africa, performed 360 English miles in 
64 days, viz., from Bagamoyo to Vinyata = 61 miles per day. 

In 1874-75 the same Expedition reached Lake Victoria from Bagamoyo, 
720 miles distance in 103 days = 7 miles per day. 

In ]876 the same Expedition traversed 360 miles, the distance from 
Lake Uhimba to Ujiji in 59 days = 61^5 miles per day. 

Therefore if we travel the distance to Kavalli, say 550 miles at an 
average of 6 miles per day, we should reach Lake Albert about the last 
day of September. 

A conception of the character of more than half of the country to be 
traversed may be had by glancing at our surroundings. It will be a 
bush and forested country with a native path more or less crooked con- 
necting the various settlements of the tribes dwelling in it. 

The track now and then will be intersected by others connecting the 
tribes north of our route and those south of it. 

The natives will be armed with shields, spears and knives, or with bows 
and arrows. 

As our purpose is to march on swiftly through the country, we take the 
natives considerably by surprise. They cannot confederate or meet us in 
any force, because they will have no time. Whatever hostilities we may 
meet will be the outcome of impulse, and that naturally an angry one. 
OflBcers must therefore be prompt to resist these impulsive attacks, and 
should at all times now see that their Winchester magazines are loaded, 
and their bearers close to them. Side arms should not be dispensed with 
on any account. 

The order of the march will be as follows : 

At dawn the reveilh will sound as usual. 

First by the Soudanese trumpeter attached to No. 1 Company. 




June 26. 


Second by the bugle attached to Captain Stairs's Company, No. 2 — 
Captain Stairs. 

Third by the trumpeter attached to the No. 3 Company — Captain 

Fourth by the drummer attached to Cajjtaiu Jephson's No. 4 Company. 
Officers will feed early on coffee and biscuit, and see that their men 
are also strengthening themselves for the journey. 

At 6 A.M. the march of the day will begin, led by a band of 50 pioneers 
armed with rifles, bill-hooks and axes, forming the advance guard under 

The main body will then follow after 15 minutes, led by an officer 
whose turn it is to be at the head of it, whose duty will be si^ecialiy to 
see that he follows the route indicated by " blazing " or otherwise. 

This column will consist of all bearers, and all men sick or well who 
are not detailed for rear guard. The major part of three companies will 
form the column. Close to the r^r of it, keeping well up, will be the 
officer whose turn it is to maintain order in rear of the main body. 

The rear guard will consist of 30 men under an officer selected for the 
day to protect the column from attacks in the rear. These men will not 
be loaded with anything beyond their private kits. No member of the 
Expedition must be passed by the rear guard. All stragglers must be 
driven on at all costs, because the person left behind is irretrievably lost. 
At the head of the main body will be the head-quarter tents and private 
luggage, immediately succeeding the officer in command. This officer 
will also have to be on the alert for signals by trumpets, to communicate 
them to those in the rear, or be ready to receive signals from the front 
and pass the word behind. 

The advance guard will " blaze " the path followed, cut down obstruct- 
ing creepers, and, on arrival at camp, set to at once for building the boraa 
or bushfence. As fast as each company arrives assistance must be given 
tor this important work of defence. No camp is to be considered complete 

until it is fenced around by bush 
or trees. Those unemployed in 
this duty will erect tents. 

The boma must be round with 
two gates well masked by at 
least five yards of bush. 

The diameter of the camp 
should be about 250 feet. Tents 
and baggage piled in the centre, 
the huts will range around an 
inner circle of about 200 feet in 

The above relates only to the 
circumstances attending the 
transit of a caravan through a 
dangerous country, unattended 
by more than the troubles natu- 
rally arising from the impulsive 
attacks of savages. 
The pulse of the country which we shall traverse will be felt by the 
advance guard, of course. If the obstacles in the front are serious, and 
threaten to be something more than a mere impulse, or temporary, 
messages will be sent to the main body announcing their character. 

Wherever practicable we shall camp in villages, if the natives have 
deserted them, for the sake of obtaining food, but such villages must be 
rendered defensive at once. Officers should remember that it is in tho 

Diagram of our forest camps. 


nature of their black soldiers, Soudanese, Somalis or Zanzibaris, to be jggy 
thoughtless and indifferent, to scatter thenaselves about in the most heed- june 26. 
less manner. They must take my assurance that more lives are lost in Y„jjjjjuy„ 
this manner than by open warfare. Therefore their men's lives I consider ^ 

are in the hands of their officers, and the officer wlio will not relax his 
energy and rigid enforcement of orders until everything is made snug and 
tight for the night, will be the most valuable assistant in this Expedition 
for me. Arriving at the intended halting place for the night, if a village, 
the officer should first cast his eyes about for lodgment of his people ; 
select such as will be uniform with those already occupied by the preceding 
company, and those to be occupied by the succeeding company or com- 
panies ; then turn to and destroy all those lying without the occupied 
circle, or use their timbers, all material in the vicinity to defend his 
quarters from night attack by fire or spear. A cue will be given when 
and how to do things by the conduct of the advance guard, but the 
officer must not fail to ascertain what this cue is, nor wait to be told 
every petty detail. He must consider himself as the Father of his 
Company, and act always as a wise leader should act. 

At all such village camps. Lieutenant Stairs will see to the nightly 
guards being placed at the more accessible points, every company serving 
out details as may be necessary. 

During the first week wo will not attempt any very long marches, that 
the people and ourselves may be broken in gently, but after a fourth of 
the distance has been made the marches will sensibly lengthen, and I 
anticipate that, before the half of the journey has been performed, we shall 
be capable of making wonderful progress. 

Further memoranda will be furnished when necessary. 

Yambuta. (Signed) Henry M. Stanley. 

June 26</i, 1887. Commanding Expedition. 

I close this chapter with a quotation from my diary- 
made on the last evening. 

" Yambuya, June 27th. — Our men claimed a holiday 
to-day because it had been deferred until the steamers 
were despatched, and the camp was fortified for the 
protection of the garrison. Numbers of things had also 
to be done. Companies had to be re-organized, since 
several had sickened since leaving Bolobo, the weak had 
to be picked out, and the four companies selected for 
the march ought to be in as perfect condition as possible. 
Our pioneer's tools required numbering. Out of one 
hundred bill-hooks there were only twenty-six, out of 
one hundred axes there were left twenty-two, out of one 
hundred hoes there were only sixty-one, out of one 
hundred shovels there were but sixty-seven. All the rest 
had been stolen, and sold to the natives or thrown away. 
It is a trying work to look after such reckless people. 


1887. ' Three hundred and eighty-nine souls will march to- 

June 27. jj^orrow — God permitting — into the absolutely unknown. 

am ujra. ^^^^^ ^ native I have heard of names of tribes, or 

sections of tribes, but of their strength or disposition I 

know nothing. 

Yesterday we made blood-brotherhood with one of the 
chiefs of Yambuya. As the Major was Commandant of 
the post, he went bravely through the ceremony, which 
was particularly disgusting. On the flowing blood a 
pinch of dirty salt was placed, and this had to be licked. 
The chief performed his part as though he loved it. The 
Major looked up and saw the cynical faces of his friends 
and was mortified. 

" ' To ensure peace ! ' 

" ' Even so,' replied the Major, and sacrificed his taste. 

" These forest natives have not been able to win any 
great regard from me yet. They are cowardly, and at 
the same time vicious. They lie oftener than any open 
country folk. I do not credit any statement or profes- 
sion made by them. At the same time I hope that 
after better acquaintance there will be a change. This 
chief received a liberal gift from the hand of the Major, 
and in return he received a fortnight-old chick and a 
feathered bonnet of plaited cane. The oft-promised 
goat and ten fowls had not yet been seen. And the 
blood of a Soudanese soldier has been spilled, and we 
have not avenged it. We are either so poor in spirit, or 
so indifferent to the loss of a man, that a stalwart soldier, 
worth twenty of these natives, can be slain unavenged. 
Not only that, but we entreat them to come often and 
visit us, for they have fish and goats, fowls, eggs, and 
what not to sell of which we would be buyers. This 
perhaps will go on for some weeks more. 

"It is raining to-night, and the morrow s march will 
be an uncomfortable one. Stairs is so sick that he 
cannot move, and yet he is anxious to accompany us. 
It is rather rash to undertake carrying a man in his 
condition, though, if death is the issue, it comes as easy 
in the jungle as in the camp. Dr. Parke has made me 
exceedingly uncomfortable by saying that it is enteric 


fever. I lean to bilious fever. We shall put him in a isst. 
hammock and trust for a favourable issue." 
The Advance Force will consist of : — 


No. 1 company 

113 men 

and boys 

99 rifles 

» 2 „ . 



85 „ 

»> " >» • ' 



^1 " 

„ 4 „ . . 



86 „ 

Officers— Self 


„ Stairs 


„ Nelson . 


„ Jephson . 


„ Parke 


European servant . 




The garrison of Yambuya consists of 

Soudanese . . . . 

. 44 men 

44 rifles 


. 71 „ 

38 „ 

Barttelof s servants 

. . 3 „ 

Jameson's „ 

. . 2 „ 


. . 5 ., 

Sick men 

. . 2 „ 

Barttelot personally 

. . 1 ,. 

I " 

Jameson „ 

. 1 „ 

2 „ 



Contingent at Bolobo to be joined to garrison of 
ITambuya : — 

Zanzibaris . . . 128 men and boys 52 rifles 

John Rose Troup . . 1 „ 

Herbert Ward . . 1 „ 

William Bonny . . 1 „ 

131 men 


Advance force . 
Yambu'. a garrison 
Bolobo, Kinshassa, &c. 

389 men 
129 „ 
131 „ 

649 .. 

Ijoss of men from Zanzibar to) f-r, 
Yambuya , . . .J _ " 

706 „ 

357 rifles 
87 „ 
_52 „ 

496 .. 





An African road — Our mode of travelling through the forests — Farewell 
to Jameson and the Major — 160 days in the forest — The Rapids of 
Yambuya — Attacked by natives of Yankoude — Rest at the village 
of Bahunga — Description of our march - The poisoned Skewers — 
Capture of six Babali — Dr. Parke and the bees — A tempest in the 
forest — Mr. Jephson puts the steel boat together — The village of 
Bukanda — Refuse heaps of the villages — The Aruwimi river scenery 
— Villages of the Bakuti and the Bakoka — The Eapids of Gwen^-- 
were — The boy Bakula — Our " chop and coffee " — The islands near 
Bandangi — The Baburu dwarfs — The unknown course of the rivur 
■ — The Somalis — Bartering at Mariri and Mupe — The Aruwimi at 
Mupe — The Babe manners, customs, and dress — Jephson's two 
adventures — Wasp Eapids — The chief of the Bwamburi — Our camp 
at My-yui — Canoe accident — An abandoned village — Arrival at 
Panga Falls — Description of the Falls. 

1887. An African road generally is a foot-track tramped by 
r.ine 28. -^p^yg]^ ^q cxcecding smoothness and hardness as of asphalt 
am uya. ^^j^^^^ ^^^ scason IS dry. It is only twelve inches wide 
from the habit of the natives to travel in single file one 
after another. When such a track is old it resembles r. 
windinsx and shallow gutter, the centre has been trodder 
oftener than the sides — rain-water has rushed along and 
scoured it out somewhat — the sides of the path have beer- 
raised by humus and dust, the feet of many passenger.j 
have brushed twigs and stones and pressed the dust aside. 
A straight path would be shorter than the usual one 
formed by native travel by a third in every mile on an 
average. This is something like what we hoped to meet 
in defiling out of the gate of the intrenched camp at 
Yambuya, because during four preceding Expeditions into 
Africa we had never failed to follow such a track for 
hundreds of miles. Yambuya consisted of a series of 
villages. Their inhabitants must have neighbours to the 



Eastward as well as to the Southward or Westward. Why i887. 
not ? J"°« 28. 

We marched out of the gate, company after company *™^°^* 
in single file. Each with its flag, its trumpeter or 
drummer, each with its detail of supernumeraries, with 
fifty picked men as advance guard to handle the billhook 
and axe, to cut saplings, "blaze," or peel a portion of the 
bark of a tree a hand's-breadth, to sever the leaves and 
slash at the rattan, to remove all obtrusive branches 
that might interfere with the free passage of the hun- 


dreds of loaded porters, to cut trees to lay across streams 
for their passage, to form zeribas or bomas of bush and 
branch around the hutted camp at the end of the day's 
travel. The advance guard are to find a path, or, if none 
can be found, to choose the thinnest portions of the 
jungle and tunnel through without delay, for it is most 
fatiguing to stand in a heated atmosphere with a weighty 
load on the head. If no thinner jungle can be found, 
then through anything, however impenetrable it may 
appear ; they must be brisk — " chap-chap " — as we say, or 
an ominous murmur will rise from the impatient carriers 


1887. behind. They must be clever and intelligent in wood- 
June28. (.j.g^f^ . g^ greenhom, or as we call him "goee-goee," must 
Yambup. ^^^p j^.g i^iii-hook, and take the bale or box. Three 
hundred weary fellows are not to be trifled with, they 
must be brave also — quick to repel assault — arrows are 
poisonous, spears are deadly — their eyes must be quick 
to search the gloom and shade, with sense alert to recogni- 
tion, and ready to act on the moment. Dawdlers and 
goee-goees are unbearable ; they must be young, lithe, 
springy — my 300 behind me have no regard for the 
ancient or the corpulent — they would be smothered with 
chaff and suflbcated with banter. Scores of voices would 
cry out, " Wherein lies this fellow's merit ? Is it all in 
his stomach ? Nay, it is in his wooden back — tut — his 
head is too big for a scout. He has clearly been used to 
hoeing. What does the field hand want on the 
Continent ? You may see he is only a Banian slave ! 
Nay, he is only a Consul's freed man ! Bosh ! he is a 
mission boy." Their bitter tongues pierce like swords 
through the armour of stupidity, and the bill-hooks with 
trenchant edges are wielded most manfully, and the 
bright keen axes flash and sever the saplings, or slice a 
broad strip of bark from a tree, and the bush is pierced, 
and the jungle gapes open, and fast on their heels con- 
tinuously close presses the mile-long caravan. 

This is to be the order, and this the method of the 
march, and I have stood observing the files pass by until 
the last of the rear guard is out of the camp, and the 
Major and Jameson and the garrison next crowd out to 
exchange the farewell. 

" Now, Major, my dear fellow, we are in for it. Neck 
or nothing ! Eemember your promise and we shall meet 
before many months." 

" I vow to goodness. I shall be after you sharp. Let 
me once get those fellows from Bolobo and nothing shall 
stop me." 

*' Well, then, God bless you — keep a stout heart — and 
Jameson — old man — the same to you." 

Captain Nelson, who heard all this, stepped up in his 
turn to take a parting grasp, and I strode on to the 


front, while the Captain placed himself at the head of the i887. 
rear guard. ^^^"^^^'^• 

The column had halted at the end of the villages or *™ "^* 
rather the road that Nelson the other day had com- 

" Which is the way, guide ? " I asked to probably 
the proudest soul in the column — for it is a most 
exalted position to be at the head of the line. He was 
in a Greekish costume with a Greekish helmet a la 


" This, running towards the sunrise," he replied. 

" How many hours to the next village ? " 

" God alone knows," he answered. 

" Know ye not one village or country beyond here ?" 

" Not one ; how should I ? " he asked. 

This amounted to what the wisest of us knew. 

" Well, then, set on in the name of God, and God be 
ever with us. Cling to any track that leads by the river 
until we find a road." 

" Bismillah !" echoed the pioneers, the Nubian trumpets 


1887. blew the signal of " move on," and shortly the head of 
June 28. ^j^g coluniH disappeared into the thick bush beyond the 
yambuya. ^^jj^^^gi; bounds of thc cleaiings of Yanibuya. 

This was on the 28th day of June, and until the 5th 
of December, for 160 days, we marched through the 
forest, bush and jungle, without ever having seen a bit 
of greensward of the size of a cottage chamber floor. 
Nothing but miles and miles, endless miles of forest, in 
various stages of growth and various degrees of altitude, 
according to the ages of the trees, with varying thickness 
of undergrowth according to the character of the trees 
which afforded thicker or slighter shade. It is to the 
description of the march through this forest and to its 
strange incidents I propose to confine myself for the next 
few chapters, as it is an absolutely unknown region 
opened to the gaze and knowledge of civilized man for 
the first time since the waters disappeared and were 
gathered into the seas, and the earth became dry land. 
Beseeching the reader's patience, I promise to be as little 
tedious as possible, though there is no other manuscript 
or missal, printed book or pamphlet, this spring of the 
year of our Lord 1890, that contains any account of this 
region of horrors other than this book of mine. 

With the temperature of 86° in the shade we travelled 
along a path very infrequently employed, which wound 
under dark depths of bush. It was a slow process, 
interrupted every few minutes by the tangle. Thc 
bill-hooks and axes, plied by fifty men, were constantly 
in requisition ; the creepers were slashed remorselessly, 
lengths of track one hundred yards or so were as fair 
as similar extents were difficult. 

At noon we looked round the elbow of the Aruwimi, 
which is in view of Yambuya, and saw above, about 
four miles, another rapid with its glancing waters as it 
waved in rollers in the sunshine ; the rapids of Yambuya 
were a little below us. Beneath the upper rapids quite 
a fleet of canoes hovered about it. There was much 
movement and stir, owing, of course, to the alarm that 
the Yambuyas had communicated to their neighbours. 
At 4 P.M. we observed that the point we had gazed at 


abreast of the rapids consisted of islands. These were 1887. 
now being crowded with the women and children of Y"^akoiS 
Yankonde, whom as yet we had not seen. About a 
hundred canoes formed in the stream crowded with 
native warriors, and followed the movements of the 
column as it appeared and disappeared in the light and 
into the shadows, jeering, mocking, and teasing. 

The head of the column arrived at the foot of a broad 
cleared road, twenty feet wide and three hundred yards 
long, and at the further end probably three hundred 
natives of the town of Yankonde stood gesticulating, 
shouting, with drawn bows in their hands. In all my 
experience of Africa I had seen nothing of this kind. 
The pioneers halted, reflecting, and remarking somewhat 
after this manner : " What does this mean ? The 
pagans have carved a broad highway out of the bush 
to their town for us, and yet there they are at the other 
end, ready for a fight ! It is a trap, lads, of some kind, 
so look sharp." 

With the bush they had cut they had banked and 
blocked all passage to the forest on either side of the 
road for some distance. But, with fifty pairs of sharp 
eyes searching around above and below, we were not 
long in finding that this apparent highway through the 
bush bristled with skewers six inches long sharpened at 
both ends, which were driven into the ground half their 
length, and slightly covered with green leaves so care- 
lessly thrown over them that we had thought at first 
these strewn leaves were simply the effect of clearing bush. 

Forming two lines of twelve men across the road, the 
first line was ordered to pick out the skewers, the 
second line was ordered to cover the workers with their 
weapons, and at the first arrow shower to fire. A 
dozen scouts were sent on either flank of the road 
to make their way into the village through the woods. 
We had scarcely advanced twenty yards along the 
cleared way before volumes of smoke broke out of the 
town, and a little cloud of arrows came towards us, but 
falling short. A volley was returned, the skewers 
were fast being picked out, and an advance was steadily 


1887. made until we reached the village at the same time 

June 28. ^]^g^^ ^jjg scouts lushcd out of the underwood, and as 

ankond^. ^^i t;he pioueers were pushed forward the firing was 

pretty lively, under (iover of which the caravan pressed 

through the burning town to a village at its eastern 

extremity, as yet unfired. 

Along the river the firing was more deadly. The 
very noise was sufficient to frighten a foe so prone as 
savages to rely on the terrors of sound, but unfortu- 
nately the noise was as hurtful as it was alarming. 
Very many, I fear, paid the penalty of the foolish 
challenge. The blame is undoubtedly due to the 
Yambuyas, who must have invented fables of the 
most astounding character to cause their neighbours 
to attempt stopping a force of nearly four hundred 

It was nearly 9 P.M. before the rear-guard entered 
camp. Throughout the night the usual tactics were 
resorted to by the savages to create alarm and disturb- 
ance, such as vertically dropping assegais and arrows 
heavily tipped with poison, with sudden cries, whoops, 
howls, menaces, simultaneous blasts of horn-blowing 
from different quarters, as though a general attack was 
about to be made. Strangers unacquainted with the 
craftiness of these forest satyrs might be pardoned for 
imagining that daylight only was required for our com- 
plete extermination. Some of these tactics I knew 
before in younger days, but there was still something 
to be gleaned from the craft of these pure pagans. 
The camp was surrounded by sentries, and the only 
orders given were to keep strict silence and sharpen 
their eyesight. 

In the morning a narrow escape was reported. A 
man had wakened to find a spear buried in the earth, 
penetrating his sleeping cloth and mat on each side 
of him, slightly pinning him to his bedding. Two were 
slightly wounded with arrows. 

We wandered about for ten minutes or so looking 
for a track next morning, and at last discovered one 
leading through a vast square mileage of manioc fields, 


and at the little village of Bahunga, four miles S.E. of i887. 
Yankonde, we gladly rested, our object being not to '^""^ ^^; 
rush at first setting out after a long river voyage, but 
to accustom the people little by little to the long 
journey before them. 

On the 30 th we lit on a path which connected a 
series of fourteen villages, each separate and in line, 
surrounded by their respective fields, luxuriant with 
crops of manioc, or, as some call it, the cassava. We 
did not fail to observe, however, that some disaster 
had occurred many months before, judging from the 
traces. The villages we passed through were mostly 
newly built, in the sharp, conical — candle-extinguisher 
— or rather four-angled spiry type ; burnt poles, ruins 
of the former villages, marked the sites of former 
dwellings. Here and there were blazings on trees, 
and then I knew that Arabs and Manyuema must have 
visited here — probably Tippu-Tib's brother. 

The following day our march was through a similar 
series of villages, twelve in number, with a common, 
well-trodden track running from one to another. In 
this distance sections of the primeval forest separated 
each village ; along the track were pitfalls for some kind 
of large forest game, or bow- traps fixed for small animals, 
such as rabbits, squirrels, rats, small monkeys. In the 
neighbourhood of each village the skewers were plentiful 
in the ground, but as yet no hurt had been received 
from them. 

Another serious inconvenience of forest travel was 
experienced on this day. Every fifty yards or so a great 
tree, its diameter breast high, lay prostrate across the 
path over which the donkeys had to be assisted with a 
frequency that was becoming decidedly annoying. 
Between twenty and fifty of these had to be climbed 
over by hundreds of men, not all of whom were equally 
expert at this novel travelling, and these obstructions by 
the delays thus occasioned began to be complained of as 
very serious impediments. The main approaches to the 
many villages were studded with these poisoned skewers, 
which made every one except the booted whites tread 



1887, most gingerly. Nor could the Europeans be altogether 
Juiyi. indifferent, for, slightly leaning, the skewer was quite 
capable of piercing the thickest boot-leather and burying 
the splinters of its head deep in the foot — an agony of 
so dreadful a nature that was worth the trouble of 
guarding against. 

At 3 P.M. we camped near some pools overhung by 
water lilies far removed from a village, having had three 
wounded during the traverse through the settlements. 

This morning, about three hours before dawn, the camp 
was wakened by howls, and loud and continued horn- 
blowing. These were shortly after hushed, and the 
voices of two men were heard so clear and distinct that 
many like myself attempted to pierce the intense dark- 
ness in the vain effort to see these midnight orators. 

The first Speaker said, " Hey, strangers, where are you 
going ? " 

The Parasite echoed, " Where are you going ? " 

Speaker. This country has no welcome for you. 

Parasite. No welcome for you. 

Speaker. All men will be against you. 

Parasite. Against you. 

Speaker. And you will be surely slain. 

Parasite. Surely slain. 

Speaker. Ah-ah-ah-ah-ah-aah. 

Parasite. Ah-ah-aaah. 

Speaker. Ooh-ooh-ooh-ooh-ooooh. 

Parasite. Ooh-ooh-ooooooh. 

This parasite was such a palpable parasite, with such 
a sense of humour — that it raised such a chorus of 
laughter so sudden, startling, and abrupt, that scared 
speaker and parasite away in precipitate haste. 

At dawn of the 2nd, feeling somewhat uneasy at the 
fact that the track which brought us to these pools was 
not made by man but by elephants, and feeling certain 
that the people had made no provision of food beyond 
ihe day, I sent 200 men back to the villages to procure 
each a load of manioc. By the manner these men per- 
formed this duty, the reflection came into my mind that 
they had little or no reasoning faculties, and that not a 


half of the 389 people then in the camp would emerge 1887. 
out of Africa. They were now brimful of life and y"^"j|^^^. 
vitality — their rifles were perfect, their accoutrements 
were new, and each possessed 10 rounds of cartridges. 
With a little care for their own selves and a small por- 
tion of prudence, there was no reason why they should 
not nearly all emerge safe and sound, but they were so 
crude, stolid, unreasoning, that orders and instructions 
were unheeded, except w^hen under actual supervision, 
and, to supervise them effectually, I should require 100 
English officers of similar intelligence and devotion to 
the four then with me. In the meantime they will lose 
their lives for trifles which a little sense would avoid, 
and until some frightful calamity overtakes them I shall 
never be able thoroughly to impress on their minds that 
to lose life foolishly is a crime. 

A party of scouts were also sent ahead along the track 
to observe its general direction, and, about the same time 
that the foragers returned, the scouts returned, having 
captured six natives in the forest. They belonged to a 
tribe called the Babali, and were of a light chocolate in 
hue, and were found forming traps for game. 

As we endeavoured to draw from them some informa- 
tion respecting the country to which the track led, they 
said, " We have but one heart. Don't you have two," 
which meant. Do not speak so fairly to us if you mean 
any harm to us, and like all natives they asserted 
strongly that they did not eat human meat, but that the 
custom was practised by the Babanda, Babali, Babukwa 
tribes, occupying the bank of the Aruwimi above Yan- 

Soon after this interview with the natives. Dr. Parke, 
observing the bees which fluttered about, had mentioned 
to one of his brother officers that he did not think they 
stung at all, upon which at the same moment a vicious 
bee settling in his neck drove its sting into it to punish 
him for his scornful libel. He then came to me and 
reported the fact as a good joke, whereupon a second bee 
attacked and wounded him almost in the same spot, 
drawing from him an exclamation of pain. " By Jove ! 


1887. but they do sting awfully, though." " Just so," said I ; 
July 2. a iiQthing like experience to stimulate reason," 

After distributing the manioc, with an injunction to 
boil the roots three times in different waters, we 
resumed the march at 1 P.M. and camped at 4 o'clock. 

The next day left the track and struck through the 
huge towering forest and jungly undergrowth by compass. 
My position in this column was the third from the 
leader, so that I could direct the course. In order to 
keep a steady movement, even if slow, I had to instruct 
the cutters that each man as he walked should choose 
an obstructing lliane, or obtrusive branch of bush, and 
give one sharp cut and pass on — the two head men were 
confining themselves to an effective and broad " blaze " 
on the trees, every ten yards or so, for the benefit of the 
column, and, as the rear party would not follow us 
for perhaps two months, we were very particular that 
these " blazes " should be quite a hand's-breadth peel of 

Naturally penetrating a trackless wild for the first 
time the march was at a funereal pace, in some places at 
the rate of 400 yards an hour, in other more open 
portions, that is of less undergrowth, we could travel 
at the rate of half, three-quarters, and even a mile per 
hour — so that from 6.30 A.M. to 11 a.m. when we halted 
for lunch and rest, and from 12.30 P.M., to 3 o'clock or 
4 p.m. in from six to seven hours per day, we could 
make a march of about five miles. On the usual African 
track seen in other regions we could have gone from 
fourteen to eighteen miles during the same time. 
Therefore our object was to keep by settlements, not 
only to be assured of food, but in the hope of utilizing 
the native roads. We shall see later how we fared. 

At 4 P.M. of this day we were still on the march, 
having passed through a wilderness of creeks, mud, thick 
scum-faced quagmires green with duckweed into which 
we sank knee-deep, and the stench exhaled from the 
fetid slough was most sickening. We had just emerged 
out of this baneful stretch of marshy ground, intersected 
by lazy creeks and shallow long stream-shaped pools. 


when the forest became suddenly darkened, so dark ishv 
that I could scarcely read the compass, and a distant -^"^y^- 
murmur increasing into loud soughing and wrestling and 
tossing of branches and groaning of mighty trees 
warned us of the approach of a tempest. As the 
ground round about was most uninviting, we had to 
press on through the increasing gloom, and then, as the 
rain began to drip, we commenced to form camp. The 
tents were hastily pitched over the short scrubby bush, 
while bill-hooks crashed and axes rang, clearing a 
space for the camp. The rain was cold and heavily 
dripped, and every drop, large as a dollar on their 
cotton clothes, sent a shiver through the men. The 
thunder roared above, the lightning flashed a vivid 
light of fire through the darkness, and still the weary 
hungry caravan filed in until 9 o'clock. The rain was 
so heavy that fires could not be lit, and until three in 
the morning we sat huddled and crouching amid the 
cold, damp, and reeking exhalations and minute spray. 
Then bonfires were kindled, and around these scores of 
flaming pyramids the people sat, to be warmed into 
I hilarious animation, to roast the bitter manioc, and to 
still the gnawing pain of their stomachs. 

On the 4th we struck N. by E., and in an hour 
heard natives singing in concert afar ofl". We sent 
scouts ahead to ascertain what it meant. We presently 
heard firing which seemed to approach nearer. We 
mustered the men in the nearest company, stacked 
goods and deployed them as skirmishers. Then mes- 
sengers came and reported that the scouts had struck 
the river, and, as they were looking upon it, a canoe 
advanced into view with its crew standing with drawn 
bows and fixed arrows, which were flown at them at 
once, and compelled the scouts to fire. We then 
resumed the march, and at 8 A.M. we were on the river 
again, in time to see a line of native canoes disappearing 
round a bend on the opposite bank, and one canoe 
:ibandoned tied to the bank with a goat. 

Observing that the river was calm and free from 
rapids, and desirous of saving the people from as much 

VOL. L ^ 


1887. labour as circumstances would offer, the steel boat 
July 4. sections were brought ujd to the bank, and Mr. Jephson, 
whose company had special charge of the Advance, 
commenced to fit the sections together. In an hour 
the forty-four burdens, which the vessel formed, had 
been attached together and fitted to their respective 
places and launched. A? the boat weighed forty-four 
loads and had a capacity of fifty loads, and at least ten 
sick, we could then release ninety-eight people from the 
fatigue of bearing loads and carrying Lieutenant Stairs, 
who was still very ill. Mr. Jephson and crew were 
despatched across river and the goat secured. 

As the Advance was in the river, it was necessary 
for the column to cling to the bank, not only for the 
protection of the boat, but to be able to utilize the 
stream for lessening labour. Want of regular food, 
lack of variety, and its poor nutritive qualities, coupled 
with the urgency which drove us on, requiring long 
marches and their resulting fatigue, would soon diminish 
the strength of the stoutest. A due regard for the 
people therefore must be shown, and every means 
available for their assistance must be employed. There- 
fore, the boat keeping pace with the column, we 
travelled up-stream until 3 p.m. and camped. 

On the 5th the boat and column moved up, as on 
the day previous, and made six-and-half miles. The 
river continued to be from 500 to 800 yards wide. The 
bank was a trifle more open than in the interior, 
though frequently it was impossible to move before 
an impenetrable mass of jungle had been tunnelled to 
allow our passage under the vault of close network of 
branch and climber, cane, and reed above. At 2.30 we 
reached the village of Bukanda. We had come across 
no track, but had simply burst out of the bush and a 
somewhat young forest with a clearing. In the middle 
of the clearing by the river side was the village. This 
fact made me think, and it suggested that if tracks were 
not discoverable by land, and as the people were not 
known to possess the power of aerial locomotion, that 
communication was maintained by water. 



We had reason to rejoice at the discovery of a village, i887. 
for since the 2nd the caravan subsisted on such tubers _"^"'y ^• 
of manioc as each man took with him on that date. 
Had another day passed without meeting with a 
clearing we should have suffered from hunger. 

It was evening before the boat appeared, the passage of 
rapids and an adventure with a flotilla of eleven canoes 
had detained her. The canoes had been abandoned in 
consequence, and the commander of the boat had secured 
them to an island. One was reported to be a capacious 
hollow log, capable of carrying nearly as much as the 
boat. Since the river was the highway of the natives, 
we should be wise to employ the stream, by which we 
should save our men, and carry our sick as well as a 
reserve of food. For we had been narrowly brought to 
the verge of want on the last day, and we were utter 
strangers in a strange land, groping our way through 
darkness. The boat was sent back with an extra crew 
to secure the canoe and paddle her up to our camp. 

Of course Bukanda had been abandoned long before 
we reached it — the village of cone huts was at our 
disposal — the field of manioc also. This custom also 
was unlike anything I had seen in Africa before. 
Previously the natives may have retired with their 
women, but the males had remained with spear and target, 
representing ownership. Here the very fowls had taken 
to flight. It was clearly a region unsuitable for the 
study of ethnology. 

At noon of the 6th we defiled out of Bukanda 
refurnished with provisions, and two hours later were in 
camp in uninhabited space. We had devoted the 
morning to cleaning and repairing rifles — many of 
whose springs were broken. 

Some facts had already impressed themselves upon 
us. We observed that the mornings were muggy and 
misty — that we were chilly and inclined to be cheerless 
in consequence ; that it required some moral courage to 
leave camp to brave the cold, damp, and fogginess 
without, to brave the mud and slush, to ford creeks up 
to the waist in water ; that the feelings were terribly 


1887. depressed in the dismal twilight from the want of 
July 6. brighf^ness and sunshine warmth ; and the depres- 
" ''° ^' sion caused by the sombre clouds and dull grey 
river which reflected the drear daylight. The actual 
temperature on these cold mornings was but seventy 
to seventy-two degrees — had we judged of it by our 
cheerlessness it might have been twenty degrees less. 

The refuse heaps of the little villages were large and 
piled on the edge of the bank. They were a compost of 
filth, sweepings of streets and huts, peelings of manioc, 
and often of plantains with a high heap of oyster-shells. 
Had I not much else to write about, an interesting 
chapter on these composts, and the morals, manners, 
and usages of the aborigines might be written. Just 
as Owen could prefigure an extinct mammoth of the 
dead ages from the view of a few bones, the history of 
a tribe could be developed by me out of these refuse 
heaps. Revelling in these fetid exhalations were 
representatives of many insect tribes. Columns of ants 
wound in and out with more exact formation than 
aborigines could compose themselves, flies buzz in 
myriads over the heaps, with the murmur of enjoyment, 
butterflies which would have delighted Jameson's soul 
swarmed exulting in their gorgeous colours, and a 
perfect cloud of moths hovered above all. 

The villages of tJae Bakuti were reached on the 7th, 
after seven hours' slow marching and incessant cutting. 
I occupied a seat in the boat on this day and observed 
that the banks were from six to ten feet above the 
river on either side, that there were numerous traces of 
former occupation easily detected despite the luxuriance 
of the young forest that had grown up and usurped 
the space once occupied by villages and fields ; that either 
wars or epidemics had disturbed the inhabitants twenty 
years ago, and that as yet only one crocodile had been 
seen on the Aruwimi, and only one hippo, which I took 
to be a sure sign that there was not much pasture 
in this region. 

As the rowers urged the boat gently up the stream, 
and r heard the bill-hooka and axes carving away 



through bush and brake tangle and forest without i887. 
which scarcely a yard of progress could be made, I "^"^^ ^* 
regretted more than ever that I had not insisted on 
being allowed to carry out my own plan of having 
fifteen whale-boats. What toil would have been saved, 
and what anxiety would have been spared me. 

On the 9th we gained, after another seven hours' 
toiling and marching, the villages of the Bakoka. 
Already the people began to look jaded and seedy. 
Skewers had penetrated the feet of several, ulcers 
began to attract notice by their growing virulence, 
many people complained of curious affections in the 
limbs. Stairs was slowly recovering. 

We had passed so many abandoned clearings that our 
expedition might have been supported for weeks by the 
manioc which no owner claimed. It was very clear that 
internecine strife had caused the migrations of the 
tribes. The Bakoka villages were all stockaded, and 
the entrance gates were extremely low. 

The next day we passed by four villages all closely 
stockaded, and on the 10th came to the rapids of 
Gwengwere. Here there were seven large villages 
bordering the rapids and extending from below to above 
the broken water. All the population had fled probably 
to the opposite main, or to the islands in mid-river, and 
every portable article was carried away except the 
usual wreckage of coarse pottery, stools, and benches, 
and back rests. The stockades were in good order and 
villages intact. In one large village there were 210 
conical huts, and two square sheds used for public 
assemblies and smithies. This occupied a commanding 
bluff sixty feet above the river, and a splendid view of 
a dark grey silver stream, flanked by dense and lofty 
walls of thickest greenest vegetation, was obtained. 

Lieutenant Stairs was flist recovering from his long 
attack of bilious fever ; my otlicr companions enjoyed the 
best of health, though our diet consisted of vegetables, 
leaves of the manioc and herbs bruised and made into 
patties. But on this day we had a dish of weaver- 
birds furnished by the Doctor, who with his shot-gun 


1887. bagged a few of the thousands which had made their 

July 10. jjgg^g QQ j^i^g village trees. 

^werT" On the 1 1th we marched about a mile to give the canoe- 
men a chance to pole their vessels through the rapids 
and the column a rest. The day following marched six 
geographical miles, the river turning easterly, which was 
our course. Several small rapids were passed without 
accident. As we were disappearing from view of 
Gwengwere, the population was seen scurrying from 
the right bank and islands back to their homes, which 
they had temporarily vacated for our convenience. It 
seemed to me to be an excellent arrangement. It saved 
trouble of speech, exerted possibly in useless efforts for 
peace and tedious chaffer. They had only one night's 
inconvenience, and were there many caravans advancing 
as peaceably as we were, natural curiosity would in time 
induce them to come forward to be acquainted with the 

Our people found abundant to eat in the fields, and 
around the villages. The area devoted to cultivation 
was extensive : plantains flourished around the stock- 
ades ; herbs for potage were found in little plots close to 
the villages ; also sufficient tobacco for smoking, and 
pumpkins for dessert, and a little Indian corn ; but, alas, 
we all suffered from want of meat. 

There were few aquatic birds to be seen. There were 
some few specimens of divers, fish eagles, and king- 
fishers. Somewhere, at a distance, a pair of ibis screamed ; 
flocks of parrots whistled and jabbered in vain struggles 
to rob the solitude of the vast trackless forest of its 
oppressive silence ; whip-poor-wills, and sunbirds, and 
weavers aided them with their varied strains ; but insects, 
and flies, and moths were innumerable. 

On the 12th we moved up as usual, starting at 6.30 a.m., 
the caravan preceding the boat and its consorts. Though 
proceeding only at the rate of a mile and a half per 
hour, we soon overhauled the struggling caravan, and 
passed the foremost of the pioneers. At 10 a.m. we met 
a native boy, called Bakula, of about fifteen years, floating 
down river on a piece of a canoe. He sprung aboard our 



boat with alacrity, and used his paddle properly. An i88 
hour later we rounded the lowest point of a lengthy ''"'^ 
curve, bristling with numerous large villages. The boy 
volunteer who had dropped to our aid from tbd unknown, 
called the lower village Bandangi, the next Ndumba, and 
the long row of villages above, the houses of the Banalya 
tribe. But all were deserted. We halted at Bandangi 
for lunch, and at 2 p.m. resumed our journey. 

An hour's pull brought us to the upper village, where 
we camped. Our river party on this day numbered forty 
men ; but, as we landed, we were lost in the large and 
silent village, I had counted thirteen villages — one of 
these numbered 180 huts. Assuming that in this curve 
there were 1300 huts, and allowing only four persons to 
each hut, we have a population of 5200. 

At 5.30 appeared the advance guard of the column, 
and presently a furious tempest visited us, with such 
violent accompaniments of thunder and lightning as 
might have been expected to be necessary to clear the 
atmosphere charged with the collected vapours of this 
humid region — through which the sun appeared daily as 
through a thick veil. Therefore the explosive force of 
the electric fluid was terrific. All about us, and at all 
points, it lightened and shattered with deafening explo- 
sions, and blinding forks of flame, the thick, sluggish, 
vaporous clouds. Nothing less than excessive energy of 
concentrated electricity could have cleared the heavy 
atmosphere, and allowed the inhabitants of the land to 
see the colour of the sky, and to feel the cheering in- 
fluence of the sun. For four hours we had to endure the 
dreadful bursts ; while a steady stream of rain relieved 
the surcharged masses that had hung incumbent above 
us for days. While the river party and advance guard 
were housed in the upper village, the rear guard and 
No. 4 Company occupied Bandangi, at the town end of 
the crescent, and we heard them shooting minute guns to 
warn us of their presence ; while we vainly, for econo- 
mical reasons, replied with the tooting of long ivory 

Such a large population naturally owned exclusive 


1887. fields of manioc, plantations of bananas, and plantains, 
July 12. s^igar-cane, gardens of herbs, and Indian corn, and as the 
UaiKiangi. y^qq^yj rain had saturated the ground, a halt was ordered. 

By nine o'clock the rear guard was known to have 
arrived by Nelson's voice crying out for '' chop and 
coffee " — our chop consisted of cassava cakes, a plantain 
or so roasted, and a mess of garden greens, with tea or 
coffee. Flesh of goat or fowl was simply unprocurable. 
Neither bird nor beast of any kind was to be obtained. 
Hitherto only two crocodiles and but one hippo had 
been discovered, but no elephant, buffalo, or antelope or 
wild hogf, though tracks were numerous. How could it 
be otherwise with the pioneers' shouts, cries, noise of 
cutting and crushing, and pounding of trees, the murmur 
of a large caravan ? "With the continuous gossip, story- 
telling, wrangling, laughing or wailing that were main- 
tained during the march, it was simply impossible. Pro- 
gress through the undergrowth was denied without a 
heavy knife, machette, or bill-hook to sever entangling 
creepers, and while an animal may have been only a few 
feet off on the other side of a bush, vain was the attempt 
to obtain view of it through impervious masses of vege- 

In our boat I employed the halt for examining the 
islands near Bandangi. We discovered lengthy heaps of 
oyster-shells on one island, one of which was sixty feet 
long, ten feet wide, and four feet high ; we can imagine 
the feasts of the bivalves that the aborigines enjoyed 
during their picnics, and the length of time that had 
elapsed since the first bivalve had been eaten. On my 
return I noticed through a bank-slip in the centre of the 
curve a stratum of oyster-shell buried three feet under 

Our native boy Bakula, informed us that inland north 
lived the Baburu, who were very different from the 
river tribes, that up river, a month's journey, would be 
found dwarfs about two feet high, with long beards ; 
that he had once journeyed as far as Panga where the 
river tumbled from a height as high as the tallest tree, 
that the Aruwimi was now called Lui by the people of 


the left bank, but that to the Baburu on the right bank iss?. 
it was known as the Luhali. Bakula was an exceptionally "^"'^ ^^; 
crafty lad, a pure cannibal, to whom a mess of human ^"^ ^"^ 
meat would have been delectable. He was a perfect 
mimic, and had by native cunning protected himself by 
conforming readily to what he divined would be pleasing 
to the strangers by whom he was surrounded. Had all 
the native tribes adopted this boy's policy our passage 
through these novel lands would have been as pleasant 
as could be desired. I have no doubt that they pos- 
sessed all the arts of craft wdiich we admired in Bakula, 
they had simply not the courage to do what an accident 
had enabled him to carry out. 

From Chief Bambi's town of the Banalya we moved 
to Bungangeta villages by river and land on the 1 5th. It 
was a stern and sombre morning, gloomy with lowering 
and heavy clouds. It struck me on this dull dreary 
morning, while regarding the silent flowing waters of the 
dark river and the long unbroken forest frontage, that 
nature in this region seems to be waiting the long ex- 
pected trumpet-call of civilization — that appointed time 
when she shall awake to her duties, as in other portions 
of the earth. I compared this waiting attitude to the 
stillness preceding the dawn, before the insect and animal 
life is astir to fret the air with its murmur, before the 
day has awakened the million minute passions of the 
wilds ; at that hour when even Time seems to be drowsy 
and nodding, our inmost thoughts appear to be loud, 
and the heart throbs to be clamorous. But when the 
young day peeps forth white and gray in the East the 
eyelids of the world lift up. There is a movement and a 
hum of invisible life, and all the earth seems wakened 
from its brooding. But withal, the forest world remains 
restful, and Nature bides her day, and the river shows no 
life ; unlike Rip Van Winkle, Nature, despite her im- 
measurably long ages of sleep, indicates no agedness, so 
old, incredibly old, she is still a virgin locked in innocent 

What expansive wastes of rich productive land lie in 
this region unheeded by man ! Populous though the 


1887. river banks are, they are but slightly disturbed by 

■^"'^ ^''" labour — a trifling grubbing of parts of the foreshore, a 

gete°' limited acreage for manioc, within a crater-like area in 

the bosom of the dark woods, and a narrow line of small 

cotes, wherein the savages huddle within their narrow 


One of my amusements in the boat was to sketch the 
unknown course of the river — for as the aborigines 
disappeared like rats into their holes on one's approach 
I could gain no information respecting it. How far was 
it permissible for me to deviate from my course ? By 
the river I could assist the ailins^ and relieve the strong-. 
The goods could be transported and the feeble conveyed. 
Eeserves of manioc and plantain could also be carried. 
But would a somewhat long curve, winding as high as 
some forty or fifty geographical miles north of our 
course, be compensated by these advantages of relief oi 
the porters, and the abundance of provisions that are 
assuredly found on the banks ? When I noted the 
number of the sick, and saw the jaded condition of the 
people, I felt that if the river, ascended as far as 2° N., 
it was infinitely preferable to plunging into the centre 
of the forest. 

The temperature of the air during the clouded morn- 
ing was 75°, surface of the river 77°. What a relief it 
was to breathe the air of the river after a night spent in 
inhaling the close impure air in the forest by night ! 

On the 16 til we possessed one boat and five canoes, 
carrying seventy-four men and 120 loads, so that with 
the weight of the boat sections, half of our men were 
relieved of loads, and carried nothing every alternative 
day. We passed by the mouth of a considerable affluent 
from the south-east, and camped a mile above it. The 
temperature rose to 94° in the afternoon, and as a 
consequence rain fell in torrents, preceded by the usual 
thunder roars and lightning flashes. Until 1 P.M. of 
the 17th the rain fell unceasingly. It would have been 
interesting to have ascertained the number of inches 
that fell during these nineteen hours' rain-pour. Few 
of the people enjoyed any rest ; there was a general 



TEE 80MALIS. 167 

wringing of blankets and clothes after it ceased, but it iss? 
was some hours before they recovered their usual ani- ^f^ * 
mation. The aborigines must have been also depressed, 
owing to our vicinity, though if they had known what 
wealth we possessed, they might have freely parted with 
their goats and fowls for our wares. 

The column camped at 3 p.m. opposite the settlement 
of Lower Mariri. Besides their immense wooden drums, 
which sounded the alarm to a ten-mile distance, the 
natives vociferated with unusual powers of lung, so 
that their cries could be heard a mile off. The absence 
of all other noises lends peculiar power to their voices. 

The Somalis, who are such excellent and efficient 
servants in lands like the Masai, or dry regions like 
the Soudan, are perfectly useless in humid regions. 
Five of them declined to stay at Yambuya, and insisted 
on accompanying me. Since we had taken to the river 
I had employed them as boatmen, or rather did employ 
them when they were able to handle a paddle or a pole, 
but their physical powers soon collapsed, and they 
became mere passengers. On shore, without having 
undergone any exertion, they were so prostrated after a 
two hours' river voyage, that they were unable to rig 
shelter against rain and damp, and as they were thievish 
the Zanzibaris refused to permit them to approach their 
huts. The result was that we had the trouble each day 
to see that a share of food even was doled out to them, 
as they would have voluntarily starved rather than cut 
down the plantains above their heads. 

From opposite Lower Mariri w^e journeyed to a spot 
ten miles below the Upper Mariri on the 18th. The 
canoes had only occupied 4 h. 15 m., but the land 
column did not appear at all. 

On the 19th I employed the boat and canoe crews to 
cut a road to above a section of the rapids of Upper 
Mariri. This was accomplished in 2^ hours. We 
returned to camp in 45 minutes. Our pace going up 
was similar to that of the caravan, consequently an 
ordinary day's travel through the forest would be six 
miles. On returning to camp formed the column, and 


1887. marched it to the end of our paths ; the boat and 

July 20. (-anoes were punted up the rapids without accident, and 

^iviri in the afternoon the people foraged for food at a village 

a mile and a half above camp with happy results. On 

the 20 th the advance column marched up and occupied 

the village. 

About two hours after arrival some of the natives of 
Mariri came in a canoe and hailed us. We replied 
through Bakula, the native boy, and in a short time 
were able to purchase a couple of fowls, and during the 
afternoon were able to purchase three more. This was 
the first barter we had been able to effect on the Aru- 
wimi. Mariri is a large settlement abounding in plan- 
tains, while at our village there were none. Two men, 
Charlie No. 1 and Musa bin Juma disappeared on this 
day. Within twenty-three days we had not lost a man. 

No casualty had as yet happened, and good fortune, 
which had hitherto clung to us, from this date began to 
desert us. We were under the impression that those 
men had been captured by natives, and their heedless 
conduct was the text of a sermon preached to the men 
next morning when they were mustered for the march. 
It was not until thirteen months later that w^e knew 
that they had deserted, that they had succeeded in 
reaching Yambuya, and had invented the most mar- 
vellous tales of wars and disasters, which, when repeated 
by the officers at Yambuya in their letter to the Com- 
mittee, created so much anxiety. Had I believed it 
had been possible that two messengers could have 
performed that march, we certainly had availed our- 
selves of the fact to have communicated authentic news 
and chart of the route to Major Barttelot, who in 
another month would be leaving his camp as we be- 
lieved. From the village opposite Upper Mariri we 
proceeded to S. Mupe, a large settlement consisting of 
several villages, embowered in plantations. The chiefs 
of Mupe are Mbadu, Alimba, and Mangrudi. 

On the 22nd Surgeon Parke was the officer of the 
day, and was unfortunate enough to miss the river, and 
strike through the forest in a wrong direction. He 


finally struck a track on which the scouts found a i887. 
woman and a large-eyed, brown-coloured child. The -'"'y^s 
woman showed the route to the river, and was after- ^^ 
wards released. Through her influence the natives of 
N. Mupe on the right bank were induced to trade with 
us, by which we were enabled to procure a dozen fowls 
and two eggs. 

The bed of the river in this locality is an undisturbed 
rock of fine-grained and hard, brick-coloured sandstone. 
This is the reason that the little rapids, though frequent 
enough, present but little obstacles to navigation. The 
banks at several places rose to about forty feet above 
the river, and the rock is seen in horizontal strata in 
bluffy form, in many instances like crumbling ruins of 
cut stone. 

The sign of peace with these riverine natives appears 
to be the pouring of water on their heads with their 
hands. As new-comers approached our camp they cried 
out, " "We suffer from famine, w^e have no food, but up 
river you will find plenty, Oh, ' monomopote ' ! (son of 
the sea)." " But we suffer from want of food, and have 
not the strength to proceed unless you give us some," 
w^e replied. Whereupon they threw us fat ears of 
Indian corn, plantains, and sugar-cane. This was 
preliminary to a trade, in doing which these apparently 
unsophisticated natives were as sharp and as exorbitant 
as any of the Wyyanzi on the Congo. The natives of 
Mupe are called Babe. 

Trifles, such as empty sardine boxes, jam and milk 
cans, and cartridge cases, were easily barterable for 
sugar-cane, Indian corn, and tobacco. A cotton hand- 
kerchief would buy a fowl, goats were brought to our 
v^iew, but not parted with. They are said to be the 
monopoly of chiefs. The natives show^ed no fixed 
desire for any speciality but cloth — gaudy red handker- 
chiefs. We saw some cowries among them, and in the 
bottom of a canoe we found a piece of an infantry 
officer's sword nine inches long. We should have been 
delighted to have heard the history of that sword, and 
the list of its owners since it left Birmingham. But we 



July 2'. 


could not maintain any lengthy conversation with them, 
our ignorance of the language, and their excitability 
prevented us from doing more than observing and 
interchanging words relating to peace and food with 

them. We can accept the bit 
of sword blade as evidence that 
their neighbours in the interii>i- 
have had some contact with the 

Neither in manners, customs 
or dress was there any very 
great difference between these 
natives and those belonging to 
the upper parts of the Upper 
Congo. Their head-dresses were 
of basket work decorated with 
red parrot feathers, monkey 
skin caps of grey or dark fur, 
with the tails drooping behind. 
The neck, arm and ankle orna- 
ments were of polished iron, 
rarely of copper, never of brass. 
They make beautiful paddles, 
finely carved like a long pointed 
leaf. " Senneneh " was the 
peaceful hail as in Manyuema, Uregga and Usongora, 
above Stanley Falls. The complexion of these natives 
is more ochreous than black. AVhen a body of them is 
seen on the opposite bank, there is little difference of 



colour between their bodies and the reddish clayey soil 
of the landing-place. Much of this is due to tlie 
Camwood powder, and with this mixed with oil they 
perform their toilet. But protection from sunshine 


considerably contributes to this light colour. The 1887. 
native boy, Bakula, for instance, was deprived of this ^"^^y^f 
universal cosmetic made of Camwood, and he was much "^*^' 
lighter than the average of our Zanzibaris. 

On the 24th, Mr. Jephson led the van of the column, 
and under his guidance we made the astonishing march of 
seven and a half geographical miles — the column having 
been compelled to wade through seventeen streams and 
creeks. During these days Jephson exhibited a marvellous 
vigour. He was in many things an exact duplicate of 
myself in my younger days, before years and hundreds 
of fevers had cooled my burning blood. He is exactly 
of my own height, build and weight and temperament. 
He is sanguine, confident, and loves hard work. He is 
simply indefatigable, and whether it is slushy mire or 
a muddy creek, in he enters, without hesitation, up to 
his knees, waist, neck or overhead it is all the same. 
A sybarite, dainty and fastidious in civilization, a traveller 
and labourer in Africa, he requires to be restrained and 
counselled for his own sake. Now these young men, 
Stairs, Nelson and Parke, are very much in the same 
way. Stairs is the military officer, alert, intelligent, 
who understands a hint, a curt intimation, grasps an 
idea firmly and realises it to perfection. Nelson is a 
centurion as of old Roman times, he can execute because 
it is the will of his chief ; he does not stay to ask the 
reason why ; he only understands it to be a necessity, 
and his great vigour, strength, resolution, plain, good 
sense is at my disposal, to act, suffer or die ; and Parke, 
noble, gentle soul, so tender and devoted, so patient, so 
sweet in mood and brave in temper, always enduring 
and effusing comfort as he moves through our atmos- 
phere of suffering and pain. No four men ever entered 
Africa with such qualities as these. No leader ever had 
cause to bless his stars as I. 

On this day Jephson had two adventures. In his 
usual free, impulsive manner, and with swinging gait 
he was directing the pioneers — crushing through the 
jungle, indifferent to his costume, when he suddenly 
sank out of sight into an elephant pit ! We might 

VOL. I. L 


1887. have imagined a playful and sportive young elephant 
July 24. crashing through the bushes, rending and tearing young 
^"^' saplings, and suddenly disappearing from the view of 
his more staid mamma. Jephson had intelligence, how- 
ever, and aid was at hand, and he was pulled out none 
the worse. It was a mere amusing incident to be 
detailed in camp and to provoke a laugh. 

He rushed ahead of the pioneers to trace the course 
to be followed, and presently encountered a tall native, 
' with a spear in his hand, face to face. Both were so 
astonished as to be paralysed, but Jephson's impulse 
was that of a Berseker. He flung himself, unarmed, 
upon the native, who, eluding his grasp, ran from him, 
as he would from a lion, headlong down a steep bank 
into a creek, Jephson following. But the clayey soil 
was damp and slippery, his foot slipped, and the gallant 
Captain of the Advance measured his length face 
downwards with his feet up the slope, and such was 
his impetus that he slid down to the edge of the creek. 
When he recovered himself it was to behold the denizen 
of the woods, hurrying up the opposite bank and casting 
wild eyes at this sudden pale-faced apparition who had 
so disturbed him as he brooded over the prospect of 
finding game in his traps that day. 

Our camp on this day was a favourite haunt of 
elephants from time immemorial. It was near a point 
round which the river raced with strong swirling 
currents. A long view of a broad silent river is seen 
upward, and one of a river disparted by a series of 
islands below. 

On the 25th Captain Nelson led the column, Jephson 
was requested to assist me with the long narrow canoes 
laden with valuable goods, and to direct some of the 
unskilful " lul)bers ' who formed our crews. The boat 
led the way anchored above the dangerous and swirly 
point, and cast the manilla rope to the canoe crew, who, 
hauling by this cord drew the canoes to quiet water. 
Then rowing hard against the strong currents, at 11 a.m. 
we caught the head of the caravan gathered on the bank 
of a wide and dark sluggish creek, the Eendi, which lazily 


flowed out of dark depths of woods. By one o'clock the 1887. 
ferriage was completed, and the column resumed its "^"'^ ^^ 
march, while we, on the river, l^etook ourselves to R^pS. 
further struggles with the dangerous waves and reefs of 
what is now called Wasp Rapids, from the following 

These rapids extended for a stretch of two miles. 
Above them were the villages which became the scene 
of a tragic strife, as will be learned later in a subsequent 
chapter, and these settlements were the dear objects of 
our aims in order to o])tain shelter and food. 

Our first efibrts against the rapids were successful. 
The current was swift and dangerous, breaking out int( 
great waves now and then. For the first half-hour we 
were successful. Then began a struggle, rowing on one 
side hard and the starboard side crew grasping at over- 
hanging bushes, two men poling, two men on the decked 
bow, with boat-hooks outstretched with their fangs ready 
to snatch at saplings for firm hold. I steered. We 
advanced slowly but steadily, a narrow rushing branch 
between rocky islets, and the bank was before us which 
raced over a reef, showing itself in yard square dots of 
rock above the waves. We elected to ascend this as in 
view of a capsize there was less fear of drowning. 
With noble spirits braced for an exciting encounter, we 
entered it. Eager hands were held out to catch at the 
branches, but at the first clutch there issued at this 
critical moment an army of fierce spiteful wasps and 
settled on our faces, hands, and bodies, every vulnerable 
spot, and stung us with the venom of fiends. Maddened 
and infuriated by the burning stings, battling with this 
vicious enemy, beset by reefs, and rocks, and dangerous 
waves, and whirling vortexes, we tore on with tooth and 
nail, and in a few minutes were a hundred yards above the 
awful spot. Then, clinging to the trees, we halted to 
breathe and sympathise with each other, and exchange 
views and opinions on the various stings of insects, bees, 
hornets, and wasps. 

One asked my servant with a grim smile, "Did you 
say the other day that you believed there was much 




July 25. 



honey in these brouTi paper nests of the wasps? 
Well, what do you think cf the honey now? Don't 
you think it is rather a bitter sort ? " This raised 
a general laugh. We recovered our good temper, 
and resumed our work, and in an hour reached the 
village which the land party had occupied. The canoes 
crews, who followed us, seeing the battle with the 
wasps, fled across river, and ascended by the right 
bank. But the Somalis and Soudanese, more trustful 


in Allah, bravely followed our track, and were dread- 
fully stung ; still, they were consoled by being able to 
exult over the Zanzibaris, the leader of which was 
Uledi, of the "Dark Continent." 

*' Oh," I remarked to Uledi, " it is not a brave thing 
you have done this day — to fly away from wasps." 

" Oh, sir," he replied, " naked manhood is nowhere 
in such a scrape as that. Wasps are more dangerous 
than the most savage men." 


The native settlement on the left bank is called i887. 
Bandeya ; the one facing opposite consists of the villages ^"'^' ^"''" 
of the Bwamburi. North of the Bwamburi, a day's RapWs, 
march, begins the tribes of the Ababua and the Mabode, 
who have a different kind of architecture from the 
steeply conical huts prevailing among the riverine 
tribes. The Mabode' are said to possess square houses 
with gable roofs, the walls are neatly plastered, and 
along the fronts are clay verandahs. 

On the 26th we halted to rest and recuperate. Those 
of us who were attacked by the wasps suffered from a 
fever ; the coxswain of the boat was in great distress. 
The following day the chief of the Bwamburi came over 
to pay us a visit, and brought us as a gift a month old 
chick, which was declined on the ground that we should 
feel we were rob1)ing him were we to accept such a gift 
from a professedly poor man. His ornaments consisted 
of two small ivory tusks planed flat and polished, which 
hung suspended from a string made of grass encircling 
his neck. His head-dress was a long-haired monkey 
skin. We exchanged professions of amity and brother- 
hood, and commenced the march, and camped opposite 
Mukupi, a settlement possessing eight villages, on the 

Two sturdy prisoners imparted to us strange informa- 
tion of a large lake called " No-uma," as being situate 
somewhere in the neighbourhood of a place called 
Panga. It was said to be many days' journey in 
extent. In the centre was a large island, so infested 
with serpents that natives dreaded to go near it ; that 
from it flowed the Nepoko into the Nowelle, the name 
now given to the Aruwimi. After several days' march 
we discovered that the lake story was a myth, and that 
the Nepoko did not flow from the left bank of the 

Our camp on the 29th was opposite My-yui, a series 
of villages embowered amongst banana groves on the 
right bank. It was not long before we struck an 
acquaintance with this tribe. We quickly recognized 
a disposition on the part of the aborigines to be 


1887. sociable. A good report of our doings had preceded 
July 29 jjg Trade commenced very pleasantly. Our people 
^^*^'^'* had cowries, beads, and Lrass rods, besides strange 
trifles to exchange for food. When the land column 
arrived, prices advanced somewhat, owing to the greater 
demand. It was reported that there were no settle- 
ments between our camp opposite ]My-yui and Panga ; 
that we should be nine days performing the journey 
through the forest. 

The next morning the bartering was resumed, because 
we wished to prepare provisions for several days ; new 
ration currency had already been distributed to each 
man. But we were astonished to find that only three 
ears of Indian corn were given on this day for a brass 
rod twenty-eight inches in length, of the thickness of 
telegraph wir^. At Bangala such a brass rod would 
have purchased five days' provisions per man in my 
days, and here was a settlement in the wilds where we 
could only obtain three ears of corn ! For one fowl four 
brass rods were demanded. Cowries were not accepted ; 
beads they declined. The men were ravenously hungry ; 
there were nine days' wilderness ahead. Wasp rapids 
was the nearest place below. AVe expostulated, but 
they were firm. The men then began to sell their 
cartridge-pouches for two plantains each. They were 
detected selling; their ammunition at the rate of one 
cartridge for an ear of corn ; a tin canteen purchased 
two. Bill-hooks and axes went next, and ruin stared us 
in the face. The natives were driven away ; one of 
Mugwye's (the chiefs) principal slaves was lifted out 
of his canoe by a gigantic Zanzibari, and word was sent 
to the natives that if there were no fair sales of food 
made as on the first day, that the prisoner would be 
taken away, and that we should cross over and help 

Having waited all the afternoon for the reappearance 
of food, we embarked at dawn on the 31st with two full 
companies, entered My-yui, and despatched the foragers. 
By 3 P.M. there was food enough in the camp for teu 



In the afternoon of the 1st of August, the advance i887. 
column was encamped opposite Mambanga. The river ^"^' ^ 
party met with an accident. Careless Soudanese were 
capsized, and one of the Zanzibari steersmen disobeying 
orders shoved his canoe under the branchy trees which 
spread out from the bank to the distance of fifty feet ; 
and by the swift current was driven against a submerged 
branch, and capsized, causing a loss of valuable property 
— some of them being fine beads, worth four shillings a 
necklace. Six rifles were also lost. 

The first death in the advance column occurred on the 
2nd August, the 36th day of departure from Yambuya, 
which was a most extraordinary immunity considering 
the hardship and privations to which we were all 
subjected. Could we have discovered a settlement 
of bananas on the other bank, we should certainly have 
halted to recuperate for many days. A halt at this 
period of four or five days at a thriving settlement, 
would have been of vast benefit to all of us, but such a 
settlement had not been found, and it w^as necessary for 
us to march and press on until we could discover one. 

We traversed a large village that had been abandoned 
for probably six months before we reached, and as it 
was the hour of *camping, we prepared to make ourselves 
comfortable for the evening. But as the tents were 
being pitched, my attention was called to the cries 
made by excited groups, and hastening to the scene, 
heard that there was a dead body almost covered with 
mildew in a hut. Presently the discovery of another 
was announced and then another. This sufficed to 
cause us to hastily pack up again and depart from the 
dead men's village, lest we might contract the strange 
disease that had caused the abandonment of the village. 

One of our poor donkeys, unable to find fitting 
sustenance in the region of trees and jungle, lay down 
and died. Another appeared weak and pining for grass, 
which the endless forest did not produce. 

Opposite our camp on this day was the mouth of the 
Ngula River, an affluent on the north side. Within the 
river it appeared to be of a width of fifty yards. 



Aug. 3. 


On the 3rd two hills became visible, one bearing 
E.S.E., the other S.E. by E. ^ E., as we moved up the 
river. We camped at the point of a curve in the centre 
of which were two islands. Paying a visit to one of 
them we found two goats, at which we were so rejoiced, 
that long before evening one was slaughtered for the 
officers, and another to make broth for the sick. A 
flock of a hundred would have saved many a life that 
was rapidly fading away. 

\ m 


The next day we arrived at Panga or the Nepanga 
Falls, about which we had heard so much from Bakula, 
the native boy. 

The fells are fully thirty feet high, though at first 
view they appear to be double that height, by the great 
slope visible above the actual ftill. They extend over a 
mile in length from the foot of the falls, to above the 



portage. They are tlie first serious obstacles to navi- 
gation we had encountered. They descend by four 
separate branches, the largest of which is 200 yards 
wide. They run by islets of gneissic rock, and afford 
cover to the natives of Panga, who when undisturbed, 
live upon a large island called Nepanga, one mile long 
and 300 yards wide, situated 600 yards below the Falls. 
This island contains three villages, numbering some 
250 huts of the conical type. There are several 
settlements inland on both banks. The staple food 
consists of plantains, though there are also fields of 

Aug. 4. 



An unfortunate Zanzibari, as though he had vowed 
to himself to contribute largely to our ruin, capsized his 
canoe as he approached Nepanga, by which we lost two 
boxes of Maxim ammunition, five boxes of cowries, three 
of white beads, one of fancy beads, one box fine copper 
wire, cartridge pouches and seven rifles. 

All things are savage in this region. No sooner had 
a solitary hippo sighted us than he gave chase, and 
nearly caught us. He was punished severely, and 
probably received his death wound. The fowls of 
Nepanga declined to be caught on the island of 
Nepanga, but evaded the foragers by flight into the 


1887. jungle ; the goats were restless, and combative, and very 

^"g- "^^ wild. Altogether we (captured twelve, which gave us 

Fai'it^ some hopes of being able to save some of our sick 

people. A few fish were obtained in the weirs and 


The results of 3 days' foraging on islands, right and 
left banks were 250 lbs. of Indian corn, 18 goats, and 
as many fowls, besides a few branches of plantains, 
among 383 people. A number of villages and settle- 
ments were searched, but the natives do not appear to 
possess a sufficiency of food. They were said to be at 
war with a tribe called the Engwedde, and instead of 
cultivating live on banana stalks, mushrooms, roots, 
herbs, fish, and snails and caterpillars, varying this 
extraordinary diet by feeding on slain humanity. In 
such a region there were no inducements to stay, and 
we accordingly commenced the business of portage. 
Stairs' Company was detailed for clearing the canoe 
track, and to strew it with branches placed athwart the 
road. No. 3 and 4 Companies hauled the canoes, and 
No. 1 Company carried the whale-boat bodily overland 
to the sound of wild music and song, and by the end of 
the 6 th, after a busy day, we were encamped above the 
great Falls of Panga. 





Another accident at the Eapids^The village of Utiri — Avisibba settle- 
ment — Inquiry into a murder case at Avisibba — Surprised by the 
natives — Lieutenant Stairs wounded — We hunt up the enemy — 
The poisoned arrows — Indifference of the Zanzibaris — Jephson's 
caravan missing — Our wounded — Perpetual rain — Deaths of Khalfan, 
Saadi, and others — Arrival of caravan — The Mabengu Eapids — 
Mustering the people — The Nepoko river — Remarks by Binza^ — Our 
food supply — Reckless use of ammunition — Halfway to the Albert 
Lake — We fall in with some of Ugarrowwa's men — Absconders — We 
camp at Hippo Broads and Avakubi Rapids — The destroyed settle- 
ment of Navabi — Elephants at Memberri — More desertions — The 
Arab leader, Ugarrowwa — He gives us information — Visit to the Arab 
settlement — First specimen of the tribe of dwarfs — Arrangements 
with Ugarrowwa. 

In full view of this last camp there was an island i887. 
in mid-river distant about two miles, that resembled ^^^' ^" 
a water battery, and a village lying low, apparently paUsf 
level with the face of the river. On exploring it on 
the 7th — by no means an easy task, so strong was 
the current sweeping down the smooth dangerous 
slope of river towards Panga- — it appeared to have 
been originally a flat rocky mass of rock a few inches 
above high river, with inequalities on its surface which 
had been filled in with earth carried from the left bank. 
It measured 200 feet in length by about ninety feet in 
width, to which a piscatorial section of a tribe had 
retreated and built 60 cone huts, and boarded it round 
about with planks cut out of a light wood out of the 
forest and wTecked canoes. At this period the river 
was but six inches below the lowest surface of the island. 
Another serious accident occurred on this day during 
the journey from above Panga Falls to Nejambi Rapids. 



1887. A witless, untliinking canoe coxswain took his canoe 
Aug. 7. among the branches in broken water, got entangled, and 
FaU^ capsized. Nine out of eleven rifles were recovered ; 
two cases of gunpowder were lost. The Zanzibaris 
were so heedless and lubberly among rapids that I felt 
myself growing rapidly aged with intense anxiety while 
observing them. How headstrong human nature is 
prone to be, I had ample proofs daily. My losses, 
troubles, and anxieties rose solely from the reckless 


indifference to instructions manifested by my followers. 
On land they wandered into the forest, and simply dis- 
appeared, or were stabbed or pierced with arrows. So 
far we had lost eight men and seventeen rifles. 

On the 8 th the caravan had hauled the canoes past 
Nejambi Rapids, and was camped a few miles below 
Utiri. The next day we reached the villages, where 
we found the architecture had chanofed. The houses 
were now all gable-roofed and low, and each one 
surrounded by strong, tall, split log palisades, six feet 
long, nine inches by four inches wide and thick, of the 


rubiacse wood. Constructed in two lines, a street issv. 
al)out twenty feet ran between them. As I observed '"J^s- 1^ 
them I was impressed with the fact that they were 
extremely defensible even against rifles. A dozen 
resolute men in each court of one of these villages 
armed with poisoned arrows might have caused con- 
siderable loss and annoyance to an enemy. 

On the 10th we halted, and foragers were despatched 
in three diff'erent directions with poor results, only two 
days' rations being procurable. One man, named Khalfan, 
had been wounded in the wind-pipe by a wooden arrow. 
The manner he received the wound indicates the perfect 
indifference with which they receive instructions. While 
Khalfan examined the plantains above, a native stood 
not twenty feet away and shot him in the throat with a 
poisoned arrow. The arrow wound was a mere needle- 
point puncture, and Dr. Parke attended to him with 
care, but it had a fatal consequence a few days later. 

The 11th was consumed by the river party in 
struggling against a wild stretch, five miles long, of 
rapids, caused by numerous reefs and rocky islets, while 
the land column wound along the river bank on a 
passable track which led them to Engwedde', where we 
rejoined them on the 12th. Our day's rate having 
been broken by the rapids, foragers were again despatched 
to collect food, and succeeded in procuring three days' 
rations of plantains. On the 13th we marched to 
Avisiljba, or Aveysheba, a settlement of five large 
villages, two of which were situate on the upper side of 
Euku Creek. 

The river column was the first to occupy the villages 
above the Ruku. A fine open street ran between two 
rows of low huts, each hut surrounded by its tall 
palisades. There was a promising abundance in the 
plantain groves about. The untouched forest beyond 
looked tall, thick, and old. From the mouth of 
the creek to the extremity of the villages there was a 
hundred yards' thickness of primeval forest, through 
which a native path ran. Between the village and the 
Aruwimi was a belt of timber fifty yards wide. While 



Aug. 13. 


the ferriage was progressing across the creek, the boat- 
crew was searching eagerly and carefully among the 
scores of courts for hidden savages, and with rifles pro- 
jecting before them w^ere burrowing into the plantain 
groves, and outside the villages. 

When the column was across I had a murder case to 
inquire into. For on the 12th, at Engwedde, one of our 
Zanzibaris had been killed with a rifle bullet outside of 
camp, and it was supposed that some vengeful ruflian 
in the column had shot him. Meantime, I had 
suggested to two head men to take forty scouts 
and re-cross the creek, to explore if there were any 

I H [ If 


opportunities for foraging on the next day to the south- 
west of the creek. My little court had just sat down 
for the inquiry, and a witness was relating his evidence, 
when the rifles were heard firing with unusual energy. 
Lieutenant Stairs mustered some fifty men, and pro- 
ceeded on the double-quick to the river. Under the 
impression that ninety breech-loaders were quite sufficient 
we resumed the investigation, but as volley after volley 
rang out, with continued cracking of scouts' rifles, the 
Doctor, Nelson, and myself hastened to the scene 
with a few more men. The first person I saw was 


Lieutenant Stairs, with his shirt torn open, and blood iss?. 
streaming from an arrow- wound in the left breast, '^"^; ^^" 
about the region of the heart, and I heard a patter- ^*^' ' "" 
ing on the leaves around me, and caught a glimpse 
of arrows flying past. After consigning our poor friend 
to Parke's care I sought for information. There were 
numbers of men crouching about, and firing in the 
most senseless fashion at some suspicious bushes across 
the creek. There were certainly obstinate savages 
hidden behind them, but I failed to get a glimpse of one. 
The creek I soon found lay between us. I was told that 
as the boat was crossing the creek a body of natives had 
suddenly issued on the other side and shot their arrows 
into them ; that surprised by the discharge they had 
crouched in the bottom of the boat to escape the arrows, 
and had paddled the boat back to the landing-place 
with their hands. They had then picked up their rifles 
and blazed away at them. Simultaneously Lieutenant 
Stairs had rushed in among them and fired at the 
enemy, who were of a bolder kind than any they had 
yet met. In a short time he had received an arrow in 
the breast, which he had torn off" while retreating, and 
five other men had been punctured. Almost as soon as 
I had finished receiving these particulars, I saw for the 
first time a dark shadow creep along the ground between 
two bushes, and fired into the centre of it, and a 
curiously weird wail responded to it. Two minutes 
later the arrows had ceased their patter among the 
leaves. Having posted a strong guard of the best shots 
along the bank to observe any movement on the opposite 
bank of the creek, the rest of the people were withdrawn. 

In the evening some scouts that had searched in the 
woods inland returned with a flock of seven goats. They 
had discovered the crossing-place, and had suddenly 
opened fire on a small column going either to the assist- 
ance of the enemy or coming from their direction. 

On the 14th, at dawn, pushed over the creek two 
companies to hunt up the enemy that had done us such 
damage ; a company was also sent, under Captain Nelson, 
to the forest inland. In a few minutes we heard a volley, 

VOL. I. M 



1887 and a second, and then incessant rifle fire, showing 
Aug. 14. i-j-^g^^ ^i^g enemy were of a resolute character. There were 
A.visibba. g^^j^^g crack shots in No. 1 Company, but it was scarcely 
possible to do much damage in a thick bush against a crafty 
enemy, who knew that they possessed most dangerous 
weapons, and who were ignorant of the deadly force of 
the pellets that searched the bushes. About 300 rounds 
had been fired, and silence followed. Four only of these 
had been fatal, and our party received four wounds from 
arrows smeared over freshly with a copal-coloured sub- 
stance. One dead body was brought to me for examin- 
ation. The head had a crop 
of long hair banded by a 
kind of coronet of iron ; the 
neck had a string of iron 
drops, with a few monkey 
teeth among them. The 
teeth were filed into points. 
The distinguishing mark of 
the body appears to form 
double rows of tiny cicatrices 
across the chest and abdomen. 
The body was uncircumcised. 
Another dead body brought 
to the landing-place had a 
necklace of human teeth, and 
a coronet of shining plated 
iron, and the forehead and 
several wristlets of the same 
metal, polished ; on the left arm was the thick pad of 
silk cotton covered with goat skin, to protect the arm 
from the bow strinsf. 

After the natives had been chased away on all sides 
from the vicinity, the people commenced to forage, and 
succeeded in bringing to Avisibba during the day 
sufficent plantains to give eighty per man — four days' 

Lieutenant Stairs' wound was one-fifth of an inch in 
diameter, an inch and a quarter below the heart, and 
the pointed head of the arrow had penetrated an inch 




and a half deep. The other men were wounded in the 
wrists, arms, and one in the fleshy part of the ])ack. At 
this period we did not know what this strange copal- 
coloured substance was with which the points had been 
smeared, nor did we know what were its peculiar effects 
when dry or wet ; all that the Doctor could do at this 
time was to inject water in the wounds and cleanse them. 
The " old hands " of the Zanzibaris aflirmed it was poison 
extracted from the India rubber (Landolphia) l)y boiling ; 
that the scum after suflScient boiling formed the poison. 

Aug. 14. 



A native declared that it was made of a species of arum, 
which, after being bruised, was boiled ; that the water 
was then poured out into another pot, and boiled again 
until it had left a strong solution, which was mixed with 
fat, and this was the substance on the arrows. The 
odour was acrid, with a suspicion of asafoetida. The men 
proved its deadly properties by remarking that elephants 
and all big game were killed by it. All these stories 
caused us to be very anxious, but our ignorance was 
excessive, I admit. We could only look on with wonder 
at the small punctures on the arms, and express our 



1887. opinion that sucli small wounds could not be deadly, and 
Aus. 14. i^Qpg^ fQj. ^}jg gake of our friend Stairs and our nine 
wounded men, that all this was mere exaggeration. 

The arrows were very slender, made of a dark wood, 
twenty-four inches long, points hardened by slow baking 
in the warm atmosphere above the hut fires ; at the butt 
end T/as a slit, in which a leaf was introduced to guide 
the flight ; the sharp points were as sharp as needles, 
and half an inch from the point began a curving line of 
notches for about two inches. The arrow heads were 
then placed in the prepared and viscid substance, with 
which they were smeared ; large leaves were then rolled 
round a sheaf before they were placed in the quiver. 
Another substance was pitch black in colour, and appeared 
more like Stockholm tar when fresh, but had a very 
disagreeable smell. In a quiver there would be nearly 
a hundred arrows. When we observed the care taken 
of these arrows, rolled up in green leaves as they were, 
our anxiety for our people was not lessened. 

The bow is of stubborn hard brown wood, about three 
feet long ; the string is a broad strip of rattan carefully 
polished. To experiment with their power I drove one 
of the wooden arrows, at six feet distance, through two 
sides of an empty biscuit tin. At 200 yards' distance 
was a tall tree. I drove an arrow, with full force, over 
the top of the highest branch and beyond the tree. It 
dawned on us all then that these wooden arrows were 
not the contemptible things we had imagined. At a 
short distance we judged, from what we saw, that the 
stiff spring of this little bow was sufficient to drive one 
of these slender arrows clean through a human body. At 
120 paces I have been able to miss a bird within an inch 
with one of them. 

At noon on the 15th of August the land column filed 
out of the palisaded villages of Avisibba led by Mr. 
Jephson, the officer of the day. As a captive had 
informed us that there were three cataracts ahead not 
far off, I instructed Mr. Jephson that he must follow 
the river and halt at the first convenient spot about 
2.30 P.M. ; that I would halt the river column, now 



{From a photograph.) 


1887. consisting of the boat and fourteen canoes, until the 
Aug. 15. j,gg^j, guard under Captain Nelson had quite left the 
Avisibba. gg^^}gi^gnj^ . ]3ut as the canoes would proceed faster 
than the land caravan, I would probably overtake him, 
and camp at the first fit place I could find after an 
hour's row, in which event he would proceed until he 
found us. The instructions were also repeated to the 
leading men of the pioneers. 

I ought to have stated that our start at noon was 
occasioned by the delay caused by the discovery at the 
morning muster that five men were absent. They ulti- 
mately turned up at 10 o'clock; but this perpetual 
straying away without leave was most exasperating, 
and had drawn a lecture from me, though this was not 
uncommon in those stupid early days of training. 

The Zanzibaris persisted in exhibiting an indifference 
to danger absolutely startling, not from bravery, or 
from ignorance of fear, but from an utter incapacity to 
•emember that danger existed, and from a stupid un- 
consciousness as to how it affected them. Animals are 
indebted to instinct as a ^ constant monitor against 
danger, but these men appeared to possess neither 
instinct nor reason, neither perception nor memory. 
Their heads were uncommonly empty. The most urgent 
entreaties to beware of hidden foes, and the most dread- 
ful threats of punishment, failed to impress on their 
minds the necessity they were under of being prudent, 
wary, and alert to avoid the skewers in the path, the 
lurking cannibal behind the plantain stalk, the cunning 
foe lying under a log, or behind a buttress, and the 
sunken pit, with its pointed pales at the bottom. When 
the danger fronted them it found them all unprepared. 
A sudden shower of arrows sent them howling abjectly 
out of reach or under shelter ; and if the arrows were 
only followed by a resolute advance, resistance, by reason 
of excess of terror, would be impossible. An unexpected 
show of dauntlessness in a native compelled from them 
a ready recognition of his courage. On the road they 
sneaked into the woods to avoid the rear guard, but flew 
screaming with terror if a prowling savage suddenly 


rose before them with uplifted spear. They roved far \m^^ 
singly or by twos amongst the villages, as looting was dear ^"f^j J^^^ 
to their hearts ; but should they meet the wild owners of 
them they were more apt to throw the deadly rifle down 
on the ground than to use it. They strayed through the 
plantain grove with magnificent unconcern, but if they 
heard the whiz of an arrow they collapsed nervelessly 
and submitted to their fate. With an astounding con- 
fidence they scattered along the road, and stretched the 
line of the column to 3 miles in length, but at sight of 
natives all sense was lost save that of cowardly fear. 
Out of 370 men at this time in the camp there were 
clearly 250 of this description, to whom rifles were of 
no use save as a clumsy, weighty club, which they 
would part with for a few ears of corn, or would willingly 
exchange for a light walking staff" if they dared. 

The day previous the Zanzibari head men, urged by 
their friends, had appeared before me in a body, and 
demanded to be despatched to forage without any 
officers, as the officers, they said, bored them with their 
perpetual orders of " Fall in, fall in." " Why," said they, 
" who can gather bananas if they are continually watched 
and told to ' Fall in, fall in ? ' " 

" Very true," said I, " the thing is impossible. Let 
me see what you can do by yourselves. The banana plan- 
tations are but a quarter of an hour's distance. I shall 
expect you all back within an hour." 

After such an exposition of character as the above it 
will not be wondered, that, each man having cleared 
from my presence, forgot all his promises, and wandered 
according to his wont. A flock of sheep or a herd of 
swine could not have gone further astray. After fourteen 
hours' absence the 200 foragers had returned save five. 
These five had departed no one knew where until 10 a.m. 
of this day. 

Ah, those early days ! Worse were to come, and 
then, having become purified by suff'ering, and taught 
by awful experience, they became Romans ! 

But to return to Jephson. We pulled up stream — after 
seeing that every one was clear of the settlement of 



1887. Avisibba — at the rate of a knot and a half an hour, and 
f"^:,!'^' at 2.45, having discovered a convenient camp, halted for 
the night. We waited in vain for Mr. Jephson, and the 
column fired signal guns, rowed out into the stream, and 
with a glass searched the shore up and down, but there 
was no sign of camp-fire, or smoke above the woods, 
which generally covered the forest as with a fog in still 
weather, no sound of rifle-shot, blare of trumpet, or 
human voice. The caravan, we thought, must have 
found a fine track, and proceeded to the cataracts ahead. 

On the 16th the river column pulled hard up stream, 
passed Mabengu villages, came up to a deep but narrow 
creek flowing from the south bank into the Nevva, as the 
Aruwimi was now called, looked anxiously up stream, and 
an hour later we had reached the foot of Mabengu Rapids. 
On the right bank, opposite to where we selected a 
camping-place, was a large settlement — that of Itiri. 
Then, having as yet, met no traces of the absent column, 
I sent boat's crew up the creek to search for traces 
of fording. After ascending several miles up the creek, 
the boat's crew returned unsuccessful ; then I despatched 
it back again to within half-an-hour's distance of 
Avisibba, and at midnight the boat returned to announce 
their failure to find any traces of the missing. 

On the l7th the boat's crew, with "Three O'clock," 
the hunter (Saat Tato), and six scouts, were sent to our 
camping-place of the 15th, with orders for the hunter 
and his six scouts to follow the path observed there- 
inland — until they had struck the trail of the column, 
then to follow the trail and overtake them, and return 
with them to the river. On the boat's return, the 
coxswain informed me that they had seen the trail 
about 7 miles (3 hours' march). I concluded that 
Mr. Jephson had led his column south, instead of 
E. by N. and E. N. E., according to course of river, and 
that Saat Tato would overtake them, and return next 

Our condition at the river camp was this. We had 
thirty-nine canoemen and boatmen, twenty-eight sick 
people, three Europeans, and three boys, and one of the 




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Europeans (Lieutenant Stairs) was suffering from a dan- iss? 
gerous wound, and required the constant care of the sur- ■'^"^; ^'^' 
geon. One man had died of dysentery at Avisibba. We 
had a dying idiot in camp, who had become idiotic some 
days before. We had twenty-nine suffering from pleurisy, 
dysentery, incurable debility, and eight suffering from 
wounds. One called Khalfan was half strangled with 
the wound in his windpipe, another called Saadi, wounded 
in the arm, appeared dangerously ill, his arm was 
swollen, and gave him great pain. Out of the thirty- 
nine available I had despatched three separate parties 
in different directions to scout for news of the missing 
column, lest it was striking across some great bend to 
reach the river a long distance higher up, while we, unable 
to stir, were on the other side of the curve. Across the 
river the people of Itiri, perceiving we were so quiet on 
our side of the river, seemed to be meditating an attack, 
and only two miles below on our bank was the large 
settlement of Mabengu, from whose inhabitants we 
might hear at any moment, while our little force of 
thirty-nine men, scattered in various directions, were 
searching for the missing 300. But the poet said that 
it became 

" No man to nurse despair ; 
But in the teeth of clenched antagonisms 
To follow the worthiest till he die." 

I quote from my diary of August 18th. 

The idiot fell asleep last night. His troubles are 
over, and we have buried him. 

I wonder if Tennyson were here, who wrote such 
noble lines, what he would think of our state. A few • 
days ago I was chief of 370 men, rich in goods, munitions 
of war, medicines, and contented with such poor com- 
forts as we had, and to-day I have actually only eighteen 
men left fit for a day's march, the rest have vanished. 
I should be glad to know where. 

If 389 picked men, such as we were when we left 
Yambuya, are unable to reach Lake Albert, how can 
Major Barttelot with 250 men make his way through 
this endless forest. We have travelled, on an average. 



1387. 8 hours per day for forty-four days since leaving Yam- 
Aug. 18. \)^j^ ^^ \j^Q miles per hour we ought, by this date, 
to have arrived on the Lake shore, but, instead of 
being there, we have accomplished just a third of the 
distance. The poet says we must not " nurse despair," 
for to do that is to lie down and die, to make no effort, 
and abandon hope. 

Our wounded take considerable time to heal. The 
swelling is increasing, the wounds are most painful, not 
one has yet proved fatal, but they are all quite incapa- 
citated from duty. 

The fifth rain of this month began at 8 A.M. Had we 
not enough afflictions without this perpetual rain ? One 
is almost tempted to think that the end is approach- 
ing. The very " flood gates of heaven " seem opened, 
and nature is dissolving. Such a body of rain is 
falling that the view of all above is obscured by the 
amazing fall of rain-drops. Think of the countless 
numbers of leaves in this forest, and that every leaf 
drops ten to twenty times per minute, and that from the 
soaking ground rises a grey cloud of minute rain in 
vapour, and that the air is full of floating globules of 
water and flying shreds of leaves ! And add to all this 
the intense fall of rain as the blast comes bearing down 
the top, and whips drowning showers on us, and sways 
the countless branches, and rushes wailing through the 
glades with such force, as though it would wrench the 
groaning trees out of the earth. The moaning and 
groaning of the forest is far from comforting, and the 
crashing and fall of mighty trees is far from assuring, 
but it is a positive terror when the thunder rumbles 
above, and its sounds reverberating through the 
aisles and crooked corridors of the forest, and the 
blazing lightning darts spitefully hither and thither its 
forky tongues and sheets of flame, and explodes over our 
heads with overwhelming and deafening shocks. It would 
be a vast relief for our sick and wounded to be free of 
such sounds. An European l)attle has no such variety. 
And throughout the day this has continued unceasingly. 
It is now about the tenth hour of the day. It is scarcely 



possible daylight will ever appear again, at least so I 1887. 
judge from the human faces steeped in misery. Their "^"^^ ^^• 
owners appear stupefied by terror, woe, sickness, loss of 
friends, hunger, rain and thunder, and general wretched- 
ness. They may be seen crouching under plantain- 
leaf sheds, native shields, cotton shelters, straw mats, 
earthen and copper pots above their heads, even saddles, 
tent canvass covers, blankets, each body wreathed in 
blue vapour, self-absorbed with speechless anguish. The 
poor asses with their ears drawn back, inverted eyes 
and curving backs, captive fowls with drooping crests 
represent abject discomfort. Alas ! the glory of this 
earth is quite extinguished. When she finally recovered 
her beauty, and her children assumed their proud 
bearing, and the growing lakes and increasing rivers 
were dried up, and how out of chaos the sun rose 
to comfort the w^orld again I know not. My own 
feeling of misery had so exhausted me that a long sleep 
wrapped me in merciful oblivion. 

August 19th. — Still without news of land caravan. 
The scouts have returned without having seen any 
traces of the missing. Two of the wounded men are 
doing very badly. Their sufferings appear to be 

August 20th. — Still without news of caravan. Young 
Saadi wounded by a poisoned arrow on the morning of 
the 14th, is attacked with tetanus, and is in a very 
dangerous condition. Wherefore I take it to be a 
vegetable poison. Khalfan's neck and spine have become 
rigid. I have given both morphine by injection, but 
the doses though double, that is in half grains, do not 
appear to ease the sufferers much. Stairs is just the 
same as yesterday, neither worse nor better. The wound 
is painful, still he has appetite, and enjoys sleep. I fear 
the efi'ect on him of knowing what the other patients are 

It is strange that out of 300 people and 3 officers, not 
one has sense enough to know that he has lost the road, 
and that the best way of recovering it would be to 
retrace their steps to Avisibba and try again. 


1887. August 2lst. — PoorKhalfan wounded in the windpipe 
Aug. 21. Qjj ^|jg j^Q^j-^ instant, and the young fellow Saadi hurt on 
""■ the morning of the 14th ; both died in the night, after 
intolerable agonies — one at 4 a.m., Saadi about midnight. 
Khalfan's wound was caused by a poisoned arrow ; but 
the poison must have been laid on the arrow some days 
before it was used. He had been daily getting weaker 
from abstinence from food, because of pain. The wound 
did not seem dangerous ; it had closed up, externally, 
and there were no signs of inflammation ; but the poor 
fellow complained he could not swallow. He had sub- 
sisted on liquid food made of plaintain flour gruel. On 
the 8th day his neck became rigid and contracted ; he 
could not articulate, but murmur ; the head was inclined 
forward, the abdomen was shrunk, and on his face 
lines of pain and anxiety became fixed. Yesterday he 
had some slight spasms. I gave two injections of 
half a grain hypodermically, which relieved him for an 
hour, but, not much accustomed to treat patients with 
morphia, I feared giving larger doses. Saadi was 
punctured on the right forearm, midway between wrist 
and elbow — a mere wound, such as a coarse stocking 
needle would have made. The wound was sucked by a 
comrade ; it was syringed with warm water and dressed, 
but on the morning of the fourth day he was attacked 
with tetanus of so severe a kind that his case was hope- 
less from our sheer inability to relieve him from the 
frightful spasms. Morphia injections rendered him 
slightly somnolent ; but the spasms continued, and 
Saadi died on the 111th hour after receiving the wound. 


I am inclined to think that the arrow was smeared for 
the fight of the 1 4th the night previous. 

A third man died of dysentery before noon, making 
the fourth death in this camp. 

At 5 P.M. the caravan arrived. Its sufferings have 
been great from mental distress. There have been three 
deaths also in the land column. Maruf, punctured in 
shoulder, died of tetanus on the night of the 19th, 24 
hours earlier than Saadi. This may have been due to 
the travel accelerating the action of the poison. 



One man named Ali was shot by an iron-barbed i887. 
arrow, and died of internal liasmorrhage, the arrow ^^^^; ^^ 
having pierced the liver. Another succumbed to 
dysentery immediately after the heavy rain which had 
afflicted us on the 18th; thus we have had seven fatal 
cases since the 14th. We have several others, in whom 
life is flickering. The column brought in two others 
wounded by arrows. The wounds are much inflamed, 
and exude a gangrenous matter. 

Lieut. Stairs still appears hearty, and appears as 
though he was recovering, despite the influence these 
many deaths might have on his nerves. The surgeon 
having appeared, I feel an intense relief. I hate to see 
pain, and take no delight in sick men's groans. I feel 
pleasure in ministering to their needs only when con- 
scious I can cure. 

We have now about 373 in camp, but 60 of them 
appear fitter for a hospital than to continue our wander- 
ing life ; but in this savage region not even rest and 
food can be secured for the weary souls. 

A few more days of this disheartening work, attend- 
ing on the sick, looking at the agonies of men dying 
from lockjaw, listening to their muffled screams, observ- 
ing general distress and despondency, from hunger, and 
the sad anxiety caused by the unaccountable absence of 
their brothers and comrades, with the loss of 300 men 
impending over me must have exercised a malign influence 
over myself. I am conscious of the insidious advance of 
despair towards me. Our food has been bananas or 
plantains, boiled or fried, our other provisions being re- 
served for perhaps an extreme occasion which may present 
itself in the near future. The dearest passion of my life 
has been, I think, to succeed in my undertakings ; but 
the last few days have begun to fill me with a doubt of 
success in the present one. 

What the feelings of the officers have been I have not 
heard yet ; but the men have frankly confessed that 
they have been delivered from a hell. 

The following note has just been placed in my 
hands : — 



Aug. 21. 


"Dear Sir, " August im. 

" Saat Tato reached us at 3 p.m. yesterday with your order to 
follow him. We at once recrossed the river (the creek which the boat's 
crew had searched) and hope to reach you to-night. I can understood 
how great your anxiety must have been, and deeply regret having 
caused it. 

" I have the honour to be, 

" &c., &c., &c. 

"A. M. Jephson." 

On the 22nd we moved camp to the foot of the 
highest Mabengu Rapids, and on the following day pro- 
ceeded above the rapids. 

I then took the opportunity of mustering the people. 
The following returns tell their own tale : — 





Company No. 1 . 

. 8U 




Captain Stairs, No. 2 . 

. 69 




Captain Nelson, No. 3 . 

. 67 




Captain Jephson, No. 4 

. 63 




Europeans . 

. 6 

Boys .... 

. 12 

Soudanese . 

. 10 


. 6 

Cooks .... 

. 2 

Donkey boy. 

. 1 

Sick .... 

- 57 

. 16 


The experiences of the column during its wanderings 
appeared to confirm me in my impressions that the 
Aruwimi in this region of rapids was not so much 
utilized by the natives as it was below. Large settle- 
ments had been discovered inland ; the scouts had 
traversed the forest by several well-trodden tracks 
which led from the river to the interior. The river 
banks were not so populous, the settlements were now 
generally a little way inland, and along the river bank 
was a perceptible path which materially assisted us. 
Ever since leaving Utiri we had noted this fact. On the 
24th we travelled a few miles, and camped below Avu- 
gadu Rapids, near a rich plantain grove, and the next 


day passed the rapids and formed a comfortable camp in isse. 
a somewhat open portion of the forest, haunted by ^"=" '^'^' 
fishermen. On the 26th the column on land swung ulver." 
along at a good rate, while we had a long stretch of un- 
disturbed river, and had to pull hard to keep pace with 
them until both columns met in one of the largest 
villages of the Avejeli tribe established in front of the 
Nepoko mouth. 

This latter river, of wliich Dr. Junker was the first to 
inform us, and which he had crossed far up, tumbled 
into the Aruwimi, now called the Itiri, by a series of 


cascades, over reefs of shaly rock, from an altitude of 
40 feet. The mouth was about 300 yards wide, narrow- 
ing to about 250 yards above the cascade. The natives 
had staked a considerable distance of the reef, to which 
to attach their large funnel-shaped baskets for the 
reception of the fish washed down the rapids. The 
colour of the Nepoko was of chocolate, that of the Itiri 
was of tea and milk. 

Had I known that one week later I should have 
encountered Arabs, and their desperate bands of Man- 
yuema, there is no dQubt that I should have en- 



1887. deavoured to put a degree of latitude between the 
Aug. 26. (.gn^pg of their influence and our route. Even as it 

£r° was, I mentally debated a change of route, from some 
remarks made to me by Binza (Dr. Junker's Monbuttu 
boy), who suggested that it were better to travel through 
lands inhabited by " decent men," to such a horrid 
region infested by peoples who did not deserve the namt 
of men applied to them, and that the Momvu tribes 
were sure of according a welcome to those who could 
show in return that they appreciated hospitality. Binza 
was most enticing in his descriptions of the Momvu 
nation. But food with the Avejeli w^as abundant and 
various, and we hoped that a change had come over the 
land. For ever since we had observed a difference in 
the architecture of the native dwellings, we had observed 
a change for the better in the diet of the people. Below 
Panga Falls the aborigines principally subsisted on 
manioc, and on the different breads, puddings, cakes, 
and porridges to which they converted these tubers. It 
will not be forgotten, perhaps, that tapioca is made 
out of manioc or cassava. But above Panga Falls 
manioc had been gradually replaced by plantain groves 
and the plantain is a much more excellent edible than 
manioc for an expedition, and the groves had been 
clearly growing into higher importance, therefore we 
hoped that happier days were in store for us. There 
were also fields of Indian corn, manioc, yams, and colo- 
cassia, plots of tobacco for the smokers, and to our great 
joy we came across many fowls. A halt was ordered 
that the sorely-tried people might recuperate. 

In their very excusable eagerness for meat the Zanzi- 
baris and Soudanese were very reckless. No sooner wag 
a fowl sighted than there was a general scramble for it ; 
some reckless fellows used their rifles to shoot the 
chickens, and many a cartridge was expended uselessly 
for which due punishment was frequently awarded. The 
orders were most positive that no ammunition was to 
be wasted, and the efforts made to detect all breaches of 
these orders were most energetic, but when did a Zanzi- 
bari obey orders when away from his employer's eye ? 


The indiscriminate shooting of this day resulted in the i887. 
shooting of one of the brave band of hard-working ^^^- ^^ 
pioneers. A bullet from a Winchester struck him in the River." 
foot, the bones of which w^ere pulverized and its amputa- 
tion became imperative. Surgeon Parke performed the 
operation in a most skilful and expeditious manner, and 
as the good surgeon was most resolute when " one of his 
cases " required care — this unfortunate * young man had 
to be lifted in and out by eight men, must needs have 
the largest share of a canoe that nothing might offend 
the tender wound, and of necessity required and received 
the most bounteous supply of the best food and to have 
servants to wait upon him — in short, such a share of 
good things and ready services that I often envied him, 
and thought that for a sixpence in addition I would not 
mind exchanging places with him. 

Of course another severe lecture followed, and there 
were loud protestations that they would all pay implicit 
attention in the future, and of course before the next 
day every promise was forgotten. There is much to be 
said for these successive breaches of promise. They 
relieve the mind from vast care and all sense of respon- 
sibility. No restraint burdens it, and an easy gladness 
brightens the face. Why should a man, being an animal, 
continually fetter himself with obligations as though he 
were a moral being to be held accountable for every idle 
word uttered in a gushing moment ? 

On the 28th the river column consisting now of the 
Advance steel boat and sixteen canoes, pushed up river 
to a camp five miles above Avejeli. The land party was 
left far behind, for they were struggling through a series 
of streams and creeks, and buried in depths of suffo- 
catingly close bush, and did not arrive until the next 
day at noon, when they were urged to proceed about 
two hours higher, whither we followed them. 

We arrived at the foot of a big cataract on the 30th, 

* Was he very unfortunate ? I paid Ugarrowwa for thirteen months' 
board, sent him to Stanley Falls, thence down the Congo and by sea to 
Madeira, via the Cape to Zanzibar, where he arrived in a state well 
described by " as fat as butter." 


1887 and by observation ascertained that we had reached 
Alio:. 30. iialfway to the Albert Lake, Kavalli being in 30" 30' and 
m?er° Yambuya in 25° 3^'. Our camp on this day was in about 
27° 47'. 

We had 163 geographical miles in an air line to make 
yet, which we could never accomplish within 64 days as 
we had performed the western half of the route. The 
people were in an impoverished state of body, and 
mentally depressed, ulcers were raging like an epidemic, 
anaemia had sapped their vitality. They were told the 
half-way camp was reached, but they replied wicli 
murmurs of unbelief They asked, " How can the master 
tell ? Will that instrument show him the road ? Will 
it tell him which is the path ? Why does it not tell us, 
then, that we may see and believe ? Don't the natives 
know their own country better ? Which of them has 
seen grass ? Do they not all say that all the world is 
covered with trees and thick bush ? Bah — the master 
talks to us as though we were children and had no 
proper perception." 

The morning of the evil date, August 31st, dawned as 
on other days. It struggled through dense clouds of 
mist, and finally about 9 o'clock the sun appeared, pale, 
indistinct, a mere circle of lustreless light. But in the 
meantime we were hard at our frequent task of cutting a 
broad highway through the bush and forest, through 
which the boat could be carried bodily by 60 men, 
standing underneath ; the crew of the flotilla were 
wrestling with the mad waters, and shoving their 
vessels up steep slopes of a racing river. 

The highway was finished in an hour, and a temporary 
camp was located above. The canoes began to arrive. 
I left the Doctor to superintend the pioneers bearing the 
boat, but he presently returned to report that the boat 
could not be lifted. I retraced my steps to oversee the 
operation personally. I had succeeded in conveying it 
half way when my European servant came running at a 
mad pace, crying out as he ran : " Sir, oh, sir, Emin 
Pasha has arrived." 

" Emin Pasha ! " 


Yes, sir. I have seen him in a canoe. His red fla^j, i887 

Aug;. 31. 

like ours (the Egyptian), is hoisted up at the stern. It ^^ ^^^ 
is quite true, sir ! " Kiver. 

Of course we bounded forward ; the boat was dropped 
as though it was red hot. A race began, master and 
man striving for the lead. In the camp the excitement 
was also general. It was owing, we soon heard, to the 
arrival of nine Manyuema, who served one called Uledi 
Balyuz, known to natives by the name of Ugarrowwa, 
and who was reported to be settled about eight marches 
up river, and commanding several hundred armed 

The Arabs were, then, so far inland on the Upper 
Aruwimi, and I had flattered myself that I had heard 
the last of these rovers ! We were also told that there 
were fifty of them camped six miles above on their way, by 
orders of Ugarrowwa, to explore the course of the river, to 
ascertain if communication with Stanley Falls could be 
obtained by the unknown stream on whose banks they 
had settled. 

We imparted the information they desired, whereupon 
they said they would return to their camp and prepare 
for a hospitable reception on the morrow. The Zanzi- 
baris were considerably elated at the news, for what 
reason may shortly be seen. 

The first absconder was one Juma, who deserted with 
half a hundredweight of biscuit that night. 

On the 1st September, in the early morning, we were 
clear of the rapids, and, rowing up in company with the 
caravan, were soon up at the village where the Manyuema 
were said to be camped. At the gate there was a dead 
male child, literally hacked to pieces ; within the pal- 
isades was a dead woman, who had been speared. The 
Manyuema had disappeared. It seemed to us then that 
some of our men had damped their joy at the encounter 
with us, by suggesting that the slaves with them might 
probably cause in us a revulsion of feeling. Suspicion 
of this caused an immediate change in their feelings. 
Their fears impelled them to decamp instantly. Their 
society was so much regretted, however, that five 


1887. Zanziharis, taking five loads, four of ammunition and 
^^''*' ^" one of salt, disappeared. 

Ri^r.'* We resumed our journey, and halted at the base of 
another series of rapids. 

The next day Saat Tato, having explored the rapids, 
reported encouragingly, and expressed his confidence 
that without much difficulty these could also be sur- 
mounted. This report stimulated the boatmen to make 
another trial. While the river column was busy in its 
own peculiar and perilous work, a search party was 
despatched to hunt news of the missing men, and 
returned with one man, a box of ammunition, and three 
rifles. The search party had discovered the deserters in 
the forest, with a case of ammunition open, which they 
were distributing. In trying to surround them, the 
deserters became alarmed and scudded away, leaving 
three of their rifles and a case behind them. 

On the 3rd of September five more deserted, carrying 
away one case of Remington cartridges, one case of 
Winchester cartridges, one box of European provisions, 
and one load of fine Arab clothing, worth £50. Another 
was detected with a box of provisions open before him, 
having already abstracted a tin of sago, one tin of 
Liebig, a tin of butter, and one of milk. Ten men had 
thus disappeared in a couple of days. At this rate, in 
sixty days the Expedition would be ended. I consulted 
the chiefs, but I could gain no encouragement to try 
what extreme measures would effect. It was patent, 
however, to the dullest that we should be driven to 
resort to extremities soon to stop this wholesale desertion 
and theft. Since leaving Yambuya we had lost forty- 
eight rifles and fifteen cases of Maxim, Winchester, and 
Remington ammunition. 

The day following four men deserted, and one was 
caught in the act of desertion. The people were accord- 
ingly mustered, and sixty men, suspected of being 
capable of desertion, as no head man would guarantee 
their fidelity, were rendered helpless by abstracting the 
mainsprings of the rifles, which we took and locked up. 
Demoralisation had set in rapidly since we had met the 


Manyuema. Nothing was safe in their hands. Boxes i887. 
had been opened, cloth had been stolen, beads had been ^^^'^- ^• 
pilfered, much ammunition had been taken out of the ^.H^'' 
cases, and either thrown, or secreted as a reserve, by 
the way. 

On September 5th we camped near Hippo Broads, so 
called because the river was fine and broad, and a large 
herd of hippopotami were seen. The site of our resting 
place was an abandoned clearing, which had become the 
haunts of these amphibige, and exquisite bits of green- 
sward caused us to imagine for a moment that possibly 
the open country was not far. Foragers returned after 
a visit into the interior, on both banks, with four goats 
and a few bananas, numbers of roast rats, cooked beetles, 
and slugs. On the 6th we reached a cataract opposite 
the Bafaido settlement, where we obtained a respectable 
supply of plantains. The day following we dragged 
our canoes over a platform of rock, over a projecting 
ledge of which the river tumbled 10 feet. 

From the Bafaido cataract we journeyed along a 
curving river to Avakubi Kapids, and formed a camp at 
the landing-place. A path led hence into the interior, 
which the hungry people soon followed. While scouring 
the country for food, a woman and child were found, 
who were brought to me to be examined. But the 
cleverest interpreter was at fault. No one understood a 
syllable of the meaningless babble. 

Some more rapids were reached the next day. We 
observed that the oil-palm flourished throughout this 

Palm nuts were seen in heaps near each village. We 
even discovered some palms lately planted, which 
showed some regard for posterity. Achmet, the Somali, 
who had insisted on leaving Yambuya, in accom- 
panying us had been a passenger ever since we had 
struck the river above Yankonde', was reported to be 
dying. He was said to suffer from melanosis. What- 
ever the disease might be, he had become singularly 
emaciated, being a literal skeleton covered lightly with 



Sept. 5 


From this camp we rounded a point, passed over a 
short winding course of river, and in an hour approached 
in view of an awful raging stream choked by narrow 
banks of shale. The outlook beyond the immediate 
foreview was first of a series of rolling waves whirling 
and tossed into spray, descending in succeeding lines, 
and a great fall of about 30 feet, and above that a 
steep slope of wild rapids, and the whole capped with 
mist, and tearing down tumultuously towards us. 

This was appalling consider- 
ing the state of the column. 
There were about 120 loads 
in the canoes, and between 
fifty and sixty sick and feeble people. To leave these in 
the woods to their fate was impossible, to carry the loads 
and advance appeared equally so ; yet to drag the canoes 
and bear the boat past such a long stretch of wild 
water appeared to be a task beyond our utmost powers. 
Leaving the vessels below the falls and rapids, I led 
the Expedition by land to the destroyed settlement of 
Navabi, situated near a bend of the Itiri (Aruwimi) 
above the disturbed stream, where we established a 



camp. The sick dragged themselves after the caravan, 
those too feeble and helpless to travel the distance were 
lifted up and borne to the camp. Officers then mustered 
the companies for the work of cutting a broad highway 
through the bush and hauling the canoes. This task 
occupied two whole days, while No. 1 Company foraged 
far and near to obtain food, but with only partial 

Navabi must have been a remarkable instance of 
aboriginal prosperity once. It possessed groves of 

Sept. 6. 


the elais and plantain, large plots of tobacco and 
Indian corn ; the huts under the palms looked almost 
idyllic ; at least so we judged from twp which were left 
standing, and gave us a bit of an aspect at once tropical, 
pretty, and apparently happy. Elsewhere the whole 
was desolate. Some parties, which we conjectured be- 
longed to Ugarrowwa, had burnt the settlement, chopped 
many of the palms down, levelled the banana plantations, 
and strewed the ground with the bones of the defenders. 
Five skulls of infants were found within our new camp at 



1887. On the 12th, as we resumed our journey, we were 
Sept. 12. compelled to leave five men who were in an un- 
conscious state and dying. Achmet, the Somali, whom 
we had borne all the way from Yambuya, was one 
of them. 

From Navabi we proceeded to the landing place of 
Memberri, which evidently was a frequent haunt of 
elephants. One of these not far off was observed 
bathing luxuriously in the river near the right bank. 
Hungry for meat, I was urged to try my chance. On 
this Expedition I had armed myself with the Express 
rifles of 577-bore, which Indian sportsmen so much 
applaud. The heavy 8 -bores were with Major Barttelot 
and Mr. Jameson. I succeeded in planting six shots in 
the animal at a few yards distance, but to no purpose 
except to unnecessarily wound him. 

At Memberri we made a muster, and according to 
returns our numbers stood ; — 

August 23rd 373 men. 

September 12th 343 men. 

14 deserted and 16 deaths ; carriers 235 • loads 227 ; sick 58 

Added to these eloquent records every member of the 
Expedition suffered from hunger, and the higher we as- 
cended the means for satisfying the ever-crying want of 
food appeared to diminish, for the Bakusu and Basongora 
slaves, under the Manyuema head men of Ugarrowwa, 
had destroyed the plantations, and either driven the 
populations to unknown recesses in the forest or had 
extirpated them. 

On the following day we reached Amiri Falls. The 
previous day the head man, Saadi, had been reproached 
for leaving one named Makupete to return along the 
track to search for a box of ammunition that was 
reported to be missing, whereupon Saadi took the 
unwise resolution of proceeding to hunt up Makupete. 
Then one, Uledi Manga, disgusted with the severe work 
and melancholy prospect before us, absconded with 
another box of ammunition. 


We had only three Zanzibar! donkeys left. Out of iss?. 
the six with which we had started from Yambuya, one ^^^^- \^ 
of the three, probably possessed with a presentiment fIiis.' 
that the caravan was doomed, took it into his head that 
it was better to return before it was too late, and 
deserted also. Whither he went no one knew. It is 
useless to search in the forest for a lost man, donkey, 
or article. Like the waves divided by a ship's prow 
uniting at the stern, so the forest enfolds past finding 
within its deep shades whatsoever enters, and reveals 

Near a single old fishing hut our camp was pitched 
on the 15tli. The river after its immense curve north- 
ward and eastward now trended south-easterly, and we 
had already reached S. Lat. 1° 24' from 1° 58'. 

Having been in the habit of losing a box of ammu- 
nition per diem for the last few days, having tried 
almost every art of suppressing this robbery, we now 
had recourse to lashing the boxes in series of eights, and 
consigning each to the care of a head man, and holding 
him responsible for them. This we hoped would check 
the excuse that the men disappeared into the forest 
under all kinds of wants. 

On the 16th of September, while halting for the mid- 
day rest and lunch, several loud reports of musketry 
were heard up-river. I sent Saat Tato to explore, and 
in half-an-hour we heard three rifle-shots announcing 
success ; and shortly after three canoes besides our own 
appeared loaded with men in white dresses, and gay 
with crimson flags. These came, so they reported, to 
welcome us in the name of Ugarrowwa, their chief, who 
would visit my evening camp. After exchanging com- 
pliments, they returned up-river, firing their muskets 
and singing gaily. 

At the usual hour we commenced the afternoon march, 
and at 4 p.m. were in camp just below Ugarrowwa's 
station. At the same time a roll of drums, the boom- 
ing of many muskets, and a flotilla of canoes, announced 
the approach of the Arab leader. About 50 strong, 
robust fellows accompanied him, besides singers and 


1887. women, every one of whom was in prime condition 

Sept. 16. ofbo(Jy_ 

F^i's ' The leader gave his name as Ugarrowwa, the Zanzibar 
term for " Lualaba," or native name of " Ruarawwa," 
known formerly as Uledi Balyuz (or the Consuls 
Uledi). He had accompanied Captains Speke and Grant, 
1860-3, as a tent-boy, and had been left or had de- 
serted in Unyoro. He offered as a gift to us two fat 
goats and about 40 lbs. of picked rice, a few ripe 
plantains, and fowls. 

Upon asking him if there was any prospect of food 
being obtained for the people in the vicinity of his 
station, he admitted, to our sorrow, that his followers in 
their heedless way had destroyed everything, that it 
was impossible to check them because they were furious 
against the " pagans " for the bloody retaliation and 
excesses the aborigines had committed against many 
and many of their countrymen during their search for 

Asked what country we were in, he replied that we 
were in Bunda, the natives of which were Babunda ; 
that the people on the north bank in the neighbourhood 
of his station were called Bapai or Bavaiya. 

He also said that his raiders had gone eastward a 
month's journey, and had seen from a high hill (Kasso- 
lolo ?), a grassy country extending to the eastward. 

Further information was to the effect that his caravan, 
600 strong, had left the Lualaba at Kibonges (above 
Leopold R.), and that in nine moons he had travelled the 
distance of 370 geographical miles, about a N.E. course, 
throughout continuous forest without having seen as 
much grass as would cover the palm of his hand ; that 
he had only crossed one river, the Lindi, before he 
sighted the Ituri, as the Aruwimi was now called ; that 
he had heard from Arab traders that the Lulu (Lowwa) 
rose from a small lake called the Ozo, where there was 
a vast quantity of ivory. 

Four days higher Ugarrowwa possessed another station 
manned with 100 guns, near the Lenda river, a tribu- 
tary of the Aruwimi, which entered it from the south 


bank. His people had sown rice, of which he had brought i887. 
us some, and onions ; but near each settlement was a ^^p*-^^- 
waste, as it was not policy to permit such " murderous f^/^' 
pagans " to exist near them, otherwise he and his people's 
lives were not safe. He had lost about 200 men of the 
Bakusu and Basangora tribes, and many a fine Manyuema 
headman. One time he had lost 40, of whom not one 
had returned. He had an Arab guest at his station who 
had lost every soul out of his caravan. 

I observed a disposition on his part to send some 
men with me to the Lake, and there appeared to be no 
difficulty in housing with him my sick men for a con- 
sideration—to be hereafter agreed upon. 

On the 17 til we proceeded a short distance to encamp 
opposite Ugarrowwa's station. 

In the afternoon I was rowed across in my boat to the 
Arab settlement, and was hospitably received. I found 
the station to be a large settlement, jealously fenced 
round with tall palisades and short planks lashed across 
as screens against chance arrows. In the centre, facing 
the river, was the house of the chief, commodious, lofty, 
and comfortable, the walls of which were pierced for 
musketry. It resembled a fort with its lofty and 
frowning walls of baked clay. On passing through a 
passage which separated Ugarrowwa's private apart- 
ments from the public rooms, I had a view of a great 
court 60 feet square, surrounded by buildings and filled 
with servants. It suggested something baronial in its 
busy aspect, the abundant service, the great difference 
of the domestics, amplitude of space, and plenty. The 
place was certainly impregnable against attack, and, 
if at all spiritedly defended, a full battalion would have 
been necessary to have captured this outpost of a slave 

I was informed that the river for many days' march 
appeared to flow from the eastward ; that the Ihuru, a 
considerable distance up, flowed from the northward and 
joined the Ituri, and that, besides the Lenda, there was 
another affluent called the Ibina, which entered from the 


1887. Somewhere higher up also, — vaguely given as ten days' 
Sept. 17. -^y others twenty days' march, — another Arab was settled 
^w"s^" who was called Kilonga-Longa, though his real name w^as 
station, also Uledi. 

At this settlement I saw the first specimen of the 
tribe of dwarfs who were said to be thickly scattered 
north of the Ituri, from the Ngaiyu eastward. She 
measured thirty -three inches in height, and was a per- 
fectly formed young woman of about seventeen, of a 
glistening and smooth sleekness of body. Her figure 
was that of a miniature coloured lady, not wanting in a 
certain grace, and her face was very prepossessing. Her 
complexion was that of a quadroon, or of the colour of 
yellow ivory. Her eyes were magnificent, but absurdly 
large for such a small creature — almost as large as that 
of a young gazelle ; full, protruding, and extremely 
lustrous. Absolutely nude, the little demoiselle was 
quite possessed, as though she were accustomed to be 
admired, and really enjoyed inspection. She had been 
discovered near the sources of the Ngaiyu. 

Ugarrowwa, having shown me all his treasures, in- 
cluding the splendid store of ivory he had succeeded in 
collecting, accompanied me to the boat, and sent away 
with me large trays of exquisitely cooked rice, and an 
immense bowl full of curried fowl, a dish that I 
am not fond of, but which inspired gratitude in my 

Our landing-place presented a lively scene. The 
sellers of bananas, potatoes, sugar-cane, rice, flour of 
manioc, and fowls clamoured for customers, and cloths 
and beads exchanged hands rapidly. This is the kind 
of life which the Zanzibaris delight in, like almost all 
other natives, and their happy spirits were expressed in 
sounds to which we had long been strangers. 

Early this morning I had sent a canoe to pick up any 
stragglers that might have been unable to reach camp, 
and before 3 p.m. five sick men, who had surrendered 
themselves to their fate, were brought in, and shortly 
after a muster was held. The following were the returns 
of men able to march ; — 



No. 1 Company 
No. 2 


. 69 
. 57 



Sept. 17. 

No.3 „ . . . 

. 60 



No. 4 „ . . 
Cooks .... 

. 61 
. 3 



Boys .... 

. 9 


Europeans . 

. 6 


Soudanese . 

. 6 




Sick . . . 

. 56 

Departed from Yambuya 

. 389 

Loss by desertion and death 

• 62 

The boat and canoes were manned, and the sick 
transported to the Arab settlement, arrangements having 
been made for boarding them at the rate of five dollars 
each per month until Major Barttelot should appear, 
or some person bearing an order from me. 

It will be remembered that we met Ugarrowwa's men 
on the 31st of August, one day's march from Avejeli, 
opposite the Nepoko mouth. These men, instead of pur- 
suing their way down river, had returned to Ugarrowwa 
to inform him of the new^s they had received from us, 
believing that their mission was accomplished. It was 
Ugarrowwa's wish to obtain gunpowder, as his supply 
was nearly exhausted. Major Barttelot possessed two 
and a quarter tons of this explosive, and, as reported by 
us, was advancing up river, but as he had so much 
baggage it would take several months before he could 
arrive so far. I wished to communicate with Major 
Barttelot, and accordingly I stipulated with Ugarrowwa 
that if his men continued their way down river along 
the south or left bank until they delivered a letter into 
his hands, I would give him an order for three hundred- 
weight of powder. He promised to send forty scouts 
within a month, and expressed great gratitude. (He 
actually did send them, as he promised, between the 20th 
and 25th of October. They succeeded in reaching Wasp 
Rapids, 165 miles from Yambuya, whence they were 
obliged to return, owing to losses and the determined 
hostility of the natives.) 

VOT.. T. 



1887. Our Zanzibar! deserters had been deluded like our- 

.^^*' ^' selves. Imagining that Ugarrowwa's people had con- 

^wa-s^ tinned their journey along some inland route westward. 

station, tjjgy ijad hastened westward in pursuit to join thorri, 

whereas we discovered they had returned eastwarr] 

to their master. The arrangements made with Ugav 

rowwa, and the public proclamation of the man himsei^ 

before all, would, I was assured, suffice to prevent furthci 


We were pretty tired of the river work with it> 
numerous rapids, and I suggested to Ugarrowwa that ' 
should proceed by land ; the Arab, however, was earnest, 
in dissuading me from that course, as the people would 
be spared the necessity of carrying many loads, the sick 
having been left behind, and informed me that his in- 
formation led him to believe that the river was much 
more navigable above for many days than below. 


ugarrowwa's to kilonga longa's. 

Ugarrowwa sends us three Zanzibari deserters — We make an example 
— The "Express" rifles — Conversation with Rashid— The Lenda 
river — Troublesome rapids— Scarcity of food — Some of Kilonga- 
Longa's followers — Meeting of the rivers Iliuru and Ituri — State 
and numbers of the Expedition — Illness of Captain Nelson — We 
send couriers ahead to Kiloiiga-Longa's — The sick encampment 
— Eandy and the guinea fowl —Scarcity of food — Illness caused 
by the forest pears — Fcinciful menus — More desertions — Asmani 
drowned — Our condition in brief — Uledi's suggestion — Umari's climb 
— My donkey is shot for food —We strike the track of the Manyuema 
and arrive at their village 

Once more the Expedition consisted of picked men. 1887. 
My mind was relieved of anxiety respecting the rear ^^''^- ^^• 
column, and of the fate which threatened the sick men. ^^wa-r^ 
We set out from Ugarrrowa's station with 180 loads in station, 
the canoes and boat, forty-seven loads to be carried 
once in four days by alternate companies. The Arabs 
accompanied us for a few hours on the 19 th to start us 
on our road and to wash us success in our venture. 

We had scarcely been all collected in our camp, and 
the evening was rapidly becoming dusky, when a canoe 
from Ugarrowwa appeared with three Zanzibaris bound 
as prisoners. Inquiring the cause of this, I was astonished 
to find that they were deserters whom Ugarrowwa had 
picked up soon after reaching his station. They had 
absconded with rifles, and their pouches showed that 
they had contrived to filch cartridges on the road. I 
rewarded Ugarrowwa with a revolver and 200 cartridges. 
The prisoners were secured for the night, but before 
retiring I debated carefully as to what method was best 
to deal with these people. If this were permitted to 


1887. proceed without the strongest measures, we should in a 
uSriow- short time be compelled to retrace our steps, and all the 
°wa's lives and bitter agonies of the march would have been 
station, expended in vain. 

In the morning " all hands " were mustered, and an 
address was delivered to the men in fitting words, to 
which all assented ; and all agreed that we had en- 
deavoured our utmost to do our duty, that we had all 
borne much, but that the people on this occasion 
appeared to be all slaves, and possessed no moral sense 
whatever. They readily conceded that if natives 
attempted to steal our rifles, which were " our souls," 
we should be justified in shooting them dead, and 
that if men, paid for their labour, protected and treated 
kindly, as they were, attempted to cut our throats in the 
night, were equally liable to be shot. 

" Well then," said I, " what are these doing but taking 
our arms, and running away with our means of defence. 
You say that you would shoot natives, if they stood in 
your way preventing your progress onward or retreat 
backward. What are these doing ? For if you have no 
rifles left, or ammunition, can you march either forward 
or backward ? " 

*' No," they admitted. 

" Very well, then, you have condemned them to death. 
One shall die to-day, another to-morrow, and another 
the next day, and from this day forward, every thief and 
deserter who leaves his duty and imperils his comrades' 
lives shall die." 

The culprits were then questioned as to who they 
were. One replied that he was the slave of Farjalla-bill 
Ali — a headman in No. 1 company ; another that he was 
the slave of a Banyan in Zanzibar, and the third that he 
was the slave of an artizan at work in Unyanyembe. 

Lots were cast, and he who chose the shortest paper 
of three slips was the one to die first. The lot fell upon 
the slave of Farjalla, who was then present. The rope 
was heaved over a stout branch. Forty men at the 
word of command lay hold of the rope and a noose was 
cast round the prisoner's neck. 


" Have you anything to say before the word is iss? 

}} Sept. 19 

given ? ^ 

He replied with a shake of the head. The signal was ^wa'-s"' 
given, and the man was hoisted up. Before the last 'Station, 
struggles were over, the Expedition had filed out of 
camp leaving the rearguard and river column behind. 
A rattan was substituted in place of our rope, the body 
was secured to the tree, and within fifteen minutes the 
camp was abandoned. 

We made good progress on this day. A track ran 
along the river which greatly assisted the caravan. In 
passing through we searched and found only ten 
bunches of miniature plantains. We formed camp an 
hour's distance from the confluence of the Lenda and 

Another noble tusker was bathing opposite the river, 
and Captain Nelson, with a double-barrelled rifle, similar 
to my own, myself, and Saat Tato the hunter, crossed over 
and floated down within fifteen yards of the elephant. 
We fired three bullets simultaneously into him, and in a 
second had planted two more, and yet with all this lead 
fired at vital parts the animal contrived to escape. 
From this time we lost all confidence in these rifles. 
We never bagged one head of game with the Expresses 
during the entire Expedition. Captain Nelson sold his 
rifle for a small supply of food to Kilonga-Longa some 
time afterwards, and I parted with mine as a gift to 
Antari, King of Ankori, nearly two years later. With 
the No. 8 or No. 10 Reilly rifle I was always successful, 
therefore those interested in such things may avail 
themselves of our experience. 

As the next day dawned and a grey light broke 
through the umbrageous coping of the camp I despatched 
a boy to call the head chief Eashid. 

" Well, Eashid, old man, we shall have to execute 
the other man presently. It will soon be time to pre- 
pare for it. What do you say ? " 

" Well, what can we do else than kill those who are 
trying to kill us ? If we point to a pit filled at the 
bottom with pointed pales and poisoned skewers, and 


1887. tell men to beware of it, surely we are not to blame if 

Sept. 20. jjjj^jj ^Y\\xt their ears to words of warning and sprmg in. 

^'^7JT On their own heads let the guilt lie." 

station. " But it is verj hard after all. Rashid bin Omar, this 

forest makes men's hearts like lead, and hunger has 

driven their wits out of their heads ; nothing is thought 

of but the empty belly and crying stomach. I have 

heard that when mothers are driven by famine they will 

sometimes eat their children. Why should we wonder 

that the servant runs away from his master when he 

cannot feed him ? " 

" That is the truth as plain as sunshine. But if w'e 
have to die let us all die together. There are plenty of 
good men here who will give you their hearts whenever 
you bid them do it. There are others — slaves of 
slaves — who know nothing and care for nothing, and as 
they would fly with what we need to make our own 
lives sure, let them perish and rot. They all know that 
you, a Christian, are undergoing all this to save the 
sons of Islam who are in trouble near some great sea, 
beyond here ; they profess Islam, and yet would leave 
the Christian in the bush. Let them die." 

" But supposing, Rashid, we could prevent this break- 
up and near ruin by some other way not quite so 
severe as to hang them up until they are dead ; what 
would you say ? " 

" I would say, sir, that all ways are good, but, without 
doubt, the best is that which will leave them living to 

" Good, then, after my coffee the muster will be 
sounded. Meanwhile, prepare a long rattan cable ; 
double it over that stout branch yonder. Make a good 
noose of a piece of that new sounding line. Get the 
prisoner ready, put guards over him, then when you 
hear the trumpet tell these words in the ears of the 
other chiefs, ' Come to me, and ask his pardon, and I 
will give it you.' I shall look to you, and ask if you 
have anything to say ; that will be your signal. How 
do you like it ? " 

" Let it be as you say, The men will answer you." 


In fialf-an-hour the muster signal sounded ; the com- 1887. 
panies formed a square enclosing the prisoner. A long ^^^^' ^*^' 
rattan cable hung suspended with the fatal noose ^ia^r 
attached to a loop ; it trailed along the ground like an ^^^^^°^- 
immense serpent. After a short address, a man ad- 
vanced and placed the noose around the neck ; a com- 
pany was told off to hoist the man upward. 

" Now, my man, have you anything to say to us 
before you join your brother who died yesterday ? " 

The man remained silent, and scarcely seemed 
conscious that I spoke. I turned round to the head 
man, " Have you anything to say before I pass the 
word ? " 

Then Rashid nudged his brother chiefs, at which 
they all rushed up, and threw themselves at my feet, 
pleading forgiveness, blaming in harsh terms the thieves 
and murderers, but vowing that their behaviour in 
future would be better if mercy was extended for this 
one time. 

During this scene the Zanzibaris' faces were worth 
observing. How the eyes dilated and the lips closed, 
and their cheeks became pallid, as with the speed of an 
electric flash the same emotion moved them ! 

" Enough, children ! take your man, his life is yours. 
But see to it. There is only one law in future for him 
who robs us of a rifle, and that is death by the cord." 

Then such a manifestation of feeling occurred that I 


was amazed — real big tears rolled down many a face, 
while every eye was suffused and enlarged with his 
passionate emotions. Caps and turbans were tossed 
into the air. Rifles were lifted, and every right arm 
was up as they exclaimed " Until the white cap is 
buried none shall leave him ! Death to him who leaves 
Bula Matari ! Show the way to the Nyanza ! Lead on 
now — now we will follow ! " 

Nowhere have I witnessed such affecting excitement 
except in Spain — perhaps when the Republicans 
stormily roared their sentiments, after listening to some 
glorious exhortations to stand true to the new faith in 
Libertad, Igualdad, and Fraternidad ! 


1887. The prisoner also wept, and after the noose was flung 
Sept. 20. aside, knelt down and vowed to die at my feet. We 
^'w™' shook hands and I said, "It is God's work, thank 

station. Him." 

Merrily the trumpet blared once more, and at once 
rose every voice, " By the help of God ! By the help of 
God ! " The detail for the day sprang to their posts, 
received their heavy load for the day, and marched 
away rejoicing as to a feast. Even the officers smiled 
their approval. Never was there such a number of 
warmed hearts in the forest of the Congo as on that 

The land and river columns reached the Lenda 
within an hour, and about the same time. This was 
apparently a deep river about a hundred yards wide. 
On the west side of the confluence was a small village, 
but its plantain groves had been long ago despoiled of 
fruit. Soon after the ferriage was completed the men 
were permitted to scour the country in search of food ; 
some on the north bank, and others on the south bank, 
but long before night they all returned, having been 
unable to find a morsel of any kind of edible. 

On the 22nd, while pursuing our way by river and 
by land as usual, I reflected that only on the 18th I had 
left fifty -six invalids under the care of an Arab ; yet 
on observing the people at the muster, I noticed that 
there were about fifty already incapacitated by debility. 
The very stoutest and most prudent were pining under 
such protracted and mean diet. To press on through 
such wastes unpeopled by the ivory hunters appeared 
simply impossible, but on arriving at Umeni we had the 
good fortune to find sufficient for a full day's rations, 
and hope again filled us. 

The following day, one man, called " Abdallah the 
humped," deserted. We on the river were troubled 
with several rapids, and patches of broken water, and 
in discharging cargo, and hauling canoes, and finally 
we came in view of a full of forty feet with lengths of 
rapids above and below. 

One would have thought that by this time the Ituri 


would have become an insignificant stream, but when issf. 
we saw the volume of water precipitated over the third ^''''*' ^^ 
large cataract, we had to acknowledge that it was still a Rjyer. 
powerful river. 

The 24th was passed by us in foraging, and cutting a 
highway to above the rapids and disconnecting boat 
sections for transport. The pioneers secured a fair 
quantity of plantains, the three other companies 
nothing. The obstructions to this cataract consisted of 
reddish schistose rock. 

On the next day we were clear of the third cataract 
and halted at an old Arab encampment. During this 
day no new supply of food was obtained. 

The day following we reached another series of 
rapids, and after a terrible day's work unloading and 
reshipping several times, with the fatigues and anxiety 
incurred during the mounting of the dangerous rapids, 
we reached camp opposite Avatiko. 

How useful the boat and canoes were to us may 
be imagined from the fact that it required us to make 
three round trips to carry 227 loads. Even then it 
occupied all the healthy men until night. The people 
were so reduced by hunger, that over a third could do 
no more than crawl. I was personally reduced to two 
bananas on this day from morning to night. But some 
of our Zanzibaris had found nothing to subsist on for 
two entire days, which was enough to sap the strength 
of the best. A foraging party of No. 1 Company crossed 
the river to Avatiko settlement, and found a small 
supply of young fruit, but they captured a woman who 
stated that she knew and could guide us to plantains as 
large as her arms. 

The 27 th of September was a halt. I despatched 
Lieutenant Stairs to explore ahead along the river, and 
180 men across river to forage for food, with our 
female captive as guide. The former returned to report 
that no village had been seen, and to detail an exciting 
encounter he had had with elephants, from which it 
appeared he had a narrow escape. The Zanzibaris 
came back with sufficient plantains to distribute from 


1887, sixty to eighty per man. If the people had followed 
Sept. 27. ^yj. pjg^j-^ q£ economising the food, we should have had 
less suffering to record, but their appetites were usually 
ungovernable. The quantity now distributed impartially, 
ought to have served them for from six to eight days, 
but several sat up all night to eat, trusting in God tc 
supply them with more on peremptory demand. 

On the 30th the river and land parties met at lunch 
time. This day the officers and myself enjoyed a feast. 
Stairs had discovered a live antelope in a pit, and I 
had discovered a mess of fresh fish in a native basket- 
net at the mouth of a small creek. In the afternoon 
we camped at a portion of the river bank which showed 
signs of its being used as a landing near a ferry. Soon 
after camping we were startled by three shots. These 
indicated the presence of Manyuema, and presently 
about a dozen fine-looking men stalked into the camp. 
They were the followers of Kilonga-Longa, the rival of 
Ugarrowwa in the career of devastation to which these 
two lenders had committed themselves. 

The Manyuema informed us that Kilonga-Longa's 
settlement was but five days' journey, and that as the 
country was uninhabited it would be necessary to 
provide rations of plantains which could be procured 
across river, and that still a month's journey lay between 
us and the grass land. They advised us to stay at the 
place two days to prepare the food, to which we were 
very willing to agree, the discovery of some kind of 
provisions being imperative. 

During the first day's halt, the search for food was 
unsuccessful, but on the second day at early dawn a 
strong detachment left for the north bank, under 
Lieutenant Stairs and Surgeon Parke. In the afternoon 
the foragers returned with sufficient plantains to enable 
us to serve out forty to each man. Some of the most 
enterprising men had secured more, but extreme want 
had rendered them somewhat unscrupulous, and they 
had contrived to secrete a sm.all reserve. 

On the 3rd of October, soon after leaving our camp 
in the morning, we entered into a pool-like formation, 


surrounded by hills rising from 250 to 600 feet above i887. 
the river, and arriving at the end saw a crooked, ditch- ^''*' ^' 
like, and very turbulent stream. The scenery reminded ^camp."" 
us of a miniature Congo canon, banked as it was with 
lines of lofty hills. A presentiment warned us that we 
were about to meet more serious obstacles than any we 
had yet met. We progressed, however, upward about 
three miles, but the difficulties of advance were so 
numerous that we were unable to reach the caravan 

On the 4th we proceeded about a mile and a half, 
and crossed the Expedition to the north bank, as we 
had been told that the Manyuema settlement of Ipoto 
was situated on that side. The Manyuema had dis- 
appeared, and three of our deserters had accompanied 
them. Two men had also died of dysentery. We 
experienced several narrow escapes ; a canoe was twice 
submerged, the steel boat was nearly lost, and the 
severe bumping she received destroyed the rate of our 
chronometers, which hitherto had been regular. I 
should have abandoned the river on this day, but the 
wilderness, the horrible, lonely, uninhabited wilderness, 
and the excessive physical prostration and weakness of 
the people, forbade it. We hoped and hoped that we 
should be able to arrive at some place where food and 
rest could be obtained, which appeared improbable, 
except at Kilonga-Longa's settlement. 

The next day we arrived, at 10 a.m., after a push 
through terribly wild water, at a sharp bend curving 
eastward from N.E., distinguished by its similarity of 
outline on a small scale to Nsona Mamba, of the Lower 
Congo. Stepping on shore before we had gone far 
within the bend, and standing on some lava-like rock, 
I saw at a glance that this was the end of river 
navigation by canoes. The hills rose up to a bolder 
height, quite 600 feet, the stream was contracted to a 
width of twenty-five yards, and about a hundred yards 
above the point on which I stood, the Ihuru escaped, 
wild and furious, from a gorge ; while the Ituri was seen 
descending from a height in a series of cataracts, and. 


1887. both uniting at this point, and racing madly at the 
Oct. 5. iiig}iggt pitch and velocity, bellowed their uproar loudly 
Ca^mp, amongst the embanking and sombre forest heights. 

I sent messengers across the river to recall the 
caravan which was under the leadership of Stairs, and 
on their return recrossed the people to the south bank. 

On the morning of the 6th of October our state and 
numbers were 271 in number, including white and 
black. Since then two had died of dysentery, one 
from debility, four had deserted, and one man was 
hanged. We had therefore 263 men left. Out of 
this number fifty-two had been reduced to skeletons, 
who first, attacked by ulcers, had been unable to 
forage, and to whom through their want of econo- 
mizing what rations had been distributed, had not 
sufiicient to maintain them during the days that 
intervened of total want. These losses in men left 
me 211 still able to march, and as among these there 
were forty men non -carriers, and as I had 227 loads, it 
followed that when I needed carriage, I had about 
eighty loads more than could be carried. Captain 
Nelson for the last two weeks had also suffered from a 
dozen small ulcers, which had gradually increased in 
virulence. On this day then, when the wild state of the 
river quite prohibited further progress by it, he and 
fifty-two men were utterly unfit and incapable of 

It was a difficult problem that now faced us. 
Captain Nelson was our comrade, whom to save we 
were bound to exert our best force. To the fifty-two 
black men we were equally bound by the most solemn 
obligations ; and dark as was the prospect around us, we 
were not so far reduced but that we entertained a lively 
hope that we could save them. As the Manyuema had 
reported that their settlement was only five days' 
journey, and we had already travelled two days' march, 
then probably the village or station was still three days 
ahead of us. It was suggested by Captain Nelson that 
if we despatched intelligent couriers ahead, they would 
be enabled to reach Kilonga-Longa's settlement long 


before the column. As this suggestion admitted of 1887. 
no contradiction, and as the head men were naturally , ^'^*- ^: 
the most capable and intelligent, the chief of the head camp° 
men and five others were hastened off, and instructed at 
once to -proceed along the south bank of the river until 
they discovered some landing place, whence they must 
find means to cross the Ituri and find the settlement, 
and obtain an immediate store of food. 

Before starting officers and men demanded to know 
from me whether I believed the story of Arabs being 
ahead. I replied that I believed most thoroughly, but 
that it was possible that the Manyuema had under- 
estimated the distance to gratify or encourage us and 
abate our anxiety. 

After informing the unfortunate cripples of our in- 
tention to proceed forward until we could find food that 
we might not all be lost, and send relief as quickly as 
it could be obtained, I consigned the fifty-two men, 
eighty-one loads, and ten canoes in charge of Captain 
Nelson — bade him be of good cheer, and hoisting our 
loads and boat on our shoulders, we marched away. 

No more gloomy spot could have been selected for a 
camp than that sandy terrace, encompassed by rocks 
and hemmed in narrowly by those dark woods, which 
rose from the river's edge to the height of 600 feet, 
and pent in the never-ceasing uproar created by the 
writhing and tortured stream and the twin cataracts, 
that ever rivalled each other's thunder. The imagina- 
tion shudders at the hapless position of those crippled 
men, who were doomed to remain inactive, to listen every 
moment to the awful sound of that irreconcilable fury of 
wrathful waters, and the monotonous and continuous 
roar of plunging rivers, to watch the leaping waves, 
coiling and twisting into changing columns as they ever 
wrestled for mastery with each other, and were dashed 
in white fragments of foam far apart by the ceaseless 
force of driven currents ; to gaze at the dark, relentless 
woods spreading upward and around, standing per- 
petually fixed in dull green, mourning over past ages, 
past times, and past generations ; then think of the 


1887. night, with its palpable blackness, the dead black 
^''**^' shadows of the wooded hills, that eternal sound of 
Mamb,l fufj, that ccasclcss boom of the cataracts, the indefinite 
forms born of nervousness and fearfulness, that misery 
engendered by loneliness and creeping sense of abandon- 
ment ; then will be understood something of the true 
position of these poor men. 

And what of us trudging up these wooded slopes to 
gain the crest of the forest uplands, to tramp on and on, 
whither we knew not, for how long a time we dared not 
think, seeking for food with the double responsibility 
weighing us down for these trustful, brave fellows 
with us, and for those, no less brave and trustful, 
whom we had left behind at the bottom of the horrible 
canon ! 

As I looked at the poor men struggling wearily on- 
ward it appeared to me as though a few hours only were 
needed to ensure our fate. One day, perhaps two days, 
and then life would ebb away. How their eyes searched 
the wild woods for the red berries of the phrynia, and 
the tartish, crimson, and oblong fruit of the amoma ! 
How they rushed for the flat beans of the forest, and 
gloated over their treasures of fungi ! In short, nothing 
was rejected in this severe distress to which we were 
reduced except leaves and wood. We passed several 
abandoned clearings ; and some men chopped down pieces 
of banana stalk, then searched for wild herbs to make 
potage, the bastard jack fruit, or the fenessi, and other 
huge fruit became dear ol:)jects of interest as we straggled 

" Return we could not, nor 
Continue where we were ; to shift our place 
Was to exchange one misery with another. 
And every day that came, came to decay 
A day's work in us." 

On the 7th of October we began at 6.30 a.m. to 
commence that funereal pace through the trackless region 
on the crest of the forest uplands. We picked up fungi, 
and the matonga wild fruit, as we travelled, and after 
seven hours' march we rested for the day. At 11 a.m. 
we had halted for lunch at the usual hour. Each ofl&cer 


*' bandy" and the guinea fowl. 223 

had economised his rations of bananas. Two were iss?. 
the utmost that I could spare for myself. My comrades ^''^- ' 
were also as rigidly strict and close in their diet, and a 
cup of sugarless tea closed the repast. We were sitting- 
conversing about our prospects, discussing the proba- 
l)ilities of our couriers reaching some settlement on this 
day, or the next, and the time that it would take them 
to return, and they desired to know whether in my 
previous African experiences I had encountered anything 
so grievous as this. 

" No ; not quite so bad as this," I replied. " We have 
suffered ; but not to such an extremity. Those nine 
days on the way into Ituru were wretched. On our 
flight from Bumbire we certainly suffered much hunger, 
and also while floating down the Congo to trace its 
course our condition was much to be pitied ; but we had 
a little of something, and at least large hope. The age 
of miracles is past, it is said, but why should they be ? 
Moses drew water from the rock at Horeb for the 
thirsty Israelites. Of water we have enough and to 
spare. Elijah was fed by ravens at the brook Cherith, 
but there is not a raven in all this forest. Christ was 
ministered unto by angels. I wonder if any one will 
minister unto us 1 " 

Just then there was a sound as of a large bird 
whirring through the air. Little Randy, my fox-terrier, 
lifted up a foot and gazed inquiringly ; we turned our 
heads to see, and that second the bird dropped beneath 
the jaws of Randy, who snapped at the prize and held it 
fast, in a vice as of iron. 

" There, boys," I said, " truly the gods are gracious. 
The age of miracles is not past," and my comrades were 
seen gazing in delighted surprise at the bird, which was 
a fine fat guinea fowl. It was not long before the 
guinea fowl was divided, and Randy, its captor, had his 
lawful share, and the little doggie seemed to know that 
he had grown in esteem with all men, and we enjoyed 
our prize each with his own feelings. 

On the next day, in order to relieve the boat- 
bearers of their hard work, Mr. Jephson was requested 



Oct. 7. 


to connect the sections together, and two hours after 
starting on the march came opposite an inhabited island. 
The advance scouts seized a canoe and bore straight on 
to the island, to snatch in the same unruly manner as 
Orlando, meat for the hungry. 

" What would you, unruly men ? " 

" We would have meat ! Two hundred stagger in 
these woods and reel with faintness." 

The natives did not stand for further question, but 


vanished kindly, and left their treasures of food. We 
received as our share two pounds of Indian corn and 
half-a-pound of beans. Altogether about twenty-five 
pounds of corn were discovered, which was distributed 
among the people. 

In the afternoon I received a note from Mr. Jephson, 
who was behind with the boat : " For God's sake, if you 
can get any food at the village send us some." 

We despatched answer to Jephson to hunt up the 
wounded elephant that I had shot, and which had taken 

Oct. 9. 


refuge on an island near liim, and in reply to his anxious 1887. 
letter, a small handful of corn. 

On the 9th of October 100 men volunteered to go 
across river and explore inland from the north bank 
with a resolute intention not to return without food of 
some kind. I went up river with the boat's crew, and 
Stairs down river to strike inland by a little track in 
the hope that it might lead to some village ; those who 
were too dispirited to go far wandered southward 
through the woods to search for wild fruit and forest 
beans. This last article was about four times the size 
of a large garden bean, encased in a brown leathery rind. 
At first we had contented ourselves with merely 
skinning it and boiling it, but this produced sickness of 
the stomach. An old woman captured on the island 
was seen to prepare a dish of these beans by skinning 
them and afterwards cleaning the inner covering, and 
finally scraping them as we would nutmegs. Out of 
this floury substance she made some patties for her 
captor, who shouted in ecstasies that they were good. 
Whereupon everybody bestirred themselves to collect 
the beans, which were fairly plentiful. Tempted by a 
" lady finger " cake of this article that was brought to 
me, I ventured to try it, and found it sufficiently filling, 
and about as palatable as a mess of acorns. Indeed, the 
flavour strongly reminded me of the acorn. The fungi 
were of several varieties, some pure and perfect mush- 
rooms, others were of a less harmless kind ; but surely 
the gods protected the miserable human beings con- 
demned to live on such things. Grubs were collected, also 
slugs from the trees, caterpillars, and white ants — these 
served for meat. The inabengu (nux vomica) furnished 
the dessert, with fenessi or a species of bastard jack 

The following day some of the foragers from across 
the river returned bringing nothing. They had dis- 
covered such emptiness on the north bank as we had 
found on the south bank ; but " Inshallah ! " they said, 
" we shall find food either to-morrow or the next 



1887. In the morning I had eaten my last grain of Indian 

^* **'■ corn, and my last portion of everything solid that was 
obtainable, and at noon the horrid pains of the 
stomach had to be satisfied with something. Some 
potato leaves brought me by Wadi Khamis, a headman, 
were bruised fine and cooked. They were not bad, 
still the stomach ached from utter depletion. Then a 
Zanzibari, with his face aglow with honest pride, brought 
me a dozen fruit of the size and colour of prize pear, 
which emitted a most pleasant fruity odour. He 
warranted them to be lovely, and declared that the men 
enjoyed them, but the finest had been picked out for 
myself and ofiicers. He had also brought a pattie made 
out of the wood-bean flour which had a rich custardy 
look about it. With many thanks I accepted this novel 
repast, and I felt a grateful sense of fulness. In an 
hour, however, a nausea attacked me, and I was forced 
to seek my bed. The temples presently felt as if con- 
stricted by an iron band, the eyes blinked strangely, 
and a magnifying glass did not enable me to read 
the figures of Norie's Epitome. My servant, with the 
rashness of youth, had lunched bravely on what I had 
shared with him of the sweetly-smelling pear-like fruit, 
and consequently suffered more severely. Had he been 
in a little cockle boat on a mad channel sea he could 
scarcely have presented a more flabby and disordered 
aspect than had been caused by the forest pears. 

Just at sunset the foragers of No. 1 Company, after 
an absence of thirty-six hours, appeared from the 
N. bank, bringing suflicient plantains to save the 
Europeans from despair and starvation ; but the men 
received only two plantains each, equal to four ounces 
of solid stuff, to put into stomachs that would have 
required eight pounds to satisfy. 

The oflicers Stairs, Jephson, and Parke, had been 
amusing themselves the entire afternoon in drawing 
fanciful menus, where such things figured as : — 

Filet de boeiif en Cliartreiise. 

Petites bouchees aux h nit res de Ostende. 

Becassines rotios a la Londres. 


Another had shown his Anglo-Saxon proclivities for 1887. 
solids such as : — ^*^- ^^■ 


Ham and eggs and plenty of them. 
Roast beef and potatoes unlimited, 
A weighty plum pudding. 

There were two of the foragers missing, but we could 
not wait for them. We moved from this starvation 
camp to one higher up, a distance of eleven miles. 

A man of No. 3 Company dropped his box of 
ammunition into a deep affluent and lost it. Kajeli 
stole a box of Winchester ammunition and absconded. 
Salim stole a case containing Emin Pasha's new boots 
and two pairs of mine, and deserted. Wadi Adam 
vanished with Surgeon Parke's entire kit. Swadi, of 
No. 1 Company, left his box on the road, and departed 
himself to parts unknown. Bull-necked Uchungu 
followed suit with a box of Pemino'ton cartridges. 

On the 12th of October we marched four-and-a-half 
miles, E. by S. The boat and crew were far below, 
struggling in rapids. We wished now to cross the 
river to try our fortune on the N. bank. We searched 
for a canoe, and saw one on the other side, but the 
river was 400 yards wide, and the current was too 
strong against the best swimmers in their present state 
of debility. 

Some scouts presently discovered a canoe fastened to 
an island only forty yards from the south bank, which 
was situate a little above our halting place. Three men 
volunteered, among whom was Wadi Asman, of the 
Pioneers, a grave man, faithful, and of much experience 
in many African lands. Twenty dollars reward was to 
be the prize of success. Asman lacked the audacity 
of Uledi, the coxswain of the " advance," as well as his 
bold high spirit, but was a most prudent and valuable 

These three men chose a small rapid for their venture, 
that they might obtain a footing now and then on the 
rocks. At dusk two of them returned to grieve us with 
the news that Asman had tried to swim with his 


1887. Winchester on his back, and had been swept by the 
Oct. 12. s^j^QQg current into a whirlpool, and was drowned, 
torest. ^Yq y^QYe unfortunatc in every respect ; our chiefs had 
not yet returned, we were fearing for their fate, strong 
men deserted. Our rifles were rapidly decreasing in 
number. Our ammunition was being stolen. Feruzi. 
the next best man to Uledi as a sailor, soldier, carrier, 
good man and true, was dying from a wound inflicted 
on the head by a savage's knife. 

The following day was also a halt. We were about 
to cross the river, and we were anxious for our six 
chiefs, one of whom was Rashid bin Omar, the " father of 
the people," as he was called. Equipped with only their 
rifles, accoutrements and sufficient ammunition, such 
men ought to have travelled in the week that had 
elapsed since our departure from Nelson's camp over a 
hundred miles. If they, during that distance, could not 
discover the Manyuema settlement, what chance had 
we, burdened with loads, with a caravan of hungry and 
despairing men, who for a week had fed on nothing but 
two plantains, berries, wild fruit, and fungi ? Our men 
had begun to suffer dearly during this protracted 
starvation. Three had died the day before. 

Towards evening Jephson appeared with the boat, 
and brought a supply of Indian corn, which sufiiced to 
give twelve cupfuls to each white. It was a reprieve 
from death for the Europeans. 

The next day, the 15th, having blazed trees around 
the camp, and drawn broad arrows with charcoal for 
the guidance of the head men when they should return, 
the Expedition crossed over to the north bank and camped 
on the upper side of a range of hills. Feruzi Ali died of 
his wound soon after. 

Our men were in such a desperately weak state, that I 
had not the heart to command the boat to be disconnected 
for transport, as had a world's treasure been spread out 
before them, they could not have exhibited greater 
power than they were willing to give at a word. I 
stated the case fairly to them thus : — 

''You see, my men, our condition in brief is this. 



We started from Yambuya 389 in number and took i887. 
237 loads with us. We had 80 extra carriers to provide *^*^*' ^^ 
for those who by the way might become weak and 
ailing. We left 56 men at Ugarrowwa's Settlement, 
and 52 with Captain Nelson. We should have 271 left, 
but instead of that number we have only 200 to-day, 
including the chiefs who are absent. Seventy-one have 
either died, been killed, or deserted. But there are only 
150 of you fit to carry anything, and therefore we cannot 
carry this boat any further. I say, let us sink her here 
by the riverside, and let us press on to get food for 
ourselves and those with Captain Nelson, who are 
wondering what has become of us, before we all die in 
these woods. You are the carriers of the boat — not we. 
Do you speak, what shall be done unto her ? " 

Many suggestions were made by the officers and men, 
but Uledi of ' Through the Dark Continent,' always 
Uledi — the ever faithful Uledi, spoke straight to the 
purpose. " Sir, my advice is this. You go on with the 
caravan and search for the Manyuema, and I and my 
crew will work at these rapids, and pole, row, or drag 
her on as we can. After I have gone two days up, if I 
do not see signs of the Manyuema I will send men after 
you to keep touch with you. We cannot lose you, for a 
blind man could follow such a track as the caravan 

This suggestion was agreed by all to be the best, and 
it was arranged that our rule of conduct should be as 
Uledi sketched out. 

We separated at 10 a.m., and in a short time I had 
my first experience among the loftier hills of the 
Aruwimi valley. I led the caravan northward through 
the trackless forest, sheering a little to the north east to 
gain a spur, and using animal tracks when they served 
us. Progress was very slow, the undergrowth was 
dense ; berries of the phrynium and fruit of the Amomum 
fenessi and nux vomica, besides the large wood beans 
and fungi of all sorts, were numerous, and each man 
gathered a plentiful harvest. Unaccustomed to hills for 
years, our hearts palpitated violently as we breasted the 


1887. steep-wooded slopes, and cut and slashed at tlie ob- 
0(,t. 15. structing creepers, busk and plants, 
orest. ^1^^ -^ ^^^ ^ g^j night, unutterably sad, to see so many 
men struggling on blindly through that endless forest, 
following one white man who was bound whither none 
knew, whom most believed did not know himself. They 
were in a veritable hell of hunger already ! What 
nameless horrors awaited them further on none could 
conjecture ? But what matter, death comes to every 
man soon or late ! Therefore we pushed on and on, 
broke through the bush, trampled down the plants, 
M^ound along the crest of spurs zigzagging from 
north-east to north-west, and descending to a bowl- 
like valley by a clear stream, lunched on our corn and 

During our mid-day halt, one Umari having seen 
some magnificent and ripe fenessi at the top of a tree 
thirty feet high, essayed to climb it, but on gaining that 
height, a branch or his strength yielded and he tumbled 
headlong upon the heads of two other men who were 
waiting to seize the fruit. Strange to say, none of 
them were very seriously injured. Umari was a little 
lame in the hip and one of those upon whom he fell 
complained of a pain in the chest. 

At 3.30 after a terrible struggle through a suffocating 
wilderness of arums, amoma, and bush, we came to a 
dark amphitheatral glen and at the bottom found a 
camp just deserted by the natives, and in such hot haste 
that they had thought it best not to burden themselves 
with their treasures. Surely some divinity provided for 
us always in the most stressful hours. Two bushels of 
Indian corn, and a bushel of beans awaited us in this 

My poor donkey from Zanzibar showed symptoms 
of surrender. Arums and amoma every day since 
June 28 th were no fit food for a dainty Zanzibar ass, 
therefore to end his misery I shot him. The meat was 
as carefully shared as though it were the finest venison, 
for a wild and famislied mob threatened to defy dis- 
cipline. When the meat was fairly served a free fight 



took place over the skin, the bones were taken up and i887. 
crushed, the hoofs were boiled for hours, there was \'f*- ^f 
nothing left of my faithful animal but the spilled blood 
and hair ; a pack of hyaenas could not have made a more 
thorough disposal of it. That constituent of the human 
being which marks him as superior to all others of the 
animal creation was so deadened by hunger that our men 
had become merely carnivorous bipeds, inclined to be as 
ferocious as any beast of prey. 

On the 16th we crossed through four deep gorges 
one after another, through wonderful growths of phrynia. 
The trees frequently bore fenessi nearly ripe, one foot 
long and eight inches in diameter. Some of this fruit 
was equal to pineapple, it was certainly wholesome. 
Even the rotten fruit was not rejected. When the 
fenessi were absent, the wood-bean tree flourished and 
kindly sprinkled the ground with its fruit. Nature 
seemed to confess that the wanderers had borne enough 
of pain and grief The deepest solitudes showed 
increasing tenderness for the weary and long-sufiering. 
The phrynia gave us their brightest red berries, the 
amoma furnished us with the finest and ripest scarlet fruit, 
the fenessi were in a state of perfection, the wood-beans 
were larger and fatter, the streams of the wood glens 
were clear and cold ; no enemy was in sight, nothing was 
to be feared but hunger, and nature did its best with 
her unknown treasures, shaded us with her fragrant and 
loving shades, and whispered to us unspeakable things 
sweetly and tenderly. 

During the mid-day halt the men discussed our pro- 
spects. They said, with solemn shaking of their heads, 
" Know you that such and such a man is dead ? that the 
other is lost ! another will probably fall this afternoon I 
the rest will perish to-morrow ! " The trumpet sum- 
moned all to their feet, to march on, and strive, and 
press forward to the goal. 

Half-an-hour later the pioneers broke through a 
growth of amoma, and stepped on a road. And lo ! 
on every tree we saw the peculiar "blaze" of the 
Manyuema, a discovery that was transmitted by every 



1887. voice from the head to the rear of the column, and was 
Oct. 16. i-ecgiye^^i V7\t\\ jubilant cheers. 

" Which way, sir ? " asked the delighted pioneers. 

" Right turn of course," I replied, feeling far more 
glad than any, and fuller of longings for the settlement 
that was to end this terrible period, and shorten the 
misery of Nelson and his dark followers. 

" Please God," they said, " to-morrow or the next day 
we shall have food," which meant that after suffering 
unappeasable hunger for 336 hours, they could patiently 
wait if it pleased God another thirty-six or sixty hours 

We were all frightfully thin, the whites not so much 
reduced as our coloured men. We thought of the 
future and abounded with hope, though deep depression 
followed any inspection of the people. We regretted 
that our followers did not have greater faith in us. 
Hunger followed by despair killed many. Many freely 
expressed their thoughts and declared to one another 
plainly that we knew not whither we were marching. And 
they were not far wrong, for who knew what a day 
might bring forth in unexplored depths of woods. But 
as they said, it was their fate to follow us, and therefore 
they followed fate. They had fared badly and had 
suffered greatly. It is hard to walk at all when weak- 
ness sets in through emptiness ; it is still worse to do 
so when burdened with sixty pounds weight. Over 
fifty were yet in fair condition ; 150 were skeletons 
covered with ashy grey skins, jaded and worn out, with 
every sign of wretchedness printed deep in their eyes, 
in their bodies and movements. These could hardly 
do more than creep on and moan, and shed tears and 
sigh. My only dog *' Randy," alas ! how feeble he had 
become ! Meat he had not tasted — except with me of 
the ass's meat — for weeks. Parched corn and beans 
were not fit for a terrier, Midi fenessi and mabengu, and 
such other acid fruit he disdained, and so he declined, 
until he became as gaunt as the pariah of a Moslem. 
Stairs had never failed me. Jephson every now and 
then had been fortunate in discoveries of grain treasures, 



and always showed an indomitable front, and Parke was iss?. 
ever striving, patient, cheerful and gentle. Deep, deep ^^*- ^^• 
down to undiscovered depths our life in the forest had 
enabled me to penetrate human nature with all its 
endurance and virtues. 

Along the track of the Manyuema it was easy to travel. 
Sometimes we came to a maze of roads ; but once the 
general direction was found, there was no difficulty to 
point to the right one. It appeared to be well travelled, 
and it was clearer every mile that we were approaching 
a populous settlement. As recent tracks became more 
numerous, the bush seemed more broken into, with many 
a halt and many wayward strayings. Here and there 
trees had been lopped of their branches. Cording vines 
lay frequently on the track ; pads for native carriers 
had often been dropped in haste. Most of the morning 
was expended in crossing a score of lazy, oozy rillets, 
which caused large breadths of slime-covered swamp. 
Wasps attacked the column at one crossing, and stung a 
man into high fever, and being in such an emaciated 
condition there w^as little chance of his recovery. After a 
march of seven miles south-eastwardly we halted on the 
afternoon of the 17th. 

The night was ushered by a tempest which threatened 
to uproot the forest and bear it to the distant west, 
accompanied by floods of rain, and a severe cold 
temperature. Nevertheless, fear of famishing drove us 
to begin the march at an early hour on the following 
day. In about an hour and-a-half we stood on the 
confines of a large clearing, but the fog was so dense 
that we could discern nothing further than 200 feet in 
front. Resting awhile to debate upon our course, we 
heard a sonorous voice singing in a language none of 
us knew, and a lusty hail and an argument with what 
appeared to be some humour. As this was not a land 
where aborigines would dare to be so light-hearted and 
frivolous, this singing we believed could proceed from 
no other people than those who knew they had nothing 
to fear. I fired a Winchester rapidly in the air. The 
response by heavy -loaded muskets revealed that these 



Oct. 17. 

were the Manyuema whom we had been so long seeking, 
and scarcely had their eclioes ceased their reverberations 
than the caravan relieved its joy by long continued 

We descended the slope of the clearing to a little 
valley, and from all sides of an opposite slope were seen 
lines of men and women issuing to welcome us with 
friendly hails. We looked to the right and left and 
saw thriving fields, Indian corn, rice, sweet potatoes and 
beans. The well-known sounds of Arab greeting 


and hospitable tenders of friendship burst upon our 
ears ; and our hands were soon clasped by lusty huge 
fellows, who seemed to enjoy life in the wilds as much 
«' they could have enjoyed it in their own lands, 
i hesv came p.rincipally from Manyuema, though their 
no less stout slaves, armed with percussion muskets and 
carbine, echoed heartily their superiors' sentiments and 

We were conducted up the sloping clearing through 
fields of luxuriant grain, by troops of men and 


youngsters who were irrepressibly frolicsome in their i887. 
joy at the new arrivals and dawning promise of a ^^*' ^'^ 
holiday. On arrival at the village we were invited to ^° ^' 
take our seats in deep shady verandahs where we soon 
had to answer to hosts of questions and congratulations. 
As the caravan filed past us to its allotted quarters 
which men were appointed to show, numerous were the 
praises to God, uttered by them for our marvellous 
escapes from the terrible wilderness that stretched from 
their settlement of Ipoto to the Basopo Cataract, a 
distance of 197 miles, praises in which in our inmost 
hearts each one of our sorely tried caravan most heartily 





The ivory hunters at Ipoto — Their mode of proceeding — The Manyuema 
headmen and their raids— Eemedy for preventing wholesale devasta- 
tions — Crusade preached by Cardinal Lavigerie — Our Zanzibar 
chiefs — Anxiety respecting Captain Nelson and his followers — Our 
men sell their weapons for food — Theft of Rifles — Their return 
demanded — Uledi turns up with news of the missing chiefs — Con- 
tract drawn up with the Manyuema headmen for the relief of 
Captain Nelson — Jephson's report on his journey — Reports of Captain 
Nelson and Surgeon Parke — The process of blood brotherhood 
between myself and Ismaili — We leave Ipoto. 

1887. This community of ivory hunters established at Ipoto 
^'^^' ^^ had arrived, five months previous to our coming, from 
the banks of the Lualaba, from a point situated be- 
tween the exits of the Lowwa and the Leopold into 
the great river. The journey had occupied them seven- 
and-a-half months, and they had seen neither grass nor 
open country, nor even heard of them during their 
wanderings. They had halted a montli at Kinnena on 
the Lindi, and had built a station-house for their Chief 
Kilonga-Longa, who, when he had join-ed them with the 
main body, sent on about 200 guixs and 200 slave 
carriers to strike further in a north-easterly direction, 
to discover some other prosperous settlement far in 
advance of him, whence they could sail y out in bands to 
destroy, burn and enslave natives in exchange for 
ivory. Through continual fighting, anri the carelessness 
which the unbalanced mind is so apt to fall into after 
one or more happy successes, they hiid decreased in 
number within seven-and-a-half month&' into a force of 
about ninety guns. On reaching the Le nda River they 
had heard of the settlements, Qf Ugarjo\y^'a, and sheered 


off the limits of his raiding circle to obtain a centre of i887. 
their own, and, crossing the Lenda, they succeeded in ^'*- ^^ 
reaching the south bank of the Ituri, about south of ^p"'"' 
their present settlement at Ipoto. 

As the natives would not assist them over the river 
to the north bank, they cut down a big tree and with 
axe and fire hollowed it into a sizeable canoe which 
conveyed them across to the north bank to Ipoto. 
Since that date they had launched out on one of the 
most sanguinary and destructive careers to which even 
Tippu-Tib's or Tagamoyo's career offer but poor com- 
parison. Towards the Lenda and Ihuru Rivers, they 
had levelled into black ashes every settlement, their 
rage for destruction had even been vented on the 
plaintain groves, every canoe on the rivers had been 
split into pieces, every island had been searched, and 
into the darkest recesses, whither a slight track could be 
traced, they had penetrated with only one dominating 
passion, which w^as to kill as many of the men and 
capture as many of the women and children as craft and 
cruelty would enable them. However far northward or 
eastward these people had reached, one said nine days* 
march, another fifteen days ; or wherever they had gone 
they had done precisely as we had seen between the 
Lenda River and Ipoto, and reduced the forest land into 
a howling wilderness, and throughout all the immense 
area had left scarcely a hut standing. 

What these destroyers had left of groves and planta- 
tions of plaintain and bananas, manioc, and corn-fields, 
the elephant, chimpanzee, and monkeys had trampled 
and crushed into decaying and putrid muck, and in 
their places had sprung up, with the swiftness of mush- 
rooms, whole hosts of large-leafed plants native to the 
soil, briars, calamus and bush, which the natives had in 
times past suppressed with their knives, axes and hoes. 
With each season the bush grew more robust and taller, 
and a few seasons only were wanted to cover all traces 
of former habitation and labour. 

From Ipoto to the Lenda the distance by our track is 
105 miles. Assume that this is the distance eastward to 


1887. which their ravages have extended, and northward and 
^'■*- '^' southward, and we have something like 44,000 square 
^"^^' miles. We know what Ugarrowwa has done from the 
preceding pages, what he w^as still doing with all the 
vigour of his mind, and we know what the Arabs in the 
Stanley Falls are doing on the Lumami and what sort 
of devil's work Mumi Muhala, and Bwana Mohamed 
are perpetrating around Lake Ozo, the source of the 
Lulu, and, .once we know where their centres are 
located, we may with a pair of compasses draw great 
circles round each, and park off areas of 40,000 and 
50,000 square miles into which half-a-dozen resolute 
men, aided by their hundreds of bandits, have divided 
about three-fourths of the Great Upper Congo Forest 
for the sole purpose of murder, and becoming heirs to a 
few hundred tusks of ivory. 

At the date of our arrival at Ipoto, there were the 
Manyuema headmen, physically fine stalwart fellows, 
named Ismailia, Khamisi, and Sangarameni, who were 
responsible to Kilonga-Longa, their chief, for the followers 
and operations entrusted to their charge. At alternate 
periods each set out from Ipoto to his own special 
sub-district. Thus, to Ismailia, all roads from Ipoto to 
Ibwiri and east to the Ituri were given as his special 
charge. Khamisi's area was along the line of the 
Ihuru, then east to Ibwiri, to Sangarameni all the land 
east and west between the Ibina and Ihuru affluents of 
the Ituri. Altogether there were 150 fighting men, but 
only about 90 were armed with guns. Kilonga-Longa 
was still at Kinnena, and was not expected for three 
months yet. 

The fighting men under the three leaders consisted of 
Bakusu, Balegga, and Basongora, youths who were 
trained by the Manyuema as raiders in the forest region, 
in the same manner as in 1876, Manyuema youths had 
been trained by Arabs and Waswahili of the east coast. 
We see in this extraordinary increase in number of 
raiders in the Upper Congo basin the fruits of the Arab 
policy of killing off the adult aborigines and preserving 
the children. The girls are distributed among the Ai-ab, 


Swahili and Manyuema harems, the boys are trained i887. 
to carry arms and are exercised in the use of them. ^^'^*- ^'^• 
When they are grown tall and strong enough they are ^p°*°' 
rewarded with wives from the female servants of the 
harem, and then are admitted partners in these bloody 
ventures. So many parts of the profits are due to the 
great proprietor, such as Tippu-Tib, or Said bin Abed, a 
less number becomes the due of the headmen, and the 
remainder becomes the property of the bandits. At 
other times large ivories, over 35 lbs. each, become the 
property of the proprietor, all over 20 lbs. to 35 lbs. 
belong to the headmen, scraps, pieces and young ivory 
are permitted to be kept by the lucky finders. Hence 
every member of the caravan is inspired to do his best. 
The caravan is well armed and well manned by the pro- 
prietor, who stays at home on the Congo or Lualaba river 
indulging in rice and pilaf and the excesses of his harem, 
the headmen, inspired by greed and cupidity, become 
ferocious and stern, the bandits fling themselves upon a 
settlement without mercy to obtain the largest share of 
loot, of children, flocks, poultry, and ivory. 

All this would be clearly beyond their power if the 
possessed no gunpowder. Not a mile beyond theii 
settlements would the Arabs and their followers dare 
venture. It is more than likely that if gunpowder was 
prohibited entry into Africa there would be a general 
and quick migration to the sea of all Arabs from inner 
Africa, as the native Chiefs would be immeasurably 
stronger than any combination of Arabs armed with 
spears. What possible chance could Tippu-Tib, Abed bin 
Salim, Ugarrowwa and Kilonga-Longa have against the 
Basongora and Bakusu ? How could the Arabs of Ujiji 
resist the Wajiji and Warundi, or how could those of 
Unyamyembe live among the bowmen and spearmen of 
Unyamwezi ? 

There is only one remedy for these wholesale devas- 
tations of African aborigines, and that is the solemr 
combination of England, Germany, France, Portugal 
South and East Africa, and Congo State against the 
introduction of gunpowder into any part of the 


1887. Continent except for the use of their own agents, 
Oct. 18. soldiers, and employes, or seizing upon every tusk of 
^° °' ivory brought out, as there is not a single piece nowa- 
days which has been gained lawfully. Every tusk, 
piece and scrap in the possession of an Arab trader has 
been steeped and dyed in blood. Every pound weight 
has cost the life of a man, woman or child, for every five 
pounds a hut has been burned, for every two tusks a 
whole village has been destroyed, every twenty tusks 
have been obtained at the price of a district with all its 
people, villages and plantations. It is simply incredible 
that, because ivory is required for ornaments or billiard 
games, the rich heart of Africa should be laid waste at 
this late year of the nineteenth century, signalized as it 
has been by so much advance, that populations, tribes 
and nations should be utterly destroyed. Whom after 
all does this bloody seizure of ivory enrich ? Only a 
few dozens of half-castes, Arab and Negro, who, if due 
justice were dealt to them, should be made to sweat out 
the remainder of their piratical lives in the severest 
penal servitude. 

On arrivino- in civilization after these terrible dis- 


coveries, I was told of a crusade that had been preached 
by Cardinal Lavigerie, and of a rising desire in Europe to 
effect by force of arms in the old crusader style and to 
attack the Arabs and their followers in their strongholds 
in Central Africa. It is just such a scheme as might have 
been expected from men who applauded Gordon when 
he set out with a white wand and six followers to rescue 
all the garrisons of the Soudan, a task which 14,000 of 
his countrymen, under one of the most skilful English 
generals, would have found impossible at that date. 
We pride ourselves upon being practical and sensible 
men, and yet every now and then let some enthusiast — ■ 
whether Gladstone, Gordon, Lavigerie or another — 
speak, and a wave of Quixotism spreads over many 
lands. The last thing I heard in connection with this 
mad project is that a band of 100 Swedes, who have 
subscribed £25 each, are about to sail to some part of 
the East Coast of Africa, and proceed to Tanganika to 


commence ostensibly the extirpation of the Arab slave- i887. 
trader, but in reality to commit suicide. ^^*- ^^• 

However, these matters are not the object of this '^°*®' 
chapter. We are about to have a more intimate acquaint- 
ance with the morals of the Manyuema, and to under- 
stand them better than we ever expected we should. 

They had not heard a word or a whisper of our Head- 
men whom we had despatched as couriers to obtain relief 
for Nelson's party, and, as it was scarcely possible that 
a starving caravan would accomplish the distance be- 
tween Nelson's Camp and Ipoto before six active and 
intelligent men, we began to fear that among the lost 
men we should have to number our Zanzibari chiefs. 
Their track was clear as far as the crossing-place of the 
14th and 15th December. It was most probable that 
the witless men would continue up the river until they 
were overpowered by the savages of some unknown 
village. Our minds were never free from anxiety 
respecting Capt. Nelson and his followers. Thirteen 
days had already elapsed since our parting. Durino- this 
period their position was not worse than ours had been. 
The forest was around them as it was around us. They 
were not loaded down as we were. The most active 
men could search about for food, or they could employ 
their canoes to ferry themselves over to the scene of the 
forage of the 3rd December, one day's journey by land, 
or an hour by water. Berries and fungi abounded on 
the crest of the hills above their camp as in other parts. 
Yet we were anxious, and one of my first duties was to 
try and engage a relief party to take food to Nelson's 
camp. I was promised that it should be arranged next 

For ourselves we received three goats and twelve 
baskets of Indian corn, which, when distributed, gave 
six ears of corn per man. It furnished us with two good 
meals, and many must have felt revived and refreshed, 
as I did. 

On the first day's halt at Ipoto we suffered consider- 
able lasgitude. Nature either furnishes a stomach and 
no food, or else furnishes a feast and robs us of aU 

VOL. I. - Q 


1887. appetite. On the day before, and on this, we had fed 
^'^*- •'■^ sumptuously on rice and pilaf and goat stew, but now 
^P°*"' vve began to suffer from many illnesses. The masticators 
had forgotten their office, and the digestive organs 
disdained the dainties, and affected to be deranged. 
Seriously, it was the natural result of over-eating ; corn 
mush, grits, parched corn, beans and meat are solids 
requiring gastric juice, which, after being famished for 
so many days, was not in sufficient supply for the eager 
demand made for it. 

The Manyuema had about 300 or 400 acres under 
corn, five acres under rice, and as many under beans. 
Sugar-cane was also grown largely. They possessed 
about 100 goats — all stolen from the natives. In their 
store-huts they had immense supplies of Indian corn 
drawn from some village near the Ihuru, and as yet 
unshucked. Their banana plantations were well stocked 
with fruit. Indeed the condition of every one in the 
settlement was prime. 

It is but right to acknowledge that we were received 
on the first day with ostentatious kindness, but on the 
third day something of a strangeness sprang up between 
us. Their cordiality probably rose from a belief that 
our loads contained some desirable articles, but unfortu- 
nately the first-class beads that would have sufficed for 
the purchase of all their stock of corn were lost by the 
capsizing of a canoe near Panga Falls, and the gold 
braided Arab burnooses were stolen below Ugarrowwa, 
by deserters. Disappointed at not receiving the expected 
quantity of fine cloth or fine beads, they proceeded 
systematically to tempt our men to sell everything they 
possessed, shirts, caps, daoles, waist cloths, knives, belts, 
to which, being their personal property, we could make no 
objection. But the lucky owners of such articles having 
been seen by others less fortunate, hugely enjoying 
varieties of succulent food, were the means of inspiring 
the latter to envy and finally to theft. The unthrifty 
and reckless men sold their ammunition, accoutrements, 
bill hooks, ramrods, and finally their Remington Rifles. 
Thus, after escaping the terrible dangers ot starvation 


and such injuries as the many savage tribes couhl inflict 1887. 
on us, we were in near peril of becoming slaves to the ^'"'^- ^* 
Arab slaves. 

Despite entreaties for corn, we could obtain no more 
than two ears per man per day. I promised to pay 
triple price for everything received, on the arrival of 
the rear column, but with these people a present 
possession is better than a prospective one. They ♦ 
professed to doubt that we had cloth, and to believe 
that we had travelled all this distance to fight them. 
We represented on the other hand that all we needed 
were six ears of corn per day during nine days' rest. 
Three rifles disappeared. The Headmen denied all 
knowledge of them. We were compelled to reflect that, 
if it were true, they suspected we entertained sinister 
intentions towards them, that surely the safest and 
craftiest policy would be to purchase our arms secretly, 
and disarm us altogether, when they could enforce what 
terms they pleased on us. 

On the 21st six more rifles were sold. At this rate 
the Expedition would be wrecked in a short time, 
for a body of men without arms in the heart of the 
great forest, with a host of men to the eastward and a 
large body to the westward depending upon them, were 
lost beyond hope of salvation. Both advance and 
retreat were equally cut off, and no resource would be 
left but absolute submission to the chief who chose to 
assert himself to be our master or Death. Therefore I 
proposed for my part to struggle strongly against such 
a fate, and either to provoke it instantly, or ward it off 
by prompt action. 

A muster was made, the five men without arms were 
sentenced to twenty-five lashes each and to be tied up. 
After a considerable fume and fuss had been exhibited, 
a man stepped up, as one was about to undergo punish- 
ment and begged permission to speak. 

" This man is innocent, sir." " I have his rifle in my 
hut, I seized it last night from Juma (one of the cooks), 
son of Forkali, as he brought it to a Manyuema to sell. 
It may be Juma stole it from this man. I know that 


1887. all these men have pleaded that their rifles have been 
o< t. 21. g^Qigij \yj others, while they slept. It may be true as 

ii'oto. -^^^ ^i^^g case." Meantime Juma had flown, but was 
found later on hiding in the corn fields. He confessed 
that he had stolen two,, and had taken them to the 
informer to be disposed of for corn, or a goat, but it was 
solely at the instigation of the informer. It may have 
been true, for scarcely one of them but was quite 
capable of such a course, but the story was lame, and 
unreasonable in this case and was rejected. Another 
now came up and recognized Juma as the thief who had 
abstracted his rifle- — and having proved his statement 
and confession having been made — the prisoner was 
sentenced to immediate execution, which was accord- 
ingly carried out by hanging. 

It now being proved beyond a doubt that the 
Manyuema were purchasing our rifles at the rate of a 
few ears of corn per gun, I sent for the head men, and 
make a formal demand for their instant restitution, 
otherwise they would be responsible for the conse- 
quences. They were inclined to be wrathy at first. 
They drove the Zanzibaris from the village out into the 
clearing, and there was every prospect of a fight, or as 
was very probable, that the Expedition was about to be 
wrecked. Our men, being so utterly demoralized, and 
utterly broken in spirit from what they had undergone, 
were not to be relied on, and as they were ready to sell 
themselves for corn — there was little chance of our 
winning a victory in case of a struggle. It requires 
fulness of stomach to be brave. At the same time 
death was sure to conclude us in any event, for to 
remain quiescent under such circumstances tended to 
produce an ultimate appeal to arms. With those 
eleven rifles, 3000 rounds of ammunition had been sold. 
No option presented itself to me than to be firm in my 
demand for the rifles ; it was reiterated, under a threat 
that I would proceed to take other means — and as a 
proof of it they had but to look at the body hanging 
from a tree, for if we proceeded to such extremities as 
putting to death one of our own men, they certainly 



ought to know that we should feel ourselves perfectly i887. 
prepared to take vengeance on those who had really ^^'*" ^^" 
caused his death by keeping open doors to receive stolen 

After an hour's storming in their village they brought 
five rifles to me, and to my astonishment pointed the 
sellers of them. Had it not been impolitic in the first 
place to drive things to the extreme, I should have 
declined receiving one of them back before all had been 
returned, and could I have been assured of the aid of 
fifty men I should have declared for a fight ; but just at 
this juncture Uledi, the faithful coxswain of the 
Advance, strode into camp, bringing news that the boat 
was safe at the landing-place of Ipoto and of his dis- 
covery of the six missing chiefs in a starving and 
bewildered state four miles from the settlement. This 
produced a revulsion of feelings. Gratitude for the 
discovery of my lost men, the sight of Uledi— the 
knowledge that after all, despite the perverseness of 
human nature, I had some faithful fellows, left me for 
the time speechless. 

Then the tale was told to Uledi, and he undertook the 
business of eradicating the hostile feelings of the Man- 
yuema, and pleaded with me to let bygones be bygones 
on the score that the dark days were ended, and happy 
days he was sure were in store for us. 

For surely, dear master," he said, " after the longest 
night comes day, and why not sunshine after darkness 
with us ? I think of how many long nights and dark days 
we pulled through in the old times when we pierced 
Africa together, and now let your heart be at peace. 
Please God we shall forget our troubles before long." 

The culprits were ordered to be bound until morning. 
Uledi, with his bold frank way, sailed straight into the 
affections of the Manyuema headmen. Presents of corn 
were brought to me, apologies were made and accepted. 
The corn was distributed among the people, and we 
ended this troublesome day, which had brought us all to 
the verge of dissolution, in much greater content than 
could have been hoped from its ominous commencement. 



1887. Our long wandering chiefs wlio were sent as heralds 
Oct. 23. of our approach to Ipoto arrived on Sunday the 23rd. 
They surely had made but a fruitless quest, and they 
found us old residents of the place they had been des- 
patched to seek. Haggard, wan and feeble from seven- 
teen days feeding on what the uninhabited wilderness 
afforded, they were also greatly abashed at their failure. 
They had reached the Ibina River which flows from the 
S.E., and struck it two days above the confluence with 
the Ituri ; they had then followed the tributary down to 
the junction, had found a canoe and rowed across to the 
right bank, where they had nearly perished from hunger. 
Fortunately Uledi had discovered them in time, had 
informed them of the direction of Ipoto, and they had 
crawled as they best could to our camp. 

Before night, Sangarameni, the third head man, ap- 
peared from a raid with fifteen fine ivories. He said 
he had penetrated a twenty days' journey, and from a 
high hill had viewed an open country all grass land. 

Out of a supply I obtained on this day I was able to 
give two ears of corn per man, and to store a couple of 
baskets for Nelson's party. But events were not pro- 
gressing smoothly, I could obtain no favourable answer 
to my entreaty for a relief party. One of our men had 
been speared to death by the Manyuema on a charge of 
stealing corn from the fields. One had been hanged, 
twenty had been flogged for stealing ammunition, 
another had received 200 cuts from the Manyuema for 
attempting to steal. If only the men could have 
reasoned sensibly during these days, how quickly 
matters could have been settled otherwise ! 

I had spoken and warned them with all earnestness 
to " endure, and cheer up," and that there were two 
ways of settling all this, but that I was afraid of them 
only, for they preferred the refuse of the Manyuema to 
our wages and work. The Manyuema were proving to 
them what they might expect of them ; and with us 
the worst days were over ; all we had to do was to 
march beyond the utmost reach of the Manyuema raids, 
when we should all become as robust as they. Bah 1 


I might as well have addressed my appeals to the trees i887. 
of the forest as unto wretches so sodden with despair. ^'■*- ^*- 

The Manyuema had promised me three several times ^°*°" 
by this day to send eighty men as a relief party to 
Nelson's camp, but the arrival of Sangarameni, and 
misunderstandings, and other trifles, had disturbed the 

On the 24th firing was heard on the other side of the 
river, and, under the plea that it indicated the arrival of 
Kilonga-Longa, the relief caravan was again prevented 
from setting out. 

The next day, those who had fired, arrived in camp, 
and proved to be the Manyuema knaves whom we had 
seen on the 2nd of October, Out of fifteen men they 
had lost one man from an arrow wound. They had 
wandered for twenty-four days to find the track, but 
having no other loads than provisions these had lasted 
with economy for fifteen days, but for the last nine days 
they had subsisted on mushrooms and wild fruit. 

On this evening I succeeded in drawing a contract, and 
getting the three headmen to agree to the following : — 

"To send thirty men to the relief of Captain Nelson, 
with 400 ears of corn for his party. 

" To provide Captain Nelson and Surgeon Parke, and 
all sick men unable to work in the fields, with pro- 
visions, until our return from Lake Albert. 

" The service of a guide from Ipoto to Ibwiri, for 
which they were to be paid one bale and a half of cloth 
on the arrival of the rear column." 

It was drawn up in Arabic by Rashid, and in English 
by myself, and witnessed by three men. 

For some fancy articles of personal property I suc- 
ceeded in purchasing for Mr, Jephson and Capt. Nelson 
250 ears of Indian corn, and for 250 pistol cartridges I 
bought another quantity, and for an ivory -framed mirror 
from a dressing-case purchased two baskets full ; for 
three bottles of ottar of roses obtained three fowls, so 
that I had 1000 ears of corn for the relieving and 
relieved parties. 

On the 26 th Mr. Mounteney Jephson, forty Zanzibaris, 


1887. and thirty Manyuema slaves started on tlieir journey to 
Oct. 26. j^gigQi^'g camp. I cannot do better than introduce 
poto. -jyj-^^ Jephson's report on his journey. 

" Arab Settlement at Ipoto, 
" Dear Sir, " November m, 1887. 

" I left at midday on October 26th, and arrived at the river and 
crossed over with 30 Manyuema and 40 Zanzibaris under my charge the 
same afternoon and camped on landing. The next morning we started 
off early and reached the camp, where we had crossed the river, when we 
were wandering about in a starving condition in search of the Arabs, 
by midday the signs and arrow heads we had marked on the trees to 
show the chiefs we had crossed were still fresh. I reached another of 
our camps that night. The next day we did nearly three of our former 
marches. The camp where Feruzi Ali had got his death wound, and 
where we had sjient three such miserable days of hunger and anxiety, 
looked very dismal as we passed through it. During the day we passed 
the skeletons of three of our men wiio had fallen down and died from 
sheer starvation, they were grim reminders of the misery through which 
we had so lately gone. 

" On the morning of the 29th I started off as soon as it was day- 
light, determining to reach Nelson that day and decide the question 
as to his being yet alive. Accompanied by one man only, I soon found 
myself far ahead of my followers. As I neared Nelson's camp a 
feverish anxiety to know his fate possessed me, and I pushed on through 
streams and creeks, by banks and bogs, over which oui' starving people 
had slowly toiled with the boat sections. All were passed by quickly 
to-day, and again the skeletons in the road testified to the trials through 
which we had passed. As I came down the hill into Nelson's camp, not 
a sound was heard but the groans of two dying men in a hut close by, 
the whole place had a deserted and woe-begone look. I came quietly 
round the tent and f jund Nelson sitting there ; v.^e clasped hands, and 
then, poor fellow ! he turned away and sobbed, and muttered something 
about being very weak. 

" Nelson was greatly changed in appearance, being worn and haggard 
looking, with deep lines about his eyes and mouth. He told me 
his anxiety had heew intense, as day after day passed and no relief 
came ; he had at last made up his mind that something had happened 
to us, and that we had been compelled to abandon him. He had 
lived chiefly upon fruits and fungus which his two boys had brought 
in from day to day. Of the fifty-two men you left with him, only 
five remained, of whom two were in a dying state. All the rest had 
either deserted him or were dead. 

" He has himself given you an account of his losses from death 
and desertion. I gave liim the food yon sent him, which I had 
carefully watched on the way, and he had one of the chickens and 
some porridge cooked at once, it was the first nourishing food he 
had tasted for many days. After I had been there a couple of hours 
my people came in and all crowded round the tent to offer him their 

" You remember Nelson's feet had been very bad for some days before 
we left him, he had hardly left the tent the whole time he had been here. 
At one time he had had ten ulcers on one foot, but he had now recovered 
from them in a great measure and said he thought he would be able to 
inarch slowly. On the 3Uth we began the return march. I gave out 



most of the loads to the Manyiiema and Zanzibaris, but was obliged to jss?. 
leave thirteen boxes of ammunition and seven other loads, these I buried, Oct. 26, 
and Parke will be able to fetch them later on. 

" Nelson did the marches better than I expected, though he was much 
knocked up at the end of each day. On the return march we crossed 
the river lower down and made our way up the right bank and 
struck your old road a day's march from the Arab camp. Here again we 
passed more skeletons, at one place there were three within 200 yards 
of each other. 

" On the fifth day, that is November 3rd, we reached the Arab camp, 
and Nelson's relief was accomplished. He has already picked up 
wonderfully in spite of the marching, but he cannot get sleep at night 
and is still in a nervous and highly strung state ; the rest in the Arab 
camp will, I trust, set him up again. It is certain that in his state of 
health he could not have followed us in our wanderings in search of 
food, he must have fallen by the way. 

" I am &c., &c. 
"(Signed) A. J. Mounteney Jephson." 

The following are the reports of Captain Nelson and 
Surgeon Parke. 

" Arab Village, Ipoto, 
" Dear Sir, " ^^^' November, 1887. 

" Mr. Jephson arrived at my camp on the 29th October with the 
men for the loads and with the food you sent for me. Many thanks for 
the food, it was badly needed. He will tell you what state he found me 
in and of the few men still alive. 

" You left me on the 6th October last ; on the morning of the 9th I got 
up a canoe and sent Umari and thirteen of the best men I could find 
(they were all very bad) over the river to look for food. On the 8th 
Assani (No. 1 Company) came to me and said that he had returned from 
the column sick. Same day Uledi's brother came into camp, told me he 
had lost the road while looking for bananas, near the camp, wnere we 
met the Manyuema. On the 10th I found that Juma, one of Stairs' 
chiefs, had cleared in the night with ten men, and stolen a canoe and gone 
down river. On the llth I counted the men and could only find seven- 
teen (I had fifty-two the first day) ; the rest had gone away either after 
the column or down river. On the 14th one man died. Umari returned 
with very few bananas, aboiit enoiagh for two days ; however, they were 
very welcome, as I had nothing but herbs and fungi to eat up to this 
time. On the 15th another man died, and I found that Saadi (No. I-) 
with some other men had come into camp in the night and stolen the 
canoe (Umari had re-crossed the river in) and gone down river. On the 
17th Umari went away with twenty- one men to look for food; 19th, man 
died ; 22nd, two men died ; 23rd, man died ; 29th, two men died ; Jeph- 
son arrived ; 30tli, one man died ; we left camp on way here. Umari had 
not returned ; he, however, if alive, will come on here, I feel sure, but 
how many men with him I cannot tell, i^erhaps five or six may reach 
here with him. With the exception of the few bananas I got from Umari 
I lived entirely on herbs, fungi, and a few mabengu. I liad ten ulcers on 
my left leg and foot and so was unable to look for food myself and was 
kept alive entirely by my two boys and little Baruk, one of my company, 
and Abdalla, a man Stairs left with me. I was very weak when Jephson 
arrived. Now, however, I feel a little better. We arrived at the village 
on the 3rd November, the chief Ismail brought me the day I came a verj 


jggy small quantity of coarse meal and two small dried fish, about enongh for 
Oct. 26 one meal. 

J . " Yesterday, no food having come for two days, we sent for it, and 

^° "■ after a good deal of trouble Ismail sent us a little meal. At present I 
am living on my clothes ; we get hardly anything from the Chief. To- 
day Dr. Parke and I went to the Chief, with flamis Pari as iuttrpreter, 
and talked to him about food, tie told us that i.o (/rrani/r/nenf, had been 
made by you for my food, and that he was feeding the Doctor and me 
entirely from his own generosity, and he refused to feed our boys, three 
in number (fewer we cannot possibly do with), as you never told him to 
do so. 

" I have the honour to be, 
" &c., &c." 

"E. H. Nelson." 

" Arab Camp, Ipoto, 
" My dear Mr. Stanley, " November m, 1887. 

" Captain Nelson and Mr. Jephson arrived here on the 3rd inst. 
a few of the Zanzibaris and Manyiiema men getting in with their loads 
the previous day. Of all those men left at Nelson's camp, only five have 
arrived here, the remaining live ones were away on a foraging tour with 
L'mari, when the relief party arrived. It is very likely that some of them 
may find their way here ; if so, I shall get Ismaili to allow them to work 
for their food. Nelson staggered into camj) greatly changed in api^tar- 
ance, a complete wreck after the march, his features shrunken and 
pinched, and a frame reduced to half its former size. I have done the 
best I could for him medically, but good nourishing food is what he 
requires to restore him to his health : and I regret to say that my expe- 
rience here and the conversation wliich we had to-day with Ismaili goes 
to show that we shall have to exist on scanty fare. Since you left, I have 
had some flour and corn from the chiefs, but this was generally after 
sending for it several times. By a lucky accident I got a goat, most of 
which I distributed amongst the sick men here, for I am informed by 
Ismaili, through H. Pari, that only those who work in the field get food, 
and there are some here who certainly cannot do so ; therefore they are 
trusting to the generosity of the other men, who get five heads of corn 
each day they work. Both Nelson and myself have much troiible in 
getting food from Ismaili for ourselves, and he has refused to feud our 
boys, who arc absolutely necessary to draw water, cook, &c., &c., although 
I have reduced mine to one. 

" Nelson and myself went and saw him to day (Hamis Pari, interpreter), 
and Ismaili stated that you had told the chiefs that a big Mzungu was to 
come (Nelson), and he would make his own arrangements about food^ 
and that I was here living on his (Ismaili s) generosity, as no arrange- 
ments had been made for me. I reminded him of the conversation you 
had with him in your tent the evening you called me down and gave me 
your gold watch, and I said that you had told me that you had made a 
written arrangement with the chiefs that both Nelson and myself should 
be provisioned. We both told him that we did not want goats and fowls, 
but simply what he can give us. Not having seen any agreement, I could 
not argue further, but asked to see the document, so that we might 
convince him; this he said he could not do, as Hamis, the CIvef, had it, 
and he was away, and would not return for two months. He however 
sent us up some corn shortly afterwards. This is a very unhappy state 
of affairs for us who shall have to remain here for so long a time. 
Nelson has sold much of bis clothes, and out of my scanty supply (my 


bag having been lost on the march), T have been obliged to make a igg;. 
further sale so as to provide ourselves with sufficient food. Oct. 16 

" We shall get along here as best we can, and sacrifice much to keep j ^.^^ 
on friendly terms with the Arabs, as it is of such essential importance. T 
sincerely hope you will have every success in attaining the object of the 
Expedition, and that we shall all have an opportunity of meeting soon 
and congratulating Emin Pasha on his relief. 

" With best wishes, &c., 

(Signed) " T. H. Parke, 
" A.M.D 

•' Arab Village, Ipoto, 
" Dear Sir, " '^^^^' Novemher, 1887. 

" I am sorry to have to tell you that peveral attempts have been 
made to rob the hut, and last night itnfortunately they managed to get a 
box of ammunition out of Parke's tent while we were having dinner ; 
also one attempt to burn the hut, which happily 1 frustrated, owing to my 
not being able to sleep well. We have spoken to the Chief Ismail about 
the thieving : he says it is done by Zanzibaris and not by his people ; but 
if there were no sale for the cartridges they would not be stolen. It is of 
course most unfortunate. Since Jephson left, the enormous quantity of 
forty small heads of Indian corn has been given to us by Ismail; this is 
of course quite absurd ; as we cannot live on it, we get herbs, with 
which we supplement our scanty fare. 

" Cledi returned this afternoon and goes on to-morrow, and by him 1 
send this letter. 
" With kindest regards to you. Sir, Stairs and Jephson. 

" I have the honour to be, &c., &c., 

(Signed) " E. H. Nelson. 

P.S.— Just as I finished this letter the. Chief sent us a little meal, 
which evidently was done so that Uledi who was waiting for the letter 
could tell you that we were getting plenty (! !) of food. 

" H. M. Stanley, Esq., 

" Commanding E. P. P. Expedition." 

On the evening of the 26th Ismaili entered my hut, 
and dechired that he had become so attached to me that 
he would dearly love to go through the process of blood- 
brotherhood with me. As I was about to entrust 
Captain Nelson and Surgeon Parke and about thirty 
sick men to the charge of himself and brother chiefs, 
I readily consented, though it was somewhat infra dig. 
to make brotherhood with a slave, but as he was 
powerful in that bloody gang of bandits, I pocketed my 
dignity and underwent the ceremony. I then selected 
a five-guinea rug, silk handkerchiefs, a couple of yards of 
crimson broadcloth, and a few other costly trifles. 
Finally I made another written agreement for guides to 
accompany me to the distance of fifteen camps, which 


1887. he said was the limit of his territory, and o-ood treat- 

Oct '^6 . 

^" " " ment of my officers, and handed to him a gold watch 
and chain, value £49 in London, as pledge of this 
agreement, in presence of Surgeon Parke, 

The next day after leaving Surgeon Parke to attend 
to his friend Nelson and twenty-nine men, we left Ipoto 
with our reduced force to strive once more with the 
hunger of the wilderness. 



In the country of the Balesse — Their houses and clearings — Natives 
of Bukiri — The first village of dwarfs — Our rate of progress 
increased — The road from Mambungu's — Halts at East and West 
Indekaru — A little storm between " Three O'clock " and Khamis — 
We reach Ibwiri — Khamis and the " vile Zanzibaris " — The Ibwiri 
clearing — Plentiful provisions — The state of my men; and what 
they had recently gone through — Khamis and party explore the 
neighbourhood • — And return with a flock of goats — Khamis 
captures Boryo, but is released— Jephson returns from the relief 
of Captain Nelson — Departure of Khamis and the Manyuema — 
Memorandum of charges against Messrs. Kilonga Longa & Co. of 
Ipoto — Suicide of Simba — Sali's reflections on the same — Lieutenant 
Stairs reconnoitres — Muster and re-orgauisation at Ibwiri — Im- 
proved condition of the men — Boryo's village — Balesse customs — 
East Indenduru — We reach the outskirts of the forest — Mount 
Pisgah— The village of lyugu — Heaven's light at last ! The beautiful 
grass-land — -We drop across an ancient crone — Indesura and its 
products— Juma's capture — The Itiui river again — We emerge upon 
a rolling plain — And forage in some villages — The mode of hut 
construction — The district of the Babusesse — Our Mbiri captives — 
Natives attack the camp — The course of the Ituii — The natives of 
Abunguma — Our fare since leaving Ibwiri^Mazamboni's Peak — The 
east Ituri — A mass of plantations — Demonstration by the natives — 
Our camp on the crest of Nzera Kum — " Be strong and of a good 
courage " — Friendly intercourse with the natives— We are compelled 
to disperse them — Peace arranged — Arms of the Bandussuma. 

We marched for two hours to Yumbu, and in four and igs?. 
a quarter hours on the following day to Busindi. Oct. 28 

We were now in the country of the Balesse'. The archi- '^"°^''"- 
tecture was peculiar. Its peculiarity consisted in a long 
street flanked by a long low wooden building, or rather 
planked building, on either side, 200, 300, or 400 feet 
long. At first sight one of these villages appeared like 
a long gable-roofed structure sawn in exact half along 
the ridge of the roof, and as if each half house had been 
removed backward for a distance of 20 or 30 feet, and 



Oct. 29. 


then along tlie inner sides been boarded up, and pierced 
with low doors, to obtain entrance into independent 
apartments. The light wood of the Rubiacae affords good 
material for this kind of house. A sizeable tree, 1 foot 
18 inches, or 2 feet in diameter, is felled, and the log is 
cut into short pieces from four to six feet in length ; 
the pieces are easily split by hard wedges, and with 
their small neat adzes they contrive to shape the plank 
smooth, tolerably even, and square. They are generally 
an inch or an inch and a quarter thick. For what is 
called the ceiling or inner boarding, the boards are 
thinner and narrower. When a sufficient number of 


boards and planks are ready, the inner ceiling is lashed 
to the uprights, frequently in as neat a fashion as a 
carpenter's apprentice might do it with saw, nails and 
hammer ; on the outer side of the uprights are lashed 
the thicker planks, or broad slabs, the hollow between 
the inner and outer frame is then stuffed with the 
phrynia, or banana leaves. The wall facing the street 
may be 9 feet high, the back wall facing the forest or 
clearing is 4 or 4^ feet high, the width of the house 
varies from 7 to 10 feet. Altogether it is a comfortable 
and snug mode of building, rather dangerous in case of 
fire, but very defensible, with trifling labour. 



Another peculiarity of the Balesse is the condition of 1887. 
their clearings, and some of these are very extensive, ^^*" ^^' 
quite a mile and a half in diameter, and the whole 
strewn with the relics, delDris, and timber of the primeval 
forest. Indeed I cannot compare a Balesse clearing to 
anything better than a mighty abattis surrounding the 
principal village, and over this abattis the traveller has 
to find his way. As one steps out of the shadow of the 
forest, the path is at first, may be, along the trunk of a 
great tree for 100 feet, it then turns at right angles 
along a great branch a few feet ; he takes a few paces 
on the soil, then finds himself in front of a massive 
prostrate tree-stem 3 feet in diameter or so ; he climbs 
over that, and presently finds himself facing the out- 
spreading limbs of another giant, amongst which he 
must creep, and twist, and crawl to get footing on 
a branch, then from the branch to the trunk, he takes 
a half turn to the right, walks along the tree from which, 
increasing in thickness, he must soon climb on top of 
another that has fallen across and atop of it, when after 
taking a half-turn to the left, he must follow, ascend- 
ing it until he is 20 feet above the ground. When 
he has got among the branches at this dizzy height, 
he needs judgment, and to be proof against nervous- 
ness. After tender, delicate balancing, he places his 
foot on a branch — at last descends cautiously along 
the steep slope until he is 6 feet from the ground 
from which he must jump on to another tapering 
branch, and follow that to another height of 20 feet, 
then along the monster tree, then down to the ground ; 
and so on for hours, the hot, burning sun, and the close, 
steamy atmosphere of the clearing forcing the perspira- 
tion in streams from his body. I have narrowly escaped 
death three times during these frightful gymnastic 
exercises. One man died where he fell. Several men were 
frightfully bruised. Yet it is not so dangerous with the 
naked feet, but with boots in the early morning, before 
the dew is dried, or after a rain, or when the advance- 
guard has smeared the timber with a greasy clay, I 
have had six falls in an hour. The village stands in the 


Oct. 29 


1887. centre. We have often congratulated ourselves on coming 
to a clearing at the near approach to camping- time, but it 
has frequently occupied us one hour and a half to reach 
the village. It is a most curious sight to see a caravan 
laden with heavy burdens walking over this wreck of a 
forest, and timbered clearing. Streams, swamps, water- 
courses, ditches are often twenty to twenty-five feet 
below a tapering slippery tree, which crosses them 
bridge-like. Some men are falling, some are tottering, 
one or two have already fallen, some are twenty feet 
above the ground, others are on the ground creeping 
under logs. Many are wandering among a maze of 
branches, thirty or more may be standing on one delicate 
and straight shaft, a few may be posted like sentries on 
a branch, perplexed which way to move. All this, 
however, is made much harder, and more dangerous, 
when, from a hundred points, the deadly arrows are 
flying from concealed natives, which, thank Heaven, 
were not common. We have been too cautious for that 
kind of work to happen often, though we have seldom 
been able to leave one of these awful clearings without 
having some man's foot skewered, or some one lamed. 

On the 2 9 til we marched to Bukiri or Myyulus, a 
distance of nine miles in six hours. 

A few natives having been tormented and persecuted 
to submission to the Manyuema, greeted us with cries 
of " Bodo ! Bodo ! Ulenda ! Ulenda ! " ; greetings which 
they accompanied with a flinging motion of the hand, 
as though they jerked " Away ! away ! " 

The chief was styled Mwani. They wore much 
polished ironwork, rings, bells, and anklets, and appeared 
to be partial to many leglets made of calamus fibre, and 
armlets of the same material, after the manner of 
Karagwe and Uliha. They cultivate maize, beans, 
plantains, and bananas, tobacco, sweet potatoes, yams, 
brinjalls, melons, gourds. Their goats are fine, and of 
good size. Fowls are plentiful, but fresh eggs are rare. 

Among some of these villages there is generally a 
dome hut of ample size, after the manner of Unyoro, 
with double porches. 



The following day we halted, during which the Man- iss?. 
yuema guides took particular care to show our people ^'^^- ^^ 
that they should have no doubt of their contempt for 
them. They would not allow them to trade with the 
natives for fear some desirable article would be lost to 
themselves, they also vociferated at them loudly if they 
were seen proceeding to the clearing to cut plantains. 
As I told them, they did not advance in their favour in 
the least by abandoning the whites, and turning a deaf 
ear to our adjurations to be manly and faithful. A 
word, or even a defiant look, was visited with a sharp 
cut on the naked body with a rattan from slave boys of 
the six Manyuema guides with us. "What awful oaths of 
vengeance were uttered for all these indignities they 
suffered ! 

On the 3 1st we came across the first village of Dwarfs, 
and, during the day, across several empty settlements 
belonging to them. We marched nine miles in five and 
a quarter hours, and camped in a dwarfs village in the 

Stealing continued steadily. On examining the 
pouches, there was one cartridge out of three pouches 
The cartridges were lost, of course ! Hilallah, a boy of 
sixteen, deserted back to Ipoto with my cartridge pouch, 
and thirty cartridges in it. A man who carried my 
satchel ran away with seventy-five Winchester car- 

The next day we entered the extensive clearing and 
large settlement of Mambungu's or Nebasse. 

Khamis, the chief of the guides, left Ipoto on 
the 31st, and arrived at this place with seven men, 
according to agreement with Ismaili, my Manyuema 

The track which we followed has enabled us to 
increase our rate of progress per hour. Along the river 
bank, by dint of continued work, and devoting seven, 
eight, nine hours — sometimes ten hours — we could 
travel from 3 to 7 miles. We were now enabled to 
make 1\ to 1|, and even 2 miles per hour ; but the 
pace was still retarded by roots, stumps, climbers, 


1887. Uianes, convolvuli, skewers, and a multitude of 
Nov. 1. streams, and green-scummed sinks. We coukl rarely 
b^*^'s. proceed a clear hundred yards without being ordered 
to halt by the pioneers. 

Each day towards evening the clouds gathered, the 
thunder reverberated w4th awful sounds through the 
echoing- forest ; lio^htnino; darted hither and thither, 
daily severing some tree-top, or splitting a mighty 
patriarch from crown to base, or blasting some stately 
and kingly tree ; and the rain fell with a drowning 
plenty which chilled and depressed us greatly in our 
poor blooded and ansemic state. But during the march, 
Providence was gracious ; the sun shone, and streamed 
in million beams of soft light through the woods, which 
brightened our feelings, and caused the aisles and 
corridors of the woods to be of Divine beauty, converted 
the graceful thin tree-shafts into marbly-grey pillars, 
and the dew and rain-drops into sparkling brilliants ; 
cheered the invisible birds to pour out, with spirit, their 
varied repertory of songs ; inspired parrot flocks to vent 
gleeful screams and whistlings ; roused hosts of 
monkeys to exert their wildest antics ; while now and 
then some deep, bass roar in far-away recesses indicated 
a family of soko or chimpanzees enjoying some savage 

The road from Mambungu's, eastward, was full of tor- 
ments, fears, and anxieties. Never were such a series of 
clearings as those around Mambungu, and the neighbour- 
ing settlement of Njalis. The trees were of the largest 
size, and timber enough had been cut to build a navy ; 
and these lay, in all imaginable confusion, tree upon tree, 
log above log, branches rising in hills above hills ; and 
amongst all this wild ruin of woods grew in profusion 
upon profusion bananas, plantains, vines, parasites ; 
ivy-like plants, palms, calamus, convolvuli, etc., through 
which the poor column had to burrow, struggle, and 
sweat, while creeping, crawling, and climbing, in, 
through, and over obstacles and entanglements that 
baffle description. 

On the 4th November wc were 13| miles from 


Mambungu's in the settlement of Ndugubisha, having i.^s?. 
passed, in the interval, through five deserted forest "^"'^•■*- 
villages of pigmies. On this day I came near smiling — \^S' 
for I fancied 1 observed the dawn of happier days fore- 
told by Uledi, Each member of the caravan received 
one ear of corn, and 15 plantains as rations. 

Fifteen plantains and one ear of corn make a royal 
ration compared to two ears of corn, or a handful of 
berries, or a dozen fungus. It was not calculated, how- 
ever, to make men too cheerful, though our people were 
naturally light-hearted and gay. 

" But never mind, my boys," I said, as I doled the 
spare diet to the hungry creatures ; " the morning is 
breaking ; a week more, and then you shall see the end 
of your troubles." 

Verbal reply was not given to me ; only a wan smile 
lightened the famine-sharpened features. Our officers 
had borne these privations with the spirit ascribed by 
Caesar to Antony, and as well as though they were to 
the manner born. They fed on the flat wood beans of the 
forest, on the acid wild fruit and strange fungus, with the 
smiling content of Sybarites at a feast. Yet one of them 
paid £1,000 for this poor privilege, and came near being 
thought too dainty for rough African life. They had 
been a living example to our dark followers, many of 
whom had probably been encouraged to strive for 
existence by the bright, hopeful looks our officers wore 
under our many unhappy afflictions. 

On the following day we crossed the watershed 
between the Ihuru and Ituri rivers, and we now 
plunged into cool streams flowing to leftward, or towards 
the Ihuru. Hills rose to the right and left in wooded 
cones and ridgy mounts, and after a march of nine and 
three-quarter miles, we halted for the night at West 
Indekaru, at the base of a hill whose top rose 600 feet 
above the village. Another short march brought us to 
a village perched half-way up a tall mount, which may 
be designated as East Indekaru, and by aneroid we were 
4,097 feet above the ocean. From this village we 
enjoyed a first view of our surroundings. Instead of 



1887. crawling like mighty bipeds in the twilight, 30 fathoms 
Nov. 5. i^giQ^y i^Q level of the white light of the day, compelled 
to recognize our littleness, by comparison with the giant 
columns and tall pillar-like shafts that rose by millions 
around us, we now stood on the crest of a cleared mount, 
to look upon the leafy world below us. One almost 
felt as if walking over the rolling plain of leafage was 
possible, so compact and unbroken was the expanse, 
extending to a lovely pale blueness as the eyesight 
followed it to the, furthest limits of distinctness — away, 
far away to an unknown distance the forest tops spread 
round about a variegated green of plushy texture, broad 
red patches of tree flowering, and rich russety circles of 
leaves, not unfrequent. How one envied the smooth, 
easy flight of the kites and white-collared eagles, sailing 
gracefully without let or hindrance through the calm 
atmosphere ! Ah ! that we had the wings of kites, that 
we might fly and be at rest from these incorrigibly 
wicked Manyuema ! Whose wish was that ? Indeed, I 
think we all of us shared it, more or less. 

On the 7th, while we halted on the mount, the 
Manyuema monopolizing the village, and our men in the 
bush, unworthy to be near their nobility, there was a 
little storm between Saat Tato (Three o'clock), the 
hunter, and Khamis, the chief of the Manyuema guides. 
It threatened, from the sound of words, to explode hurt- 
fully at one time. Khamis slapped him in the face. 
Both were tall men, but Saat Tato was two inches taller, 
a good soldier, who had seen service in Madagascar and 
with Sultan Barghash as a sergeant, but who, from his 
habits of getting drunk by the third hour of each day, 
was nicknamed " Three o'clock," and dismissed. He was 
an excellent man, faithful, strong, obedient, and an 
unerring shot. Given the benefits of twenty-five pounds 
of food, Saat Tato, at a hint, would have smilingly taken 
hold of Khamis, and snapped his vertebrae across his 
knee with the ease that he would have broken a spear 
staff. I observed Saat Tato closely, for it must be 
remembered that it had become fully impressed on my 
mind that my men were quite too broken-spirited. Saat 


Tato looked at him a second severely ; then, lifting his i887. 
forefinger, said to Khamis, " It is well, but I should like ^''^- '^• 
to see you repeat that blow a little time hence, after I ° ^ ^'■"• 
have a little food in me, and filled this stomach of mine. 
Strike me again, do ; I can bear it." 

Advancing, and touching Khamis on the shoulder, I 
said, " Khamis, do not do that again. I do not allow 
even my officers to strike my men like that." 

The ill-humour was increasing, and, little as the 
Manyuema imagined, they were assisting me to restore 
the spirit of the Zanzibaris by their cruelty. There 
were signs that the Christians would prevail after all. 
The mutual affection expressed between the Moslem co- 
religionists at the altar of which our men were ready to 
sacrifice our lives and liberties and their own freedom, 
had been cooled by the cruelty, perverseness, and 
niggardliness of the Manyuema. All we had to do was 
to watch it, bear patiently, and be ready. 

To our great comfort Khamis confessed that West 
Indekaru was the utmost limit of his master Ismaili's 

We, however, were not to part from him until we 
reached Ibwiri. 

We marched eleven miles on the 8 th of November 
through a much more open forest, and we could see further 
into the interior. The road was better, so much so that 
our rate of marching increased to two miles per hour. 
The gritty and loamy soil had absorbed the rain, and 
walking became pleasant. The llianes were not so 
riotously abundant, only a strong creeper now and then 
requiring severance. At several places there were 
granite outcroppings of a colossal size, which were a 
novelty and added a kind of romantic and picturesque 
interest to the woods, darkly suggestive of gitanos, 
bandits, or pigmies. 

A march of nine and a half miles on the 9th of 
November took us to a Pigmies' camp. Until noon a 
mist had hung over the land. Towards the latter 
part of the tramp we passed through several lately 
deserted villages of the dwarfs, and across eight streams. 



1887. Kliamis, the guide, and his followers, and about half- 
Nov. 9. >i.(\qzqii of the pioneers proceeded to Ibwiri, which was 
only one and a half mile distant, and on the next day 
we joined them. This was one of the richest and finest 
clearings we had seen since leaving Yambuya, though 
had the Expedition been despatched eight months earlier, 
we should have found scores in the same prosperous 
condition. Here was a clearing three miles in diameter 
abounding in native produce, and hitherto unvisited by 
the Manyuema. Almost every plantain stalk bore an 
enormous branch of fruit, with from fifty to one hundred 
and forty plantains attached. Some specimens of this 
fruit were twenty-two inches long, two and a half inches 
in diameter, and nearly eight inches round, large enough 
to furnish Saat Tato the hunter, with his long desired 
full meal. There was an odour of ripe fruit pervading 
the air, and as we climbed over the logs and felt our 
way gingerly along the prostrate timber, I was often 
asked by the delighted people to note the bunches of 
mellow fruit hanging temptingly before their eyes. 

Before reaching the village Murabo, a Zanzibari liead- 
man, whispered to me that there were five villages in 
Ibwiri, and that each hut in every village was more than 
a fourth full of Indian corn, but that Khamis and his 
Manyuema had been storing corn in their own huts, 
which, according to right of preemption, they had 
reserved for themselves. 

On entering the street of the village, Khamis met me 
with the usual complaints about the wickedness of the 
" vile Zanzibaris." Looking down on the ground I saw 
many a trail of corn which went to corroborate Murabo's 
story, and as Khamis proposed that the Expedition should 
occupy the western half of the village, and he and his 
fifteen Manyuema would occupy the eastern half, I 
ventured to demur to the proposition on the ground 
that as we had departed out of his master's territory we 
claimed all the land to the eastward, and would in 
future dispense with any suggestion as to what we 
should do, and that furthermore not a grain of corn, 
nor plantain, banana, or any other native product in the 



land would leave the country without my permission, igg?. 
He was told, no people on earth could have borne so ^^"•'- '^^^ 
uncomplainingly such shames, affronts, and insults as had 
been put upon the Zanzibaris, and that in future they 
should be permitted to resent all such injuries as they best 
knew how. Khamis assented submissively to all this. 

The first thing after storing goods, and distributing 
the men to their quarters, was to give fifty ears of corn 
per man, and to arrange with the natives as to our future 
conduct towards one another. 

Within an hour it was agreed that the western half of 
the Ibwiri clearing should be granted to us for foraging ; 
that the eastern half, from a certain stream, should be 
the reserve of the natives. Khamis, the Manyuema, was 
also induced to enter into the pact. In return for a 
packet of brass rods, Boryo, the principal chief of the 
Balesse of the district, presented us with five fowls and 
a goat. 

This was a great day. Since August 31st not one 
follower of the Expedition had enjoyed a full meal, but 
now bananas, plantains ripe and green, potatoes, herbs, 
yams, beans, sugar-cane, corn, melons in such quantities 
were given them that were they so many elephants they 
could not have exhausted the stock provided for them in 
less than ten days. They could gratify to the full the 
appetite so long stinted and starved. 

As we were compelled to wait for Mr. Jephson and some 
sixty Zanzibaris — forty of the relief party, boat's crew, 
and convalescents from Ipoto— the good efiect of this 
abundance would be visible in a few days. It was also 
one of those settlements we had been anxiously searching 
for as a recuperating station. On this date the men 
were hideous to look upon, because of their gaunt naked- 
ness. They were naked, for they had stripped them- 
selves to obtain food from the slaves of the Manyuema at 
Ugarrowwa s and Ipoto ; of flesh they had none, for they 
had been reduced to bones by seventy-three days of 
famine and thirteen days of absolute want ; of strength 
they had but little, and they were ill-favoured in every 
respect ; their native colour of oiled bronze had be- 


1887. come a mixture of grimy black and wood ashes ; their 
Nov. 10. i^Qiiijjg gyes betrayed signs of disease, impure blood, and 
ibwin. jjj(jyj,g^|^g(j livers ; that beautiful contour of body, and 
graceful and delicate outlines of muscles — alas, alas ! — 
were all gone. They more befitted a charnel-house 
than a camp of men bound to continually wear fighting 

Khamis, the Manyuema guide, offered the next morning 
to proceed east to search out the road from Ibwiri, for, 
as he informed me, Boryo, the chief, had told him of a 
grass-land being not many days off". He thought that 
with a few of Boryo's natives, and thirty of our riflemen, 
he could discover something of interest. Calling Boryo 
to me, he confirmed, as well as we could understand him, 
that from a place called Mande, which he said was only 
two days' good marching — say forty miles — the grass- 
land could be seen ; that herds of cattle came in such 
numbers to the Ituri river to drink that the river 
" swelled up." All this chimed with my eager desire to 
know how far we were from the open country, and as 
Boryo said he was willing to furnish guides, I called for 
volunteers. Twenty-eight men came forward, to my 
surprise, as willing and as eager for new adventures as 
though they had been revelling in plenty for the last few 
months. Khamis and his party departed shortly after. 

Despite strict prohibition to touch anything on the 
native reservation of Ibwiri, one of our raiders paid it a 
visit, and captured nineteen fowls, two of which he had 
already despatched, the remaining seventeen he had 
decapitated, but our detectives pounced upon him and 
his stock, as he and his chum were debating what they 
should do with the feathers. The flesh and bones did 
not promise to be any trouble to them. Close by them 
two men had despatched an entire goat, excepting the 
head ! These facts serve to illustrate the boundless 
capacity of Zanzibari stomachs. 

The natives of Ibwiri had behaved most handsomely, 
and personally I felt a sense of shame at the ingratitude 
of my followers. The chief and his family were living 
with us, and exchanged their greetings of " Bode, Bodo, 



ulenda, ulenda," half-a-dozen times a day. Yet our men i887. 
had undergone such extremes of wretchedness during ■'^°^' ^^" 
the last two and a half months that we might have well 
anticipated some excesses would be committed upon the 
first opportunity. No other body of men in the wide 
world that I am acquainted with could have borne such 
a period of hunger so meekly, so resignedly. Not a 
grain or a bit of human food discoverable anywhere, 
their comrades dying at every camp, or falling dead 
along the track, others less patient plunging into the 
depths of the wilderness maddened by hunger, leaving 
them to fare as they might under the burdens of war- 
munitions, and baggage. Goaded by the protracted 
hunger, and fierce despair, and loss of trust in their 
officers, they might have seized their Remingtons and, 
by one volley, have slain their white chiefs, and fed on 
them, and shaken off power, and, in a moment, the clutch 
of authority which, so far as they knew, was only drag- 
ging them down to certain doom. 

While I pitied the natives who had lost their property 
when they least deserved it, I could not remove from my 
memory that extended fast in the area of desolation and 
forest wilderness stretching between the Basopo Rapids 
and Ibwiri, on the edge of which we were even now 
located, or their patient obedience — thefts and small 
practices notwithstanding, their unfaltering fidelity, 
their kindness to us while we were starving, in be- 
stowing upon us the choicest and finest of the wild 
fruit they had discovered, and their altogether courageous 
bearing and noble hopefulness during the terrible days 
of adversity ; all these virtues must needs extenuate 
their offences, and it was best to await fulness and reflec- 
tion to assist us in reclaiming them into tractableness and 
good order. Every mile or two almost of that hungry 
forest solitude between the Ihuru and Ituri confluence 
and Ipoto had been marked by the dead bodies of their 
comrades ; there they lay fast mildewing and rotting in 
the silent gloom, and, but for the fidelity of the survivors, 
none of those capable of giving intelligent testimony of 
the stern trials endured during September, October, and 



1887. the half of November, would have lived to relate the sad 
Nov. 10. ^^^ sorrowful details. 

The more experience and insight I obtain into human 
nature, the more convinced do I become that the greater 
portion of a man is purely animal. Fully and regularly 
fed, he is a being capable of being coaxed or coerced to 
exertion of any kind, love and fear sway him easily, he 
is not averse to labour however severe ; but when starved 
it is well to keep in mind the motto " Cave Canem," for 
a starving lion over a raw morsel of beef is not so 
ferocious or so ready to take offence. Eigid discipline, 
daily burdens, and endless marching into regions of 
which they were perfectly ignorant, never seemed to gall 
our men much when their stomachs were pampered, and 
abundant provender for their digestive organs were 
provided ; but even hanging unto death was only a 
temporary damper to their inclination to excessive mis- 
chief when pinched with hunger. The aborigines also of 
Ibwiri surrounded by plenty are mild and meek enough 
through pure sleekness, but the dwarfish nomads of the 
forest are, I am told, as fierce as beasts of prey, and 
fight till their quivers are empty. 

I received word on the 12th that Khamis, the 
Manyuema who was supposed to have gone for my 
gratification to explore the country ahead, and to make 
friends with the aid of the natives, had, owing to 
perverseness, been unable to accomplish his mission ; 
that he was greatly disappointed, and that he had been 
attacked by the natives of East Ibwiri and had lost two 
men. I sent word to him to return. 

The fleas of Ibwiri became so intolerable that in order 
to obtain rest, I had to set my tent in the open street. 

On the 13th of November, while taking an inspection 
of the village camp, and examining into the condition of 
the men, I was amazed at the busy scene of eating I 
beheld. Almost every man was engaged in pounding 
corn, reducing dried bananas into flour, or grinding 
raouthfuls of food with their fine teeth, making amends 
for the compulsory fast of September, October and 



Khamis returned on the 14tli with a large flock of i887. 
goats obtained from somewhere. He was gracious Nov. u. 
enouo;h to allow us sixteen head. This inclined us to 
suspect that the real object of his design was not to 
explore but to extend the conquests of his master, Ismaili, 
farther east through our assistance, and to reduce the 
natives of Ibwiri into the same state of poverty as the 
neighbourhood of Ipoto, for instance. But though 
Khamis possessed force sufficient to have accomplished 
even this last, the silly fellow's greed caused him to 
behave with such reckless disregard of the poisoned 
shafts of the natives that he lost three of his men. It 
seems that as soon as a flock of goats was sighted, 
Khamis forgot his design to explore, urged his Manyuema 
to their capture, and retained our people by him. Our 
men by these tactics returned uninjured without having 
been engaged in this disgraceful action. Then, as 
Khamis w^as returning to our village, mourning the loss 
of three of his most active comrades, he suddenly met 
Boryo, the Chief of East Ibwiri, and without a word 
made him a prisoner. Before reporting to me, Khamis, 
on arrival, ordered his men to strangle the chief in 
revenge for the death of his men. Happening to hear 
of it, I sent a guard to take him by force out of Khamis' 
hands, and placed him in a hut out of harm's way, and 
bade Boryo rest quiet until Khamis had departed. 

We luxuriated during our days of rest. There had 
been discovered such an abundance of food that we 
might safely have rested six months without fear of 
starving. We enjoyed ripe plantains made into puddings 
with goats' milk ; fritters, patties and bread, sweet 
potatoes, manioc, yams, herbs, fowls and goat meat 
without stint. On the evening of this day the menu 
for dinner was — 

Kid soup. 

Eoast leg of kid, and baked sweet potatoes. 

Boiled sweet manioc. 

Fried bananas. 

Sweet cake of ripe plantain. 

Plantain fritters. 

Goats' milk. 



1887. Already I noted a change in the appearance of our- 
Nov. 14. ggiygg and followers. There was certainly more noise, 
and once or twice I heard an attempt at singing, but as 
there was a well recognised flaw in the voice, it was 
postponed to another day. 

At 3 P.M. of the 16th Mr. Jephson appeared, having 
performed his mission of relief most brilliantly. As 
will be seen by Mr. Jephson's letter descriptive of 
his success, he had been able to proceed to the relief of 
Captain Nelson, and to return with him to Ipoto within 
seven days, after a journey of about a hundred miles. 
Judging from Captain Nelson's letter, he seemed to have 
been delivered out of his terrible position to fall into a 
similar desperate strait in the midst of the plenty of Ipoto. 

The next day Khamis and his Manyuema returned 
homeward without taking leave. I despatched a letter 
to the officers at Ipoto, sent Khamis' ivory and a present 
of cloth with it to Inde'karu, whence the Manyuema 
might be able to obtain assistance from their own natives. 
I was never so dissatisfied with myself as when I was 
compelled to treat these men thus so kindly, and to 
allow them to depart without even the small satisfaction 
of expressing my private opinion of Manyuema in general 
and of the gang at Ipoto in particular. At all points I 
was w^orsted ; they compelled a generous treatment from 
me, and finally trapped me into the obligation of being 
the carrier of their stolen ivory. 

Yet I felt grateful to them somewhat that they had 
not taken greater advantage of my position. With 
Captain Nelson and Dr. Parke and about thirty men in 
their power, they might have compelled a thousand con- 
cessions from me, which happily they did not. I hoped 
that after a season of forbearance divine justice would 
see fit to place me in more independent circumstances. 
When the Doctor and Nelson and their sick men were 
recovered and in my camp, and the 116 loads and boat 
left at Ipoto been conveyed away, then, and not till then, 
would I be able to cast up accounts, and demand a per- 
emptory and final settlement. The charges were written 
plainly and fairly, as a memorandum. 


Messrs. Kilonga Longa and Co., Ipoto. 1887. 

To Mr. Stanley, officers and men of the E. P. R. Expedition, ^^^' ^^^ 

November 17th, 1887. ibwiri. 

To having caused the starvation to deatli between the) ^^• 
Lenda River and Ibwiri of 67 men : because we had / 
crossed that river with 271 men— and in camp with [ «™ 
those due here shortly there were only 175, and 28 [ "' 
inclusive of Captain Nelson and Dr. Parke— therefore 
loss of men ....... 

To 27 men at Ipoto too feeble to travel, many of whom 
will not recover. 

To spearing to death Mufta Mazinga .... 1 

To flogging one man to death . ..." 1 

To flogging Ami, a Zanzibari, 200 lashes. 

To attempting to starve Captain Nelson and Dr. Parke. 

To mstigating robbery of two boxes of ammunition. 

To receiving thirty stolen Remington rifles. 

To various oppressions of Zanzibaris. 

To compelling Sarboko to work as their slave. 

To various insults to Captain Nelson and Dr. Parke. 

To devastating 44,000 square miles of territory. 

To butcliery of several thonsands of natives. 

To enslaving several hundreds of women and children. 

To theft of 1200 tusks of ivory between May, 1887, and 
October, 1887. 

To many murders, raids, crimes, devastations past, present 
and prospective. 

To deaths of Zanzibaris . . .69 
To mischiefs incalculable ! 

During tlie afternoon of the I7tli we experienced 
once again the evils attending our connection with the 
Manyuema. All Ibwiri and neighbouring districts were 
in arms against us. The first declaration of their 
hostilities took place when a man named Simba pro- 
ceeded to the stream close to the camp to draw water, 
and received an arrow in the abdomen. Realizing from . 
our anxious faces the fatal nature of the wound, he cried 
out his " Buryani brothers ! " and soon after, being taken 
into his hut, loaded a Remington rifle near him, and 
made a ghastly wreck of features that were once jovial, 
and not uncomely. 

The reflections of the Zanzibaris on the suicide were 
curious, and best expressed by Sali, the tent boy. 

Think of it, Simba ! a poor devil owning nothing in 
the world, without anything or anybody dear to him, 
neither name, place, property, or honour, to commit 

VOL. I. 




Nov. 17. 


suicide 1 Were lie a rich Arab now, a merchant Hindu, 
a captain of sokliers, a governor of a district, or a white 
man who had suffered misfortune, or had been the victim 
of dishonour or shame, yea, I coukl understand the 
spirit of the suicide ; but this Simba, who was no better 
than a slave, an outcast of Unyanyembe, without friends 
on the face of the earth, save the few poor things in hif 
own mess in this camp, to go and kill himself like a man 
of wealth ! Faugh ! pitch him into the wilderness, and 
let him rot ! What right has he to the honour of a 
shroud and a burial ? " This was the sentiment of the 
men who were once his comrades — though not so 
forcibly expressed as was done by little Sali in his fierce 
indignation at the man's presumption. 

Early on this morning Lieutenant Stairs and thirty-six 
rifles were despatched to make a reconnaissance east- 
ward under the guidance of Boryo, and a young Man- 
yuema volunteer, as we had yet a few days to wait for 
the arrival of several convalescents who, wearied of the 
cruelties practised at Ipoto on them, preferred death 
on the road to the horrible servitude of the Manyuema 

On the 19th Uledi, the coxswain of the Advance with 
his boat's crew, arrived, reporting that there were fifteen 
convalescents on the way. By night they were in the 

On the 21st the reconnoitering party under Lieutenant 
Stairs returned, Boryo still accompanying them ; nothing 
new about the grass land had been obtained, but they 
reported a tolerably good path leading steadily east 
ward, which was as comforting news as we could expect. 

On the 23rd, the last day of our stay at Ibwiri, there 
was a muster and reorganization : — 

No. 1 company, Jephson 

No. 2 „ Stairs 

Soudanese . 




Manyuema guide 
















Inclusive of Captain Nelson and Dr. Parke there were 1887. 
twenty -eight at Ipoto ; we Lad left to recuperate at ^o^-^^- 
Ugarrowwa's fifty-six. Some from Nelson's starvation ^^^'"• 
camp under Umari, the headman, probably ten, might 
return ; so that we reckoned the number of the advance 
column to be 268 still living out of 389 men who had 
departed from Yambuya 139 days previously, and put 
down our loss at 111. We were greatly mistaken, 
however, for by this date many of the sick at Ugarrowwa's 
had died, and the condition of the sick at Ipoto was 

Since our arrival at Ibwiri the majority of our followers 
had gained weight of body at the rate of a pound per 
day. Some w^ere positively huge in girth ; their eyes 
had become lustrous, and their skins glossy like oiled 
bronze. For the last three nights they had ventured 
upon songs ; they hummed their tunes as they pounded 
their corn ; they sang as they gazed at the moon at 
night after their evening meal. Frequently a hearty laugh 
had been heard. In the afternoon of this day a sparring 
match took place between two young fellows, and a good 
deal of severe thumping was exchanged ; they were 
always " spinning yarns " to interested listeners. Life 
had come back by leaps and bounds. Brooding over 
skeletons and death, and musing on distant friends in 
their far-aw^ay island, had been abandoned for hopeful 
chat over the future, about the not far distant grass 
land with its rolling savannahs, and green champaigns, 
abounding in fat cattle ; and they dwelt unctuously on 
full udders and massive humps, and heavy tails of sheep, 
and granaries of millet and sesame, pots of zogga, pombe, 
or some other delectable stimulant, and the Lake Haven, 
where the white man's steamers were at anchor, ap- 
peared distinctly in their visions. 

They all now desired the march, for the halt had been 
quite sufficient. There were twenty perhaps to whom 
another fortnight's rest was necessary, but they all 
appeared to me to have begun recovery, and, provided 
food was abundant, their marching without loads would 
not be hurtful. 



1887. At dawn of the bright and sunny day, 24th of Novem- 
^!r*-^-^' ^^^'' ^^® Soudanese trumpeter blew the signal with such 
cheery strains that found a ready response from every 
man. The men shouted their " Ready, aye ready. 
Master ! " in a manner that more reminded me of former 
expeditions, than of any day we had known on this. 
There was no need of the officers becoming exasperated 
at delays of laggards and the unwilling ; there was not 
a malingerer in the camp. Every face was lit up with 
hopefulness. A prospective abundance of good cheer 
invited them on. For tw^o days ahead the path was known 
by those of the reconnaissance, and the members of the 
party had, like Caleb and Joshua, expatiated upon the 
immense and pendent clusters of plantains effusing 
delicious odours of ripeness, and upon the garden plots of 
potatoes, and waving fields of maize, &c. Therefore, for 
once, ^ve were relieved from the anxiety as to who should 
take this load, or that box ; there was no searching 
about for the carriers, no expostulations nor threats, 
but the men literally leaped to the goods pile, fought 
for the loads, and laughed with joy ; and the officers 
faces w^ore grateful smiles, and expressed perfect content- 
ment with events. 

We filed out of the village, a column of the happiest 
fellows alive. The accursed Manyuema were behind us, 
and in our front rose in our imaginations vivid pictures 
of pastoral lands, and a great lake on whose shores we 
were to be greeted by a grateful Pasha, and a no less 
grateful army of men. 

In forty-five minutes we arrived at Boryo's village 
(the chief had been released the day before), a long, 
orderly arrangement of a street 33 feet wide, flanked 
by four low blocks of buildings 400 yards in length. 
According to the doors we judged that fifty-two families 
had formed Boryo's particular community. The chiefs 
house was recognized by an immense slab of wood four 
feet wide and six feet long, and two inches thick ; its 
doorway being cut out of this in a diamond figure. 

The height of the broad eaves was 1 feet above the 
ground, and the houses were 10 feet in width, The 


caves projected 30 inclies in front, and 2 feet over the iss;. 
back walls. Outside of the village extended, over level ^°''- ^"^ 
and high ground, the fields, gardens, and plantations, ^^^'"" 
banked all round by the untouched forest, which looked 
dark, ominous, and unwelcome. Altogether Boryo's vil- 
lage was the neatest and most comfortable w^e had seen 
throughout the valley of the Aruwimi. One hundred 
yards from the western end ran a perennial and clear 
stream, which abounded with fish of the silurus kind. 

After a short halt we resumed the journey, and 
entered the forest. Four miles beyond Boryo's we 
passed over a swamp, which was very favourable to fine 
growths of the Raphia palm, and soon after lunched. 
In the afternoon I undertook, as an experiment, to 
count my paces for an hour, and to measure a space of 
200 yards, to find the number of inches to a pace, and 
found that the average rate in a fair track through the 
forest was 4800 paces of 26 inches long = 3470 yards 
per hour. At 3 o'clock we camped in an extensive 
pigmies' village. The site commanded four several 
roads, leading to villages. There is no doubt it was a 
favourite spot, for the village common was well tamped 
and adapted for sport, gossip, and meetings. The bush 
around the camp was quite undisturbed. 

On the 25th, after 8^ miles march, we reached 
Indemwani. Our track led along the w^ater-parting 
between the Ituri and Ihuru rivers. The village was of 
oval shape, similar in architecture to Boryo's. A wealth 
of plantains surrounded it, and Indian corn, tobacco, 
beans, and tomatoes were plentiful. In passing through 
the clearing, over a fearful confusion of logs, one of our 
men toppled over, and fell and broke his neck. 

From Indemwani we moved on the 26th to West 
Indenduru, through a most humid land. Streams were 
crossed at every mile ; m.oss, wet and dripping, clothed 
stems from base to top. Even shrubs and vines were 
covered with it. 

A peculiarity of this day's march was a broad highway, 
cut and cleared for 3 miles through the undergrowth, 
which was terminated by a large village of the pigmies, 


1887. but recently vacated. There were ninety-two huts, 
Nov. 26. -^viiicii we may take to represent ninety-two families, or 
indeaduru. ^j^ereabouts. There was one hut more pretentious than 
the others, which possibly was the chief's house. We 
had seen now about twenty villages of the forest pigmies, 
but as yet we had only viewed the pretty little woman 
at Ugarrowwa — the miniature Hebe. 

Lieutenant Stairs, during his reconnaissance from 
Ibwiri, had reached West Indenduru, and had left the 
village standing ; but because he had occupied it, the 
natives had set fire to it after his departure. We observed 
also that the Balesse seldom ate of the produce of a field 
twice, and that a plantain grove, after bearing fruit once, 
is abandoned for another ; and a corn plot, after being 
tilled, sown, and harvested, is left to revert to wilder- 
ness. They appear to be continually planting bananas 
and preparing ground for corn, which accounted for the 
immense clearings we had passed, and for the thousands 
of trees that littered the OTound in one OTcat ruin. For 
the bananas or plantains, they simply cut down the 
underwood and plant the young bulbs in a shallow hole, 
with sufficient earth to keep it upright. They then cut 
the forest down, and let the trees lie where they fall. 
In six months the Musa bulbs have thriven wonderfully 
under shade and among roots and de'bris, and grown to 
8 feet in height ; within a year they have borne fruit. 
The Indian corn or maize requires sunshine. The trees 
are cut down well above the buttress, by building scaffolds 
10, 15, or even 20 feet high. The logs are cut up, and 
either split for slabs or lining for the inner and outer 
walls of their huts, or scooped out for troughs for the 
manufacture of plantain wine. The branches are piled 
around the plot to rot ; they do not burn them., because 
that would impoverish the soil, and as the surface is rich 
in humus, it would burn down to the clay. 

Considering what great labour is involved in the 
clearing of a portion of primeval forest, we were tempted 
to regard the Balesse' as very foolish in burning their 
villages for such a trivial cause as one night's occupation 
of them by strangers ; but it is an instance of the 


obstinate sullenness of these people. Boryo's village, i887. 
for instance, could scarcely be constructed under a ^*"' ^^• 
twelvemonth. The population of the largest village we ° ®°"*^™ 
saw could not exceed 600 souls ; but while we wonder 
at their prejudices, we must award credit to them for 
great industry and unlimited patience to produce such 
splendid results as we observed. 

East Indenduru was also an exceedingly well-built 
village, and extremely clean, though the houses within 
swarmed with vermin. The street, however, was too 
narrow for the height of the buildings, and a fire occurring 
in the night might easily have consumed half the inhabi- 
tants. For the huts were higher than at Boryo's, and as 
the buildings were a few hundred yards in length, and had 
only one principal exit at the eastern end, the danger of 
a fire was such that we did not occupy it without having 
taken many precautions to avoid a possible disaster in 
what appeared to be a perfect trap. 

Field-beans, of a dark variety, were gathered by the 
bushel, and our men revelled in the juice of the sugar- 

We were now in S. Lat. 1° 22^ and south of the 
watershed, all streams flowing towards the Ituri. 

On the 28th we halted in East Indenduru, and sent 
three separate reconnoitring parties to obtain a knowledge 
of the general direction of the routes leading out of the 
settlement. We had tested the task of forming our own 
track through the forest long enough, and having dis- 
covered one which had been of such service to us, we 
were loth to revert to the tedious labour of travelling 
through jungles and undergrowth again. 

Jephson's party proceeded S.S.E., and finally S., and 
at noon turned back to report. This road would not do 
for us. Rashid's party took one leading E.N.E., and 
finally north, through two small villages, one path return- 
ing southerly, another going north-easterly. Continuing 
his explorations along the latter, he came to a native 
camp. There was a slight skirmish ; the natives fled, and 
he obtained a prize of nine fat goats, only five of which 
they brought to camp. This road would not suit us either. 



1887. A third search party was led by a famous scout, wlio 
Nov. 28. (discovered one path heading easterly. We resolved to 
adopt this. 

On the 29tli we left Indenduru and journeyed to 
Indepessu by noon, and in the afternoon sheered by a 
northerly path to the settlement of the Baburu, having 
accomplished a distance of ten miles in five hours, which 
was exceedingly fair walking. 

On the next morning, after a march of an hour and a 
half along a tolerably good path, w^e emerged in front of an 
extensive clearing of about 240 acres. The trees were but 
recently cut. This marked the advent of a powerful tribe, 
or a late removal to new ground of old settlers of some 
numerical force, resolved upon securing many creature 
comforts. A captive woman of the Waburu led the way 
through the middle of this wide abattis, the very sight 
of which was appalling. An hour later we had crossed 
this, not without bruised shins and much trembling, 
and the path then led up an easy ascent up a prolonged 
span of a hill. The hollows on either side of it showed 
prodigious groves of plantains and many gardens, ill- 
kept, devoted to herbs and gourds. Within thirty minutes 
from the summit of the ascent we had reached an altitude 
that promised to give us shortly a more extended view 
than any we had been lately accustomed to, and we 
pressed gladly upwards, and soon entered a series of 
villages that followed the slope. A village of these parts 
always gave us a highway well trodden, from forty to 
sixty feet wide ; in a series of this type of villages we 
should soon be able to pace a mile. We had passed 
through several fine separate long blocks of low struc- 
tures, when the foremost of the advance guard was seen 
running swiftly down to meet me. He asked me to look 
towards the sunrise, and, turning my eyes in that 
direction, they were met by the gratifying sight of a 
fairly varied scene of pasture-land and forest, of level 
champaigns and grassy slopes of valleys and hills, 
rocky knolls and softly rounded eminences, a veritable 
" land of hills and valleys, that drinketh the rain of 
heaven." That the open country was well watered was 




indicated by the many irregular lines of woods which i887. 
marked the courses of the streams, and by the clumps of ^®^" ^^• 
trees, whose crowns just rose above their sloping banks. 
The great forest in which we had been so long buried, 
and whose limits were in view, appeared to continue in- 
tact and unbroken to the N.E., but to the E. of it was 
an altogether different region of grassy meads and plains 
and hills, freely sprinkled with groves, clusters, and thin 
lines of trees up to certain ranges of hills that bounded 
the vision, and at whose base I knew must be the goal 
whither we had for months desired to reach. 




This, then, was the long promised view and the long 
expected exit out of gloom ! Therefore I called the tall 
peak terminating the forested ridge, of which the spui 
whereon we stood was a part, and that rose two miles E. 
of us to a height of 4600 feet above the sea, Pisgah, — 
Mount Pisgah, — because, after 156 days of twilight in 
the primeval forest, we had first viewed the desired 
pasturelands of Equatoria. 

The men crowded up the slope eagerly with inquiring 
open-eyed looks, which, before they worded their thoughts, 
we knew meant " Is it true ? Is it no hoax ? Can it !)e 


1887. possible tliat we are near the end of tliis forest hell ? " 
Nov. 30. 'pijgy were convinced themselves in a few moments after 
they had dropped their burdens, and regarded the view 
with wondering and delighted surprise. 

" Aye, friends, it is true. By the mercy of God we are 
well nigh the end of our prison and dungeon ! " They 
held their hands far out yearningly towards the superb 
land, and each looked up to the bright blue heaven in 
grateful worship, and after they had gazed as though 
fascinated, they recovered themselves with a deep sigh, 
and as they turned their heads, lo 1 the sable forest heaved 
away to the infinity of the west, and they shook their 
clenched hands at it with gestures of defiance and hate. 
Feverish from sudden exaltation, they apostrophised it for 
its cruelty to themselves and their kinsmen ; they com- 
pared it to Hell, they accused it of the murder of one 
hundred of their comrades, they called it the wilderness 
of fungi and wood-beans ; but the great forest which lay 
vast as a continent before them, and drowsy, like a great 
beast, with monstrous fur thinly veiled by vaporous ex- 
halations, answered not a word, but rested in its infinite 
sullenness, remorseless and implacable as ever. 

From S.E. to S. extended a range of mountains be- 
tween 6,000 and 7,000 feet above the sea. One woman 
captive indicated S.E. as our future direction to the great 
water that " rolled incessantly on the shore with a boom- 
ing noise, lifting and driving the sand before it," but as 
we were in S. Lat. 1°. 22', on the same parallel as Kavalli, 
our objective point, I preferred aiming east, straight to- 
wards it. 

Old Boryo, chief of Ibwiri, had drawn with his hand a 
semicircle from S.E. to N.W. as the course of the Ituri 
River, and said that the river rose from a plain at the foot 
of a great hill, or a range of hills. To the S.E. of Pisgah 
we could see no plain, but a deep wooded valley, and unless 
our eyes deceived us, the forest seemed to ascend up the 
slopes of the range as far as its summits. Five months 
of travel in one continuous forest was surely experience 
enough ; a change would therefore be agreeable, even if 
we varied but our hardships. This was another reason 



why I proposed to decline all advice upon the proper 
path leading to the "great water." 

In the village of the Bakwuru, in which we now pre- 
pared to encamp, we found sleeveless vests of thick buffalo 
hide, which our men secured, as fitting armour against 
the arrows of the tribes of the grass land. 

On the 1st of December we retraced our steps down 
the spur, and then struck along a track running easterly. 
In a short time we ascended another spur leading up to 

Nov. 30. 



a terrace below Pisgah peak, wdiere we obtained the 
highest reading of the aneroid that we had yet reached. 
We then followed a path leading from the terrace down 
another spur to the average level. A number of well- 
defined and trodden roads were crossed, but our path 
seemed to increase in importance until, at 11.15 a.m., we 
entered the large village of lyugu, which, of course, was 
quite deserted, so quickly do the natives of the forest 
seem to be apprised of new arrivals. The street of this 
village was forty feet wide. 



Dec. 1. 


We observed a considerable dryness in the woods be 
tween Pisgah base and lyugu, which was a great change 
from that excessive humidity felt and seen between 
Indenduru and Ibwiri. The fallen forest leaves had a 
slightly crispy look about them and crackled under our 
feet, and the track, though still in primeval shade, had 
somewhat of the dusty appearance of a village street. 


After the noon 
two hours' march 
consisting' of three 

halt we made a 
to a small village 
conical huts, near 
which we camped. Though we had travelled over ten 
miles we might have been hundreds of miles yet from 
the open country for all we could gather from our 
surroundings. For they were, as usual, of tall dense 
woods, of true tropic character, dark, sombrous and 
high, bound one to the other with creepers and vines, 
and a thick undergrowth throve under the shades. 



We, however, picked up a strange arrow in one of \mi. 
the huts, which differed greatly from any we had ^^^^J^; 
as yet seen. It was twenty-eight inches in length, 
and its point was spear-shaped, and three inches 
long. Its shaft was a light reed cane, beautifully and 
finely notched for decoration, a thin triangular-shaped 
piece of kid leather directed 
the arrow, instead of a leaf 
or a piece of black cloth as 
hitherto. A quiver full of 
forest-tribe arrows was also 
found, and they were twenty 
inches long, and each arrow- 
head differed from the other, 
though each was murderously 
sharp and barbed. 

On the 2nd of December, 
soon after leaving the camp, 
we lost the native road, and 
had to pick our way amongst 
a perplexing number of buffalo 
and elephant tracks. A stupid 
fellow, who had been out 
wandering, had informed us 
that he had reached the plain 
the night before, and that he 
could easily guide us to it. 
Trusting in him, we soon lost 
all signs of a track, and began 
a crooked and erratic course 
through the woods, as in times ^ -^ 
past. After nearly three 
hours' travelling N. by E. we 

stumbled upon a village, whose conical roofs were 
thatched with grass. This was a grand discovery, and 
was hailed with cheers. One fellow literally rushed to 
the grass and kissed it lovingly. Already there were 
two characteristics of pasture-land before us, the cone 
hut and the grass thatch. We halted for a noon rest, 
and a few young men took advantage of it to explore, 




and before tlie halting-time was expired brought to us 
a bunch of green grass, which was hailed with devout 
raptures, as Noah and his family may have hailed the 
kindly dove with the olive branch. However, they 
reported that the way they had followed led to a swamp, 
and swamps being a horror to a laden caravan, our 
afteirnoon march was made in a S.S.E. direction, which 
in ninety minutes brought us to Indesura, another 
village, or rather a district, consisting of several small 
settlements of cone huts thatched with grass. Here 
we halted. 

Having occasion to repair a roof a man mounted to 
the top of a house, and looking round languidly was 
presently seen to lift his hand to his eyes and gaze 
earnestly. He then roared out loud enough for the 
entire village to hear, " I see the grassland. Oh, but 
we are close to it ! " 

" Nay," said one in reply, mockingly, " don't you also 
see the lake, and the steamer, and that Pasha whom we 
seek ? " 

Most of us were, however, stirred by the news, and 
three men climbed up to the roofs with the activity 
of wild cats, others climbed to the tops of trees, while a 
daring young fellow climbed one which would have 
tasked a monkey almost, and a chorus of exclamations 
rose, " Aye, verily, it is the truth of God, the open land 
is close to us, and we knew it not ! Why, it is merely 
an arrow's flight distant ! Ah, when we reach it, farewell 
to darkness and blindness." 

As a man went to draw water from the stream close 
by, an ancient crone stepped out of the bush, and the 
man dropped his water-pot and seized her. She being 
vigorous and obstinate, like most of her sex just 
previous to dotage, made a vigorous defence for her 
liberty. A Countess of Salisbury could not have been 
more resolute, but the man possessed superior strength 
and craft and hauled her into camp. By dint of smiles 
and coaxing and obsequiously filling a long pipe for her, 
we learned that we were in Indesura, that the people 
were called Wanya-Sura, that the villagers quenched 



their thirst with the waters of the Ituri. " The Ituri ? " i887. 
" Ay, the Ituri ; this stream close by ; " that many days ^^"^ '*• 
east of us was a great broad river, ever so much 
broader than the Ituri, with canoes as wide as a house 
(ten feet) which would carry six people (sic) ; that a 
few days north there was a mighty tribe called the 
Banzanza, and east of them another people called the 
Bakandi, and both of these tribes possessed numerous 
herds of cattle, and were very valorous and warlike, and 
who were rich in cattle, cowries, and brass wire. 

Our ancient captive, who was somewhat peculiar for 
her taste in personal decoration by having a wooden 
disk of the size of an ulster button intruded into the 
centre of her upper lip, was now seized with another fit 
of obstinacy and scowled malignantly at all of us except 
at a bashful smooth-faced youth upon whom she 
apparently doted, but the foolish youth ascribed the 
ugliness of agedness to witchcraft, and fled from her. 

Inde-sura — and, as we discovered later, all the villages 
situated on the edge of the forest — was remarkable for 
the variety and excellent quality of its products. Mostly 
all the huts contained large baskets of superior tobacco 
weighing from twenty to fifty pounds each, such quan- 
tities, indeed, that every smoker in the camp obtained 
from five to ten pounds. The crone called it " Taba ; " in 
Ibwiri it was called Tabo. Owing to the imperfect dry- 
ing it is not fragrant, but it is extremely smokable. 
Fifty pipefuls a day of it would not produce so much 
effect on the nerves as one of the article known as 
Cavendish. But here and there among the leaves there 
were a few of rich brown colour, slightly spotted with 
nitre which produced a different effect. Two of our 
officers experimented on a pipeful of this, which they 
deemed to be superior, and w^ere inconceivably wretched 
in consequence. When, however, these leaves are picked 
out, the tobacco is mild and innocuous, as may be 
judged by the half-pint pipe-bowls peculiar to this 
region. In every district near the grassland the plant 
is abundantly cultivated, for the purpose of commerce 
with the herdsmen of the plains in exchange for meat. 

VOL. I. T 



Dec. 4. 


The castor-oil plant was also extensively cultivated. 
Requiring a supply of castor-oil as medicine, the beans 
were roasted, and then pounded in a wooden mortar, and 
we expressed a fair quantity, which *proved very effective. 
We also required a supply for rifles, and their mechanisms, 
and the men prepared a supply for anointing their 
bodies — an operation which made them appear fresh, 
clean, and vigorous. 

Having discovered that four of our scouts were 
strangely absent, I despatched Rashid bin Omar and 
twenty men in search of them. They were discovered 
and brought to us next morning, and to my surprise the 

four absentees, led by the incorrigible Juma Waziri, were 
driving a flock of twenty fine goats, which the chief 
scout had captured by a ruse. I had often been tempted 
to sacrifice Juma for the benefit of others, but the rogue 
always appeared with such an inoffensive, and crave- 
your-humble-pardon kind of face, which could not be 
resisted. He was of a handsome Abyssinian type, but the 
hypocrisy on his features marred their natural beauty. 
A Mhuma, iAlasai, Mtaturu, or Galla must have meat, 
even more so than the Englishman. It is an article of 
faith with him, that life is not worth living without an 
occasional taste of beef. I therefore warned Juma again, 
and consoled myself with the reflection, that his career 



as a scout could only be for a brief time, and that he I887. 
would surely meet natives of craft and courage equal to ^^'^- *• 
his own some day. 

We had made an ineffectual start on this day, had 
actually left the village a few hundred yards when we 
were stopped by the depth of a river forty yards wide 
and with a current of two and a half miles an hour. 
The old crone called this the Ituri. ]\Iarvellino; that 
between Ipoto and Ibwiri a river 400 yards wide could 
be narrowed to such a narrow stream, we had returned 
to Inde-sura for a day's halt, and I had immediately after 
sent Lieutenant Stairs and Mr. Jephson with sufficient 
escort back along yesterday's path to find a ford across 
the Ituri. 

At 4 P.M. both officers returned to report a successful 
discovery of a ford a mile and a half higher up the 
stream, and that they had set foot upon the grassland, 
in proof of which they held a bunch of fine young 
succulent grass. Meantime, Uledi and his party had 
also found another ford waist deep, still nearer 

On the evening of this day a happier community of 
men did not exist on the face of the round earth than 
those who rejoiced in the camp of Inde'-sura. On the 
morrow they were to bid farewell to the forest. The 
green grassy region of which we had dreamed in our 
dark hours, when slumbering heavily from exhaustion of 
body and prostration from hunger during the days of 
starvation, was close at hand. Their pots contained 
generous supplies of juicy meat ; in the messes 
were roast and boiled fowls, corn mush, plantain Hour 
porridge, and ripe bananas. No wonder they were now 
exuberantly happy, and all except ten or twelve men 
were in finer condition than when they had embarked so 
hopefully for the journey in the port of Zanzibar. 

On the 4th of December we filed out of Inde-sura and 
proceeded to the ford. It was waist deep, and at this 
place fifty yards wide. Two of the aneroids indicated 
an altitude of 3050 feet above the ocean — 1850 feet 
higher than the level of the river at the landing-place of 


1887. Yambuya, and 2000 feet higher than the Congo at 
^''- *• Stanley Pool. 
Grass an ]?poni the Ituii we entered a narrow belt of tall timber 
on its left bank, and, after waiting for the column to cross, 
marched on, led by Mr. Mounteney Jephson along a broad 
elephant track for about 600 yards, and then, to our 
undisguised joy, emerged upon a rolling plain, green as 
an English lawn, into broadest, sweetest daylight, and 
warm and glorious sunshine, to inhale the pure air 
with an uncontrollable rapture. Judging of the feelings 
of others by my own, we felt as if we had thrown all age 
and a score of years away, as we stepped with invigorated 
limbs upon the soft sward of young grass. We strode 
forward at a pace most unusual, and finally, unable to 
suppress our emotions, the whole caravan broke into a 
run. Every man's heart seemed enlarged and lifted up 
with boyish gladness. The blue heaven above us never 
seemed so spacious, lofty, pure, and serene as at this 
moment. We gazed at the sun itself undaunted by its 
glowing brightness. The young grass, only a month 
since the burning of the old, was caressed by a bland, 
soft breeze, and turned itself about as if to show us its 
lovely shades of tender green. Birds, so long estranged 
from us, sailed and soared through the lucent atmosphere ; 
antelopes and elands stood on a grassy eminence gazing 
and wondering, and then bounded upward and halted 
snorting their surprise, to which our own was equal ; 
buffaloes lifted their heads in amazement at the intruders 
on their silent domain, heaved their bulky forms, and 
trooped away to a safer distance. A hundred square 
miles of glorious country opened to our view — apparently 
deserted — for we had not as yet been able to search out 
the fine details of it. Leagues upon leagues of bright 
green pasture land undulated in gentle waves, intersected 
by narrow winding lines of umbrageous trees that filled 
the hollows, scores of gentle hills studded with dark 
clumps of thicket, graced here and there by a stately 
tree, lorded it over level breadths of pasture and softly 
sloping champaigns ; and far away to the east rose some 
frowning ranges of mountains beyond which we were 


certain slept in its deep gulf the blue Albert. Until I887. 
breathlessness forced a halt, the caravan had sped on the ^^*^" *' 
double-quick — for this was also a pleasure that had been ^^^^ 
long deferred. 

Then we halted on the crest of a commanding hill to 
drink the beauty of a scene to which we knew no 
rival, which had been the subject of our thoughts and 
dreams for months, and now we were made " glad ac- 
cording to the days wherein we had been afflicted and 
the period wherein we had seen evil." Every face gloated 
over the beauty of the landscape and reflected the secret 
pleasure of the heart. The men were radiant with the 
fulfilment of dear desires. Distrust and sullenness were 
now utterly banished. We were like men out of durance 
and the dungeon free and unfettered, having exchanged 
foulness and damp for sweetness and purity, darkness 
and gloom for divine light and wholesome air. Our 
eyes followed the obscure track, roved over the pasture 
hillocks, great and small, every bosky islet and swarded 
level around it, along the irregularities of the forest line 
that rose darkly funereal behind us, advancing here, 
receding there, yonder assuming a bay-like canoe, here 
a cape-like point. The mind grasped the minutest 
peculiarity around as quick as vision, to cling to it for 
many, many years. A score of years hence, if we live so 
long, let but allusion be made to this happy hour when 
every soul trembled with joy, and praise rose spon- 
taneously on every lip, and we shall be able to map the 
whole with precision and fidelity. 

After examining the contour of the new region before 
us with the practical view of laying a course free from 
river or swamp, I led the Expedition N.N.E. to a rocky 
knoll which was about four miles from us, in order to 
strike the southern base of a certain hilly range that 
ran E. by S. from the knoll. I imagined we should 
then be able to travel over upland, trending easterly, 
without much inconvenience. 

We reached the base of the rock-heap that stood about 
300 feet above the valley to our right, then perceiving 
that the obscure game track we had followed had de- 

Grass Land. 


1887. veloped into a native highway running N.E., we struck 
^^^•^- across the grassy upland to retain our hold upon the 
crown we had gained, the short young grass enabling us 
to do so without fatigue. But near noon the tall unburnt 
grass of last season interrupted our too-easy advance 
with its tangle of robust stalks of close growth ; but we 
bore on until 12.30, and after an hour of serious exercise 
halted by the side of a crystal stream for refreshments. 

In the afternoon we breasted the opposing grassy 
slope, and, after an hour and a half of rapid pacing, selected 
a camp near the junction of two streams, which flowed 
south-easterly. Relieved from their liurdens, a few tireless 
fellows set out to forage in some villages we had observed 
far below our line of march in the valley. The sudden- 
ness of their descent among the natives provided them 
with a rich store of fowls, sugar-cane, and ripe branches 
of bananas. They brought us specimens of the weapons 
of this new land : several long bows and lengthy arrows ; 
shields of a heavy rectangular form, formed of a double 
row of tough rods crossed, and tightly bound together 
with fibre and smeared with some gummy substance. 
They presented very neat workmanship, and were alto- 
gether impeuetrable to arrows or spears. Besides shields 
the natives wore vests "of buffalo hide, which appeared to 
be quite impervious to pistol shots. 

Our course as far as the rocky knoll already described 
was nearly parallel with the edge of the forest, our path 
varying in distance from it from a half mile to a mile 
and a half As a sea or a lake indents its shore, so 
appeared the view of the line of forest. 

The trend of the Ituri tlmt we had crossed, which we 
must call West Ituri, was E.S.E.. I should have esti- 
mated the source of the river to have been distant from 
the crossing about 25 geographical miles N.N.W. 

On the next day we advanced up a long slope of short 
grass land, and on the crest halted to arrange the 
column with more order, lest we might be suddenly 
confronted by an overwhelming force, for we were as 
yet ignorant of the land, its people, and the habits of 
those among whom we had dropped so suddenly. 


Marching forward we chose a slight track that followed i887. 
the crest leading E. by S., but soon all traces of it were ^^•=-*- 
lost. However, we were on a commanding upland, and 
a score of miles were visible to us in any direction out 
of which we might select any course. A village was in 
view N.E. of us, and to it we directed our steps, that 
we might avail ourselves of a path, for the closely- 
packed acreages of reedy cane and fifteen-feet-high grass, 
that we stumbled upon occasionally, were as bad as the 
undergrowth of the jungle. The very tallest and 
rankest grass impeded us, and prevented rapid advance. 
We crossed jungly gullies, on whose muddy ground were 
impressed the feet of lions and leopards, and finally 
entered a tract ot acacia thorn, which was. a sore an- 
noyance, and out of this last we emerged into the 
millet fields of Mbiri. In a few seconds the natives 
were warned of our approach, and fled instinctively, and, 
Parthian -like, shot their long arrows. The scouts dashed 
across every obstacle, and seized a young woman and a 
lad of twelve, who were the means of instructing our 
poor ignorance. No long conversation could be main- 
tained with them, owing to our very imperfect knowledge 
of any dialect spoken near this region, but a few names 
of nouns assisted by gestures brought out the fact that . 
we were in the district of Mbiri, that the main road 
easterly would take us to the Babusesse country, that 
beyond them lay the Abunguma, all of which naturally 
we heard with supreme indifi'erence. What did such 
names convey to dull senses and, blank minds ? They 
had never heard of Shakespeare, Milton, or even of Her 
Majesty the Queen 

" Had any of them heard of Muta, or Luta Nzige ? " 

A shake of the head. 

" Of Unyoro ? " 

" Unyoro ? Yes. Unyoro lies a great way off," 
pointing east. 

" Of a great water near Unyoro ? " 

" The Ituri, you mean ? " 

" No, wider ; ever so much wider than the Ituri — aa 
wide as all this plain." 


1887. But instead of confining themselves to monosyllables, 
Dec. 5. ^}-^ic]^ ^yg might easily have understood, the wretched 

Babusess^. -i i ^ . , , i • r 

woman and boy, anxious to convey too much iniorma 
tion, smothered comprehension by voluble talk in their 
dialect, and so perplexed us that we had recourse to 
silence and patience. They would show us the way to 
Babusesse at least. 

The mode of hut construction is similar to that seen 
all over East and Central Africa. It is the most 
popular. A cone roof occupies two-thirds of the height ; 
one-third is devoted to the height of the walls. Huts 
of this pattern, scattered amongst the banana groves, are 
found every few dozen yards. Paths lead from one to the 
other, and are most baffling to the stranger, who without 
a local guide must necessarily go astray. To every 
group of huts there are attached outhouses for cooking 
sheds, for gossip, to store fuel, and doing chores ; also 
circular grass-walled and thatched little granaries raised 
a foot or so above the ground as protection against 
vermin and damp. 

Our people obtained a large quantity of ripe plan- 
tains and ripe bananas, out of which the aborigines 
manufacture an intoxicatinoc wine called marwa. A few 
goats were also added to our flock, and about a dozen 
fowls were taken. All else were left untouched according 
to custom, and we resumed our journey. 

The path was well trodden. Traffic and travel had 
tamped it hard and smooth. It led S.E. by E. up and 
down grassy hills and vales. Near noon we halted for 
refreshments, shaded by fine woods, and close by 
boomed a loud cataract of the Ituri, we were told. 
This was rather puzzling. We could not understand 
how the Ituri, which we had forded the day before, 
could be roaring over precipices and terraces at this 
high altitude, and after we had purposely struck away 
from its valley to avoid it. 

A march of an hour and a half in the afternoon, 
apparently not very far from the river, brought us 
to the populous district of the Babusesse. The banana 
plantations were very extensive, reminding me of 



Uganda, and their deep shades covered a multitude of 
huts. Fields of millet and sesame, plots of sweet 
potatoes, occupied the outskirts of these plantations, 
and there was ample evidence round about that the 
land was thickly peopled and industriously cultivated. 

Before entering the banana shades we repaired our 
ranks, and marched in more compact order. A strong 
body of men armed with Winchesters formed the 
advance guard ; a similar number of men armed with 
Remingtons, under the command of Stairs, closed the 
rear of the column. But however well cautioned the 
men were against breaking 
rank, no sooner had the 
advance guard passed safely 
through a dangerous local- 
ity than the main body in- 
variably despatched scores 
of looters into huts and 
granaries to hunt up booty 
and fowls, bananas, goats, 
sugar-cane, and trivial ar- 
ticles of no earthly use. 
These plantations hid a 
large number of natives, 
who permitted the advance 
to pass because their files 
were unbroken, and their 
eyes on the watch, but those 

straggling looters soon gave the aborigines the oppor- 
tunity. Some arrows flew well aimed ; one pinned a 
man's arm to his side, another glancing from a rib 
admonished its owner of his folly. A volley from rifles 
drove the men away from their covert without harm 
to any of them. 

At the easternmost settlement we camped. There 
were only two large conical huts and other outhouses in 
it, and around these the huts for the night were ar- 
ranged hastily, put up with banana leaves suflicienfc to 
shed rain and dew. 

At dusk I called the captives to me again, and at- 

Dec. 5. 





1887. tempted, during half an hour, to gain a lucid answer to 
^^'^- °- the question as to whether there was a great body of 
water or great river east of us. When one of the head- 
men w ho were assisting us demanded to know which was 
the largest Nyanza, that of Unyoro, or that of Uganda — 

" Nyanza ! " cried the native boy — " Nyanza ? Ay, 
the Nyanza lies this way " (pointing east) " and extends 
that way" (north-east) "a long distance;" and when 
asked how many " sleeps " intervened between the Babu- 
sesse, held up three fingers on his dexter hand, and 
answered " three." 

It was now dark, and we were suddenly startled by a 
shriek of pain, and a sequent yell singularly weird, and 
with a note of triumph in it, and in the silence that 
followed we heard the hurtling of arrows through the 
banana leaves above our heads. 

" Put out the fires ! Keep cool. Where are the 
sentries ? Why are they not at their posts ? " were the 
next words uttered. 

The natives had stolen on us at the very hour when 
the camp was least watched, for it was supper-time, and 
the guards, except on unusual occasions, were permitted 
to feed before going out on guard duty for the night. 
We soon ascertained that one arrow had penetrated the 
thigh of a man named Salim to i}iQ depth of four inches, 
another had pierced the roast leg of a kid before the fire, 
several others had perforated banana stalks. Salim, after 
a little coaxing, bravely drew out the shaft until the 
barbed point was seen, when, with a wrench, I extracted 
it with a pair of pincers. Eucalyptine was then applied 
to the wound, and the man was sent to his quarters. 

Half an hour later, all the guards being now on duty, 
however, the natives essayed another quarter of the 
camp, but the rifle-shots rang out quickly in reply, and 
there was a scamper and a rustle heard. In the distance 
we heard two rifles fired, and an agonised cry, by which 
we knew that there were some of our incorrigible looters 

Our force was weak enough, in all conscience, not in 
numbers, but in real strength, for defence and capacity 



for bearing ammunition, and these wanderers were always 1887. 
a source of great anxiety to me. It was useless to reason ^^*^- ^• 
and expostulate ; only downright severity restrained 
them, and as yet, so fresh were we from the horrors 
of the forest, that I had not the moral courage to 
apply the screw of discipline ; but when I assumed 
mildness, their own heedless imprudence incurred punish- 
ments far more severe than any of us would ever have 
thought of inflicting. 

A heavy rain fell on us during the night, which 
detained us next morning until eight o'clock. I em- 
ployed the time in extracting something intelligible 
respecting the character of the natives in front, but we 
were all so profoundly ignorant of the language that we 
could make but little headway. In the endeavour to 
make herself clear, the woman drew on the ground a 
sketch of the course of the Ituri. This illustrated one of 
the strangest facts in African geography that one could 
imagine. The river was represented as going up to the 
crest of the watershed, flowing steeply upward parallel 
with Lake Albert, and finally lifting itself over to be 
precipitated into the Nyanza ! Stupefied by what she 
said, I kept her by me as we marched out of camp into 
the open. From the crown of a hill she pointed out, 
half a mile below, the Ituri Eiver flowing eastward. The 
stretch in view was an east by south course. 

Now here was a deep puzzle. We had crossed from 
the right bank to the left bank of the Ituri two days 
previously, in N. Lat. 1° 24' ; we were now in N. Lat. 
1° 28'. Yet the Ituri we saw flowed E. by S. and 
E.S.S., and my route to Kavalli was obviously south of 

I declined to perplex myself any more with the 
problem, or in trying to understand what the woman 
meant, that the river we had ascended for 600 miles 
from the Congo flowed to the Nyanza. The only 
solution possible was that there were two Ituris, one 
flowing to the Congo, the other into the Nile basin ; 
but both she and her brother stoutly maintained that 
there was only one Ituri. 



1887. We continued on our journey, following a path which 
Dec... fjippgj down into the valley. We presently stood on 

oK„c<..<,-4 111 /.I 11 1- IT 

tlie banks oi the stream, and the solution was at hand. 
It was the main Ituri River, flowing south of west ! We 
are all wise after the event. 

There was a clumsy, misshapen canoe in the river, 
and as Saat Tato was an expert canoeist, he was 
detailed to ferry the caravan over for a reward of 
20 dollars. The river was 125 yards broad, about seven 
feet average depth, with a current of two knots. It 
was a cataract of this stream whose low thunder we 
had heard near Mbiri. 

The natives of Abunguma, on the left side of the 
river, watched our operations from a hill-top a mile 
off, with an air of confidence which seemed to say, 
" All right, friends. When you are through, you will 
have to reckon with us." Nothing could be done in 
such an open land as this without '" all the world 
knowing it." The Abunguma shook their spears bravely 
at us ; the Babusesse occupied every prominent point 
on the right side of the river. It appeared once or 
twice as if our manhood was about to be tested on an 
important scale. There was the comfort, however, that, 
knowing the natives to be alert and active, we could 
not be surprised on a pasture slope where the grass 
around the camp was but three inches high. 

Since we had entered Ibwiri we had fared luxuriously 
— for Africa. We had enjoyed meat and milk daily. 
We had lived on fowls, young and dried beans, sugar- 
cane, sweet potatoes, yams, colocassia, tomatoes, brinjalls, 
melons, plantains, and bananas. On the people the 
effect was wonderful. They were men in every respect 
superior both in body and spirit to the gaunt and craven 
wretches whom the Arab slaves of Ipoto scourged and 
speared without more than a mild protest. On the 
whites also the effect had been most beneficial. Though 
«pare, we were no longer meagre and haggard ; a little 
vvine would have completed the cure. 

A gentle grassy slope, on the next morning, took us, 
in the course of an hour, to the crown of one of those 


long undulations so characteristic of this region. It 1887. 
furnished us with another all-round view peculiarly ^^°" ^' 
interesting to us. Our intended direction was south- 
east, as we were bearing for a high conical peak at 
the end of a range of grass-covered mountains, which 
afterwards became known to us as Mazamboni's Peak. 
We dipped down into delightful vales, watered by cool 
and clear brooks. Close to these were small clusters of 
native homesteads, with their fields of unripe sorghum, 
sweet potato, and sugar-cane patches, &c. But the 
homesteads were all abandoned, and their owners were 
observing us from the sky-line of every superior hill. 
Finally we passed an empty cattle zeriba, the sight of 
which was loudly cheered, and cries of " Ay, the master 
is right, and every word comes to pass. First will come 
the grass-land, then the cattle with brave men to defend 
them, then hills, then the Nyanza, and lastly the white 
man. The grass-land we have seen, here is the cattle 
yard, yonder are the mountains, the brave men and the 
Nyanza and the white man we shall yet see, please 

We bore on our way to a valley through which 
another river rushed and roared. On our left was a ruo-aed 


line of rocks that rose in huge and detached masses, on 
the top of which a dozen men might be seated comfort- 
ably. Connecting these huge rock masses was a lower 
line of rocks, more uniform, forming the bare spine 
of a ridge. At some places we passed so close to the 
base of this hill that we were within easy stone's throw 
of the summits. But though we were prepared for a 
demonstration, the natives remained singularly quiet. 
The path we followed halted at a suspension bridge 
across a third " Ituri," which had better be distinguished 
as East Ituri to prevent misunderstanding. This last 
river was thirty yards wide, deep and swift as a rapid. 
Spanned by a bridge of such fragile make that we could 
only pass one at a time in safety, it required one 
hundred and twenty seconds for a single person to cross 
the ninety-feet span, and the caravan was not on the 
other side entirely before 6 p.m. As the crossing was in 



Dec. 6. 


a position of great disadvantage, riflemen had been on 
the look-out all day. 

In the afternoon we saw a fine black cow and her calf 
issue out of a defile in the rocky ridge just described, 
and clamours of " Beef, beef — ay, beef, how are you ? 
we have not seen you since we were young 1 " rose loud. 
The Abunguma had hidden their cattle among the rocky 
hills, and these specimens had probably been refractory. 


Leaving the picturesque valley of East Ituri on the 
8th, we ascended an easy slope to the top of a hill where 
we obtained a long view of the crooked and narrow 
valley of the East Ituri, and were able to observe that 
it came from an east-south-east direction. Shortly after, 



something more like a plain opened before us, extending iss? 
over a score of miles to the south, bordered on the north .'^^^^ ^ 
by the stony ridge and valley we had just left behind, 
while to the eastward rose Mazamboni's mountain range, 
whose northern end, conspicuous by the tall peak, was 
our present objective point. 

At 9.30 A.M. we had approached several miles nearer 
this mountain range, and before descending into the 
valley of a streamlet flowing northward, we observed 
with wonder that the whole intervening space as far as 
the mountains was one mass of plantations, indicative of 
a powerful population. Here then, we thought, " will 
be the tug of war. The Abunguma have left their 
settlements in order to join this numerous tribe, and 
meet us with a fitting reception." No more populous 
settlements had been seen since we had departed from 
Bangala on the Congo. A suspicion that these were 
among the confederation of tribes who hemmed in the 
poor anxious governor of Equatoria also crept into our 
minds, as we looked upon this huge display of numbers 
and evidence of wealth and security. 

With the view of not provoking the natives, and of 
preventing the incorrigible looters of the column from 
the commission of mischief, we took a south-east track 
to skirt the district. We were able to steer our course 
between the plantations, so that no cover was afforded to 
an enemy. At 11.30 we had reached the eastern ex- 
tremity of the district, and then rested for the noon halt 
and refreshment, under the shadow of a tree whose 
branches rustled before a strong cool breeze from the 

Eesuming the march at 1 P.m. we entered the depths 
of banana plantations, marvelling at the great industry 
evinced, and the neatness of the cultivated plots. The 
conical homesteads were large and partitioned within, as 
we observed while passing through a few open doorways, 
by screens of cane grass. Every village was cleanly 
swept, as though they had been specially prepared for 
guests. Each banana stalk was loaded with bananas, 
the potato fields were extensive, the millet fields stretched 

VOL. I. u 



1887. away on either side by hundreds of acres, and the many 
Dec. 8. granaries that had lately been erected manifested ex- 
pectations of a liountiful harvest. 

We finally emerged from the corn-fields without being 
once annoyed. We thought the natives had been cowed 
by exaggerated reports of our power, or they had been 
disconcerted by our cautious manoeuvre of leaving a fair 
open margin between the line of march and the groves ; 
but much to our surprise we encountered no opposition ;, 
though large masses of the aborigines covered the 
eminences borderino; our route. 

The broad and well-trodden path towards the moun- 
tains which we were now rapidly approaching bisected an 
almost level plain, three miles wide, rich with pasture 
grass in flower. The Eastern Ituri was not far ofi" on 
our left flank, and on the other side of it another 
populous settlement was in view. 

At 3 P.M. we arrived at the base of the Mountain of 
the Peak. Many of its highest points were crowned 
with clusters of huts. The cotes of the natives were in 
the folds of the mountain fronting us. The people 
gathered in large groups on the nearest summits, and 
when we were near enough the shouts of defiance were 
uttered with loud and strident voices. We estimated 
the average height of the hills nearest to us at about 
800 feet above the plain, and as the slopes were par- 
ticularly steep we judged their distance to be between 
800 and 1000 yards from us. 

Much to our pleasure and relief the path, instead of 
ascending those steep slopes, skirted their base, and 
turned east, pursuing the direction we wished being 
now in, North Lat. l" 25' 30". A valley unfolded to 
our view as we rounded the corner of the Peak Range, 
with a breadth of one to two miles wide, which was 
clothed with luxuriant sorghum ripening for the sickle. 
On our right, rising immediately above us, was the north 
side of Mazamboni's range ; to our left, the ground, 
hidden by crops of grain, sloped gradually to a rapid 
branch of the East Ituri, and beyond it rose, an 
easy slope to a broad horse-shoe shaped grassy 



ridge, studded with iiomesteads, green with millet and i887, 
corn, and rich in banana groves. One sweeping view of ^^*'- ® 
our surroundings impressed us with the prosperity of the 

On entering this rich crop-ljearing valley a chorus of 
war-cries pealing menacingly above our heads caused us 
to look up. The groups had already become more 
numerous, until there were probably 300 warriors with 
shield, spear, and bow, shaking their flashing weapons, 
gesturing with shield and spear, crying wrathfully at us 
in some language. Waxing more ungovernable in action 
they made a demonstration to descend ; they altered 
their intentions, returned to the summit, and kept pace 
with us — we along the base, they along the crest of the 
fore hills, snarling and yelling, shouting and threatening, 
which we took to be expressive of hate to us, and 
encouragement to those in the valley. 

Issuing out of the first series of cornfields, we heard 
the war-cries of the valley natives, and comprehended 
that they were taking position in favourable localities — 
the hill natives warning and guiding them. It was now 
near 4 p.m., a time to pick out camp, to make ready for 
the night in the midst of a population overwhelming in 
its numbers. Fortunately, close at hand rose the steep 
hill of Nzera Kum with a spur, whose level top rose a 
hundred feet above the general face of the valley. It 
stood like an islet in the valley, distant from the river 
500 yards, and from the base of Mazamboni's range 
200 yards. From the crest of Nzera Kum we could 
command a view east and west of all the northern face 
of the high range, and away over the summit lines of 
the horse-shoe ridge, across the Ituri branch. Fifty rifles 
could hold a camp on such a position against a thousand. 
We hurried up towards it, the warriors on the range 
slopes converging downward as if divining our intentions ; 
a mass of noisy belligerents hastening towards the line 
of march from the river banks. The scouts in the 
advance fired a few solitary shots to clear the front, and 
we succeeded in reaching the islet hill and scrambled up. 
The loads were thrown down, a few picked skirmishers 



1887. were ordered to either flank of the column to assist the 
Dec. 8. rearguard, others were directed to form a zeriba around 
the crown of the spur ; a body of thirty men was sent 
to secure water from the river. In half an hour the 
column was safe on the hill, the zeriba was near com- 
pletion, there was water for the thirsty, and we had a 
few minutes to draw breath and to observe from our 
commanding elevation what were our surroundings. 
The bird's-eye view was not a bit encouraging. About 
fifty villages were sprinkled through the valley ; plan- 
tation after plantation, field after field, village after 
village met our vision in every direction. What lay 
on the mountains we did not know. The swarms 
of lusty-voiced natives on the slopes now numbered 
over 800. The air seemed filled with the uproar of the 

The mountaineers appeared disposed to try conclusions 
at once. We were fatigued with the march of 1 3 miles ; 
the hot sun and weight of burdens had weakened the 
physical powers of the men. Some of the best, how- 
ever, were picked out and sent to meet the mountaineers, 
while we stood and watched to weigh the temper of our 
opponents. Four of the scouts were foremost. An 
equal number of the mountaineers, not a whit loth for 
the encounter, bounded gallantly to meet them. They 
intuitively felt that the courage of our four men was 
not of the highest order. They approached to within 
100 yards of them, and prepared their bows against the 
rifles. Our men delivered their fire harmlessly, and 
then backed ; the mountaineers advanced, with fingers 
on their bow-strings. Our four men fled, while a 
hundred voices from our camp, looking down upon the 
scene, execrated them. This was a bad beginning for 
our side ; the natives accepted it as a favourable omen 
to them, and yelled triumphantly. To check this glow, 
our riflemen sought cover, and seriously annoyed the 
natives. Some at the extremity of the hill of Nzera Kum 
did execution among the mountaineers on the slope of 
the range opposite, at 400 yards distance ; others crept 
down into the valley towards the river, and obtained a 



triumph for us ; others, again, working round the base i887. 
of Nzera Kum, effected a diversion in our favour. Saat ^^"^ ^ 
Tato, our hunter, carried away a cow from her owners, 
and we thus obtained a taste of beef after eleven months' 
abstinence. As night fell, natives and strangers sought 
their respective quarters, both anticipating a busy day 
on the morrow. 

Before turning in for the night, I resumed my reading 
of the Bible as usual. I had already read the book 
through from beginning to end once, and was now 
at Deuteronomy for the second reading, and I came 
unto the verse wherein Moses exhorts Joshua in those 
fine lines, " Be strong and of a good courage ; fear not, 
nor be afraid of them : for the Lord thy God, He it is 
that doth go with thee ; He will not fail thee, nor 
forsake thee." 

I continued my reading, and at the end of the chapter 
closed the book, and from Moses my mind travelled at 
once to Mazamboni. Was it great fatigue, incipient 
ague, or an admonitory symptom of ailment, or a shade 
of spiteful feeling against our cowardly four, and a 
vague sense of distrust that at some critical time my 
loons would fly ? We certainly were in the presence of 
people very different from the forest natives. In the 
open our men had not been tested as they were to-day, 
and what my officers and self had seen of them was not 
encouraging. At any rate, my mind was occupied 
with a keener sense of the danger incurred by us in 
adventuring with such a small force of cowardly porters 
to confront the tribes of the grass land than I remember 
it on any previous occasion. It seemed to me now that 
I had a more thorough grasp of what might be expected. 
Whether it followed a larger visual view of land and 
population, or that I was impressed by the volume of 
human voices, whose uproar yet seemed to sound in my 
ears, I know not. But a voice appeared to say, " Be 
strong and of a good courage ; fear not, nor be afraid 
of them." I could almost have sworn I heard the voice. 
I began to argue with it. Why do you adjure me to 
abandon the Mission ? J cannot run if I would. To 



1887. retreat would be far more fatal than advance ; therefore 
Dec. 8. yQ^p encouragement is unnecessary. It replied, never- 
theless, " Be strong and of a good courage. Advance, 
and be confident, for I will give this people and this 
iand unto thee. I will not fail thee nor forsake thee ; 
fear not, nor be dismayed." 

Still — all this in strict confidence — before I slept 
I may add that though I certainly never felt fitter for 
a fight, it struck me, that both sides were remark- 
ably foolish, and about to engage in what I conceived to 
be an unnecessary contest. We did not know even the 
name of the land or of the people, and they were equally 
ignorant of our name and of our purpose and motives. 

I sketched out my plans for the morrow, adjured the 
sentries to keep strict watch, and in sleep became soon 
oblivious of this Mazamboni — lord of the mountains 
and plains. 

December 9th was a halt. In the morning we com- 
pleted our thorn-bush fence, distributed cartridges, and 
examined rifles. By 9 o'clock the chill of early day 
retired before the warmth of a hot sun, and shortly after 
the natives mustered in imposing numbers. War-horns, 
with the weird notes heard in Usoga and Uganda in 
1875, sounded the gathering, and over twenty drums 
boomed from each mountain top. There were shouts 
and cries flying in currents from mountain to valley, 
and back again, for we were quite surrounded. About 

II A.M. some few natives descended close enough for 
one Fetteh, a man of Unyoro, to distinguish what was 
said, and he exchanged a hot abuse with them, until 
there was quite a wordy war. Hearing that one of our 
people understood the language, I directed the wrathful 
tongues in the interests of peace, and a more amicable 
language resulted, 

" We on our side," was said, " only fight in defence. 
You assail us while quietly passing through the land. 
Would it not be better to talk to each other, and try to 
understand one another first, and then, if we cannot 
agree, fight." 

*' True, those are wise words," a man replied. " Tell 



US who you are. Where you are from, and where you 1887. 

)) Dec. 9, 

are going. 

" We are of Zanzibar, from the sea, and our chief is a 
white man. We are bound for the Nyanza of Unyoro." 

" If you have a white man with you, let us see him, 
and we shall believe you." 

Lieutenant Stairs promptly stepped out of the zeriba 
and was introduced by Fetteh. 

" Now you tell us who you are," said Fetteh. " What 
land is this ? Who is your chief ? And how far is the 
Nyanza ? " 

" This land is Undussuma, the chief is Mazamboni. 
We are Wazamboni. The Ruweru (Nyanza) is reached 
in two days. It will take you five days. It lies east. 
There is only one road, and you cannot miss it." 

This began the exchange of friendly intercourse. 
Strangerhood was broken. We then learned that there 
were two chiefs in Undussuma, one of whom would not 
be averse to peace, and exchange of friendly gifts, if it 
were agreeable to us. We gladly assented, and several 
hours were passed without a hostile cry being heard, or 
a shot fired, except at the river, the natives on whose 
shores were obstinate, and declined listening to anything 
but war proposals. 

In the afternoon a message came from Mazamboni 
saying he would like to see the pattern and quality of 
our monies. We sent two yards of scarlet uniform cloth, 
and a dozen brass rods, and a promise was given that 
early next morning the chief himself would appear and 
go through the ceremony of brotherhood with me. 

The next day we were refreshed after an undisturbed 
night, and fondly indulged in anticipations that in a few 
hours, perhaps, our camp would be filled with friendly 
natives. We had been requested not to depart until a 
return gift should arrive from Mazamboni. We accord- 
ingly had resolved on another day's halt. The morning 
was still raw and cold, for we were 4,235 feet above the 
sea. A mist covered the tall mountain tops, and a 
slight drizzle had set in, which excused our friends from 
a too early appearance ; but at the third hour the mist 


1887. cleared away, and the outline of the entire range was 
Dec. 10. ^.i(3g^j. against a pale blue sky. Lieutenant Stairs, Mr. 

sumT Jephson, and myself, were out at the extreme west end 
of the spur enjoying the splendid view, admiring the 
scenery, and wondering when such a beautiful land 
would become the homesteads of civilized settlers 
Stairs thought that it resembled New Zealand, and said 
that he would not mind possessing a ranche here. He 
actually went so far as to locate it, and pointed out the 
most desirable spot. " On that little hill I would build 
my house " — " Shebang" he called it. I wonder if that 
is a New Zealand term for a villa — " There I would herd 
my cattle ; my sheep could browse on the mountain 

slope behind, and — " 

But meantime the natives had appeared on the crests 
of the mountain in lengthy columns, converging towards 
a common centre — a butt end of a truncated hill — a 
thousand yards in an air line from where we stood, and 
a voice like that of a mob orator, clear and harmonious, 
broke on our ear. It proceeded from a man who, with 
a few companions, had descended to about 300 feet 
above the valley. He was ten minutes speaking, and 
Fetteh had been brought to listen and translate. 
Fetteh said that he commanded peace in the name of 
the king ; but strange to say, no sooner had the man 
concluded his speech than loud, responsive yells rose 
from the valley in a hideous and savage clamour, and 
then from every mountain top, and from the slopes 
there was a re-echo of the savage outburst. 

We surmised that such forceful yelling could not 
signal a peace, but rather war ; and in order to make 
sure, sent Fetteh down into the valley below the speaker 
to ask him. The replies from the natives left us no 
room to doubt. The two sounds — Kanwana, "peace," 
and Kurwana, "war," were so similar that they had occa- 
sioned Fetteh's eiTor. 

" We do not want your friendship," they cried. " We 
are coming down to you shortly to drive you out of 
your camp with our herdsmen's staffs." And a 
treacherous f ellow^ who had crawled under cover of low 



bush, came near causing us a severe loss — our interpreter issv. 
especially having an exceedingly narrow escape. Fetteh ^**'* ^^ 
picked up the arrows and brought them to us, and 
delivered his news. 

There was then no alternative but to inflict an exem- 
plary lesson upon them ; and we prepared to carry it 
out without losing a moment of time, and with the 
utmost vigour, unless checked by proffers of amity. 

The companies were mustered, and fifty rifles were led 
out by Lieutenant Stairs towards those obstinate and 
fierce fellows on the other side of the Ituri branch. A 
party of thirty rifles were sent under Mr. Jephson to 
skirmish up the slopes to the left ; and twenty picked men 
were sent with Uledi to make a demonstration to the right. 
Rashid was ordered with ten men to the top of Nzera- 
Kum to guard against surprise from that quarter. 
Jephson and Uledi would be marching to their positions 
unobserved by the mountaineers, because the crowns of 
the forehills would obstruct the view, and would ap- 
proach to them within 200 yards without being seen, 
while Lieutenant Stairs' company, being further out in 
the valley, would absorb their attention. 

In a few minutes Stairs' company was hotly engaged. 
The natives received our men with cool determination 
for a few minutes, and shot their arrows in literal showers ; 
but the Lieutenant, perceiving that their coolness rose 
from the knowledge that there was a considerable stream 
intervening between them and his company, cheered his 
men to charge across the river. His men obeyed him, 
and as they ascended the opposite bank opened a 
withering fire which in a few seconds broke up the nest 
of refractory and turbulent fellows who had cried out so 
loudly for war. The village was taken with a rush and 
the banana plantations scoured. The natives broke out 
into the open on a run, and fled far northward. 
Lieutenant Stairs then collected his men, set fire to the 
village, and proceeded to the assault of other settlements, 
rattling volleys from the company announcing the 
resistance they met. 

Meanwhile, Uledi's party of chosen men had discovered 


1887. a path leading up the mountain along a spur, and after 
Dec. 10, ascending 500 feet, led his men up into view on the 
8uma' right flank of the mob observing and cheering their 
countrymen in the valley. The Winchesters were worked 
most handsomely. At the same time Mr. Jephson's 
party came out of the left ravine, and together they had 
such a disastrous effect on the nerves of the natives that 
they fled furiously up the slopes, Uledi and his men 
chasing them. 

Mr. Jephson, after seeing them in full flight, 
faced eastward, and pushed on for two miles, clearing 
every inhabitant out. By 1 p.m. all our men were 
in camp, with only one man slightly wounded. Every 
man had behaved wonderfully well ; even the four 
cowards, who had been marked men, had distinguished 

At 2 P.M., the natives in the valley having returned, 
each party was despatched once again. Stairs led his 
men across the Ituri branch, and followed the running 
fugitives far northward, then veered sharply round to 
join Jephson, who had continued his way eastward. 
Uledi's scouts were sent up to the very summit of 
the mountain range ; but on observing the immense 
number of homesteads that dotted it, he prudently 

Until the afternoon the contest continued ; the natives 
were constantly on the run, charging or retreating. By 
evening not one was in sight, and the silence around 
our camp was significant of the day's doings. The 
inhabitants were on the mountains or far removed east- 
ward and northward. In the valley around us there 
was not a hut left standing to be a cover during the 
night. The lesson, w^e felt, was not completed. We 
should have to return l)y that route. In the natural 
course of things, if we met many tribes of the quality of 
this, we should lose many men, and if we left them in 
the least doubt of our ability to protect ourselves, we 
should have to repeat our day's work. It was, therefore, 
far more merciful to finish the aflair thoroughly before 
leaving a tribe in unwhipped insolence in our rear. 



The natives must have entertained an idea that we 
could not fight outside our bush fence, which accounta 
for their tall talk of driving us out with sticks, and that 
they were safe on the mountains. We were compelled 
to root out the idea that they could harm us in any 

A cow neglected by her owner was burnt in one ol 
the villages close by, and furnished us with a second 
limited ration of roast beef 

On the 11th it rained again during the early morning, 
which kept us indoors until 10 a.m. Some natives 
having then come out to demonstrate their hostility on 
the mountains, Stairs, Jephson and Uledi 
led their men up the mountain slopes in 
three separate small columns to the attack, 
and made a successful tour among their 


stronghold. A small flock of goats was 
captured, and distributed to the men, and 
our experiences of this day satisfied the 
natives that they had nothing to gain by 

At one time it appeared as though the 
day would end with reconciliation, for a 
native stood on a high hill above our 
position after all had reached camp, and 
announced that he had been sent by 
Mazamboni to say that he received our 
gifts, but that he had been prevented from 
visiting us according to promise by the 
clamour of his young men, who insisted on 
But now, as many of them had been killed, he 
ready to pay tribute, and be a true friend in future. 

We replied that we were agreeable to peace and friend- 
ship with them, but as they had mocked us, kept our 
peace presents, and then scornfully called us women, 
they must purchase peace with cattle or goats, and if 
they held up grass in their hands they could approach 
without fear. \ 

It should be mentioned that when the warriors de- 
scended the mountain slopes for the fight, every little 

Dec. It 





Dec. 11. 


squad of men was accompanied by a large hound, of 
somewhat slender build, but courageous, and prompt to 

The arms of the Wazamboni consisted of long bows 
five and a half feet long, and arrows twenty-eight 
inches long, besides a long sharp spear. Their shields 
were long and narrow generally, but there were many of 
the true Uganda type. The arrows were cruelly barbed, 
and the spear was similar to that of Karagwe, Uhha, 
Urundi, and Ihangiro. 





We are further annoyed by the natives— Their villages fired^Gavira's 
village — We keep the natives at bay — Plateau of Unyoro in view — 
Night attack by the natives — The village of Katonza's — Parley with 
the natives — No news of the Pasha — Our supply of cartridges — We 
consider our position — Lieutenant Stairs converses with the people 
of Kasenya Island — The only sensible course left us — Again attacked 
by natives —Scenery on the lake's shore — We climb a mountain^ — A 
rich discovery of grain — The rich valley of Undussuma — Our return 
journey to Ibwiri — The construction of Fort Bodo. 

On the 12th December we left camp at dawn without 1887. 
disturbance, or hearing a single voice, and up to 9 a.m. ^^^' ^^' 
it did not appear as if anybody was astir throughout 
the valley. Our road led E. by S. and dipped down into 
ravines, and narrow valleys, down which its tributaries 
from the mountain range and its many gorges flowed 
under depths of jungle, bush, and reed-cane. Villages 
were seen nestling amid abundance, and we left them 
unmolested in the hope that the wild people might read 
that when left alone we were an extremely inoffensive 
band of men. But at nine o'clock, the chill of the morning 
having disappeared, we heard the tirst war-cries, and traced 
them to a large group of villages that crowned a detached 
line of hills occupying the foreground of the Undussuma 
range. Perceiving that we continued our march without 
appearing to notice them, they advanced boldly and 
hovered on our right flank and rear. 

By 11 A.M. there were two separate bands of natives 
who followed us very persistently. One had come from 
the eastward, the other was formed out of the population 
of the villages in the valley that we had left undamaged 
and intact. 



1887. By noon these bands had increased into numerous and 
^^^'J^' frantic mobs, and some of them cried out, " We will 
prove to you before night that we are men, and every 
one of you shall perish to-day." 

At this hour, refreshed by our halt, we resumed the 
march through a grassy wilderness. There were no 
villages in view on either hand, but the mobs followed 
us, now and then making demonstrations, and annoying 
us with their harsh cries and menaces. An expert shot 
left the line of march, and wounded two of them at a 
range of 400 yards. This silenced them for awhile, as 
though they were absorbed in wondering what missile 
could inflict injuries at such a distance. But soon their 
numbers received fresh accessions, and their audacity 
became more marked. The rear-guard band presently 
were heard firing, and possibly with effect ; at any rate 
it was clear they had received a check. 

Finally, at 3.30, we came in view of the Bavira villages 
— the chief of whom is called Gavira — situated on an 
open plain and occupying both banks of a deep and 
precipitous ravine hollowed out of the clay by a con- 
siderable tributary of the East Ituri. We in the front 
halted on the eastern bank, as the natives — too tardy 
to effect anything — came rushing down to prevent the 
crossing. Loads were at once dropped, skirmishers were 
despatched from the advance to recross the river, and to 
assist the rear guard, and a smart scene of battle-play 
occurred, at the end of which the natives retreated on 
the full run. To punish them for four hours' persecution 
of us we turned about and set fire to every hut on either 
bank, then reforming we hastened up a steep hilly 
plateau, that rose 200 feet above the plain, to meet the 
natives who had gathered to oppose us. Long, however, 
before we could reach the summit they abandoned their 
position and left us to occupy a village in peace. It 
being now a late hour we camped, and our first duty was 
to render our quarters safe against a night attack. 

It should be observed that up to the moment of firing 
the villages, the fury of the natives seemed to be in- 
creasing, but the instant the flames were seen devouring 



their homes the fury ceased, by which we learned that i887, 
fire had a remarkable sedative influence on their nerves. ^_^'^- ^^" 

The village of Gavira's, wherein we slept that night, 
was 4,657 feet above the sea. It had been a fine day 
for travel, and a S.E. breeze was most cooling. Without 
it we should have suffered from the great heat. As the 
sun set it became very cold ; by midnight the tempera- 
ture was 60°. We had travelled nine miles, and mostly 
all complained of fatigue from the marching and constant 

On the 13th we set off easterly a little after dawn, in 
order that we might cover some distance before the 
aborigines ventured out into the cold raw air of the 
morning. The short pasture grass was beaded with 
dew, and wet as with rain. The rear guard, after dis- 
arranging our night defences that the natives might not 
understand the manner of them, soon overtook us, and 
we left the district in compact order ready for fresh 
adventures. Until the third hour of the morning we 
were permitted to travel amid scenes of peaceful stillness. 
We enjoyed the prospects, had time to note the features 
of the great plain north of East Ituri, and to admire the 
multitude of hilly cones that bounded the northern 
horizon, to observe how the lines of conical hills massed 
themselves into a solid and unbroken front to the east and 
west ; how to the south of us the surface of the land was a 
series of great waves every hollow of which had its own 
particular stream ; and how, about five miles off, the 
mountain range continued from Undussuma East to the 
Balegga country, whose summits we knew so well, formed 
itself into baylike curves wherein numerous settlements 
found water and sweet grass for their cattle and moisture 
for their millet fields, and finally prolonged itself, rounding 
northward until its extremity stood east of us. Hence 
we observed that the direction we travelled would take 
us before many hours between the northern and southern 
ranges, to the top of a saddle that appeared to connect 
them. A group of villages situated on the skyline of 
this saddle was our objective point at present, until we 
could take further bearings thence. 


Lake Plain. 


1887. But at 9 A.M. the natives began to stir and look 
^®^-J^; around. Every feature of the wide landscape being 
then free from mist and fog. Our long serpent-like line 
of men was soon detected and hailed with war-cries, 
uttered with splendid force of lungs, that drew hundreds 
of hostile eyes burning with ferocity and hate upon us. 
Village after village was passed by us untouched, but 
this, as we experienced the day before, they did not place 
to our credit, but rather debited us with pusillanimity, 
all reports of their neighbours notwithstanding. We felt 
it in our veins that we were being charged with weakness. 
A crowd of fifty natives stood aside, 300 yards from our 
path, observant of our conduct. They saw us defile 
through their settlements with kindly regard for their 
property, and eyes fixed straight before us, intent on our 
own business of travel only. Far from accepting this as 
a proof that there was some virtue in us, they Closed 
behind the column, loudly and imperiously summoned 
their countrymen to gather together and surround us — a 
call their countrymen appeared only too willing to obey. 
As soon as they deemed their numbers strong enough to 
take the offensive, they charged on the rear guard, which 
act was instantly responded to by good practice with 

Every half-hour there was a stream at the bottom of 
its own valley, and a breadth of cane-brake on either 
side of the brook, which required great caution to keep 
the impulsive natives at bay. 

That group of villages on the skyline already men- 
tioned, connecting the now converging lines of hills 
to north and south of us, became more and more dis- 
tinct as we steadily pressed on eastward, and I began 
to feel a presentiment that before another hour was 
passed, we should see the Albert Nyanza. But as 
though there was some great treasure in our front, or as 
if Emin Pasha and his garrison found himself in the 
position of Gordon during his last hours at Khartoum, 
and these were the beleaguering hosts, the natives waxed 
bolder and more determined, increased in numbers 
fester, the war-cries were incessantly vociferated from 


every eminence, groups of men became mobs, and iss?. 
finally we l^ecame conscious that a supreme effort was ^^^- ^^ 
about to be made by them. .We cast our eyes about ^ ^ ^"^ 
and saw each elevation black with masses of men, while 
the broad and rolling plain showed lines of figures, like 
armies of ants travelling towards us. 

At 11 A.M. we were near the crest of the last ridge 
intervening between us and the saddle which we were 
aiming for, when we caught a view of a small army 
advancing along a road, which, if continued, would 
soon cross our track on the other side of the stream 
that issued from this ridge. The attacking point I 
felt sure would be a knoll above the source of the 
stream. The advance guard was about a hundred 
yards from it, and these were ordered when abreast 
of the knoll to wheel sharply to the right, and stack 
goods on its summit, and the word was passed to 
close files. 

As we arrived at the summit of the knoll, the head of 
the native army, streaming thickly, was at the foot of 
it on the other side, and without an instant's hesitation 
both sides began the contest simultaneously, but the 
rapid fire of the Winchesters was altogether too much 
for them, for, great as was the power of the united voices, 
the noise of the Winchesters deafened and confused 
them, while the fierce hissing of the storm of bullets 
paralysed the bravest. The advance guard rushed down 
the slopes towards them, and in a few seconds the 
natives turned their backs and bounded away with the 
speed of antelopes. Our men pursued them for about a 
mile, but returned at the recall, a summons they obeyed 
with the precision of soldiers at a review, which pleased 
me more even than the gallantry they had displayed. 
The greatest danger in reality with half-disciplined men 
is the inclination to follow the chase, without regard to 
the design the enemy may have in view by sudden 
flight. It frequently happens that the retreat is effected 
for a ruse, and is often practised in Uganda. On this 
occasion forty men were chasing 500, while 1,500 natives 
at least were certainly surveying the field on a hill to 

Lake Plain. 


1837, the right of us, and a similar number was posted to the 

Dec. 13. left of US. 

Again we re-formed our ranks, and marched forward 
in close order as before, but at 12.30 halted for refresh- 
ments, with a pretty wide circle around us now, clear of 
noisy and yelling natives. Our noon halt permitted 
them to collect their faculties, but though they were 
undoubtedly sobered by the events of the morning they 
still threatened us with imposing numbers of the Balegga, 
Bavira, and Wabiassi tribes. 

After an hour's rest the line of march was resumed. 
We found an exceedingly well-trodden path, and that it 
was appreciated was evident from the rapid and elastic 
tread of the column. Within fifteen minutes we gained 
the brow of the saddle, or rather plateau, as it turned out 
to be, and, about twenty-five miles away, we saw a dark 
blue and uniform line of table-land, lifted up into the 
clouds and appearing portentously lofty. The men 
vented a murmur of discontented surprise at the sight 
of it. I knew it was Unyoro, that between us and that 
great and blue table-land was an immense and deep gulf, 
and that at the bottom of this gulf was the Albert. For 
there seemed to be nothing else before us, neither hill, 
ridge, or elevation, but that distant immense dark blue 
mass ; the eastern slopes of the northern and southern 
ranges di^Dped down steeply as it were into a gulf or 
profoundly deep valley. Our people, on viewing the 
plateau of Unyoro in the distance, cried out in a vexed 
manner " Mashallah ! but this Nyanza keeps going 
further and further away from us ; " but I cheered them 
up with, " Keep your eyes open, boys ! You may see the 
riyanza any minute now," which remark, like many 
others tending to encourage them, was received with 
grunts of unbelief. 

But every stej) we now took proved that we were 
approaching an unusually deep valley, or the Nyanza, 
for higher and higher rose the Unyoro plateau into view, 
lower and lower descended the slopes on either hand of 
our road, until at last all eyes rested on a grey cloud, or 
what is it, mist ? Nay, it is the Nyanza sleeping in the 


haze, for, looking to the north-eastward it was the i887. 
colour of the ocean. The men gazed upon the lake fully ^^ ^^ 
two minutes before they realised that what they looked Nyanza. 
upon was water, and then they relieved their feelings 
with cheers and enthusiastic shouts. 

We continued our pace a few minutes longer, until we 
stood on the verge of the descent from the plateau, and 
near a small village perched on this exposed situation we 
made a short halt to take bearings, inspect aneroids, and 
reflect a little upon our next step. 

Though the people were shouting and dancing, and 
thronging around me with congratulations for having 
" hit the exact spot so well," a chill came over me, as 
I thought of the very slight chance there was, in such a 
country as this, of finding a canoe fit to navigate the 
rough waters of the Albert. "With my glass I scruti- 
nized anxiously the distant shore of the Lake, but I 
could not see any canoe, neither could I see a single tree 
in all the long stretch of slope and extended plain of a 
size suitable for a canoe, and the thought that, after all, 
our forced march and continual fighting and sacrifice of 
life would be in vain, struck me for the first time, even 
while upon every man's lips was the pious ejaculation, 
" Thank God." 

And yet it was just possible we might be able to buy 
a canoe with brass rods and some red cloth. It would 
be too hard if our long travels hither were to be quite in 

The scene I looked upon was very different to what I 
had anticipated. I had circumnavigated the Victoria 
Nyanza and the Tanganika, and I had viewed the Muta 
Nzige from a plateau somewhat similar to this, and 
canoes were procurable on either Lake ; and on the Victoria 
and Tanganika it would not be difficult, after a little 
search, to find a tree large enough for cutting out a 
canoe. But I saw here about twenty miles of most 
barren slopes, rugged with great rocks, and furrowed 
with steep ravines and watercourses, whose banks showed 
a thin fringe of miserable bush, and between them were 
steeply descending sharp and long spurs, either covered 


1887. witli rocky and clayey debris or tall green grass. Be- 
Dec. 13. t^ggjj ^\^Q ha^Q of this lengthy fall of slope and the Lake 
Nyanza. was a plain about five or six miles in breadth, and about 
twenty miles long, most pleasant to look upon from the 
great altitude we were on. It resembled a well-wooded 
park land, but the trees spread out their branches 
too broadly to possess the desirable stems. They 
appeared to me to be more like acacia, and thorn- 
trees and scrub, which would be utterly useless for our 

Our aneroids indicated an altitude of 5,000 feet. The 
islet marked on Mason's chart as near Kavalli bore E.S.E., 
magnetic, about six miles from our position. Laying 
Colonel Mason's chart of the Albert Nyanza before us, we 
compared it with what was spread so largely and grandly 
over 2,500 feet below us, and we were forced to bear 
witness to the remarkable accuracy of his survey. Here 
and there some trifling islets and two or three small in- 
lets of the Lake into that singular sunken plain which 
formed the boundary of the Lake as its southerly extremity 
were observed as omissions. 

I had often wondered at Sir Samuel Baker's descrip- 
tion of the Albert Nyanza's extension towards the south- 
west, perhaps oftener after Colonel Mason's mysteriously 
brusque way of circumscribing its " illimitability," but I 
can feel pure sympathy with the discoverer now, despite 
the terrible " cutting off" to which it has been subjected. 
For the effect upon all of us could not have been greater 
if the Albert stretched to Khartoum. Whether limited 
or unlimited, the first view of water and mountain is 
noble, and even inspiring. Even at its extremity the 
Lake has a spacious breadth, but as we follow the lines 
of its mountain banks the breadth widens grandly, the 
silver colour of its shallow head soon changes into the 
deep azure of ocean, the continuing expanding breadth, 
immense girdle of mountains and pale sky, lose their 
outlines, and become fused into an indefinite blueness at 
the sea-horizon north-eastward, through which we may 
vainly seek a limit. 

Our point of observation was in N. Lat. 1°. 23'. GO". 


The extreme end of the eastern end of the lake bore S.E. i887. 
magnetic, and the extreme western end bore S.E. and ^^'^^ ^^• 
S.E. by S. Between the two extremities there were five Ny^nzL 
inlets, one of which reached two miles further south than 
any of those observed points. 

The table-land of Unyoro maintained an almost uniform 
level as far as we could see, its terminable point being 
cut off from view by a large shoulder of mountain, that 
thrust itself forward from the western range. South- 
ward of the lake and between these opposing heights — 
that of the table-land of Unyoro on the east, and that of 
the table-land on the west — extended a low plain which 
formerly, but not recently, must have been inundated 
by the waters of the lake, but now was dry firm ground, 
clothed with sere grass, gently rising as it receded south, 
and finally producing scrubby wood, acacia and thorn, 
like the terrace directly below us. 

After a halt of about twenty minutes, we commenced 
the descent down the slopes of the range. Before the 
rearguard under Lieutenant Stairs had left the spot, the 
natives had gathered in numbers equal to our own, and 
before the advance had descended 500 feet, they had 
begun to annoy the rearguard in a manner that soon 
provoked a steady firing. We below could see them 
spread out like skirmishers on both flanks, and hanging 
to the rear in a long line up the terribly steep and 
galling path. 

While they shot their arrows, and crept nearer to 
their intended victims, they cried, " Ku-la-la heh leloV 
— "Where will you sleep to-night? Don't you know 
you are surrounded ? We have you now where we 
wanted you." 

Our men were not a whit slow in replying, " Wherever 
we sleep, you will not dare come near ; and if you have 
got us where you wanted us to be, why not come on at 
once ? " 

Though the firing was brisk, there was but little hurt 
done; the ground was adverse to steadiness, and on 
our side only one was wounded with an arrow, but the 
combat kept both sides lively and active. Had we been 


1887. unburdened and fresh, very few of these pestilent fellows 

Dec. 13. Yvould liavc Hvcd to climb that mountain again, 

Nyanza. The desccut was continued for three hours, halting 

every fifteen minutes to repel the natives, who, to the 

number of forty, or thereabouts, followed us down to 

the plain. 

Half a mile from the base of the mountain we crossed 
a slightly saline stream, which had hollowed a deep 
channel, l)anked by precipitous and in some places per- 
pendicular walls of debris 50 feet high, on either side. 
On the edo-e of one of these latter walls we formed a 
camp, the half of a circle being thus unassailable ; the 
other half we soon made secure with brushwood and 
material from an abandoned village close by. Having 
observed that the daring natives had descended into the 
plain, and knowing their object to be a night attack, a 
chain of sentries were posted at a distance from the 
camp, who were well hidden by the grass. An hour 
after dark the attack was made by the band of natives, 
who, trying one point after another, were exceedingly 
surprised to receive a fusilade from one end of the half 
circle to the other. 

This ended a troublous day, and the rest we now 
sought was well earned. 

Inspecting the aneroid on reaching the camping- 
place, we discovered that we had made a descent of 
2,250 feet since we had left our post of observation on 
the verge of the plateau above. 

On the 14th we left the base of the plateau, and 
marched across the plain that gently sloped for 5 miles 
to the lake. As we travelled on, we examined closely 
if among the thin forest of acacia any tree would likely 
be available for a canoe ; but the plain was destitute of 
all but acacia, thorn-bush, tamarind, and scrub — a proof 
that the soil, though sufficiently rich for the hardier 
trees, had enough acrid properties — nitre, alkali, or 
salts — to prevent the growth of tropical vegetation. 
We, however, trusted that we should be enabled to 
induce the natives to part with a canoe, or, as was more 
likely, probably Emin Pasha had visited the south end 


of the lake, according to my request, and had made i887. 
arrangements with the natives for our reception. If ^^^- ^*- 
not, why ultimately perhaps we should have legitimate j^anza 
excuse for taking a temporary loan of a canoe. 

About a mile and a half from the lake we heard some 
natives cutting fuel in a scrubby wood, not far from the 
road. We halted, and maintained silence while the 
interpreter attempted to obtain a reply to his friendly 
hail. For ten minutes we remained perfectly still, 
waiting until the person, who proved to be a woman, 
deigned to answer. Then, for the first time in Africa, 
I heard as gross and obscene abuse as the traditional 
fish woman of Billingsgate is supposed to be capable of 
uttering. We were obliged to desist from the task of 
conciliating such an unwomanly 'virago. 

We sent the interpreter ahead with a few men to the 
village at the lake side, which belonged to a chief called 
Katonza, and sometimes Kaiya Nkondo, with instruc- 
tions to employ the utmost art possible to gain the 
confidence of the inhabitants, and by no means to admit 
rebuff by words or threats hostile action only to be 
accepted as an excuse for withdrawal. We, in the 
meantime, were to follow slowly, and then halt until 
summoned, close to the settlement. 

The villagers were discovered totally unconscious of 
our approach and neighbourhood. Their first impulse, 
on seeing our men, was to fly ; but, observing that they 
were not pursued, they took position on an anthill at 
an arrow-flight's distance, more out of curiosity than 
goodwill. Perceiving that our men were obliging, 
polite, and altogether harmless, they sanctioned the 
approach of the caravan, and on seeing a white man 
they were induced to advance near, while assurances of 
friendliness were being assiduously reiterated. About 
forty natives mustered courage to draw near for easy 
parley, and then harangues and counter-harangues, from 
one side to the other, one party vowing by their lives, 
by the love of their throats, by the blue sky above, that 
no harm was intended or evil meditated — that only 
friendship and goodwill were sought, for which due gifts 


1887. would be given, the other averring that though their 
Dec. 14. l^esitation might be misjudged, and possibly attributed 
Nyanzl ^o fear, still they had met — often met — a people called 
the Wara-Sura, armed with guns like ours, who simply 
killed people. Perhaps, after all, we were Wara-Sura, 
or their friends, for we had guns also, in which case 
they were quite ready to fight the instant they were 
assured we were Wara-Sura or their allies. 

" Wara-Sura ! Wara-Sura ! What men are these ? 
We never heard of the name before. Whence are 
they ? " &c. , &c. , and so on unceasingly for three mortal 
hours in the hot sun. Our cajolings and our winsomest 
smiles began to appear of effect, but they suddenly 
assumed moodiness, and expressed their suspicion in the 
harsh, rasping language of Unyoro, which grated horribly 
on the hearing. In the end our effort was a complete 
failure. We had, unknown to ourselves, incurred their 
suspicion by speaking too kindly of Unyoro and of 
Kabba Rega, who, we found later, was their mortal 
enemy. They would not accept our friendship, nor 
make blood-brotherhood, nor accept even a gift. They 
would give us water to drink, and they would show the 
path along the lake. 

" You seek a white man, you say. We hear there is 
one at Kabba Rega's (Casati). Many, many years ago a 
white man came from the north in a smoke-boat (Mason 
Bey), but he went away, but that was when we were 
children. There has been no strange boat on our waters 
since. We hear of strange people being at Buswa 
(Mswa), but that is a long way from here. There north- 
ward along the lake lies your way. All the wicked 
people come from there. We never heard any good 
of men who came in from the Ituri either. The Wara 
Sura sometimes come from there." 

They condescended to show us the path leading along 
the shore of the lake, and then stood aside on the plain, 
bidding us, in not unfriendly tones, to take heed of our- 
selves, but not a single article for their service would 
they accept. Wondering at their extraordinary manner, 
and without a single legitimate excuse to quarrel with 


them, we proceeded on our way meditatively, with most 1887. 
an happy feelings. ^^*'* '* 

Pondering upon the strange dead stop to that hopeful- /yanza 
ness which had hitherto animated us, it struck us that a 
more heartless outlook never confronted an explorer in 
wild Africa than that which was now so abruptly revealed 
to us. From the date of leaving England, January 21, 
1887, to this date of 14th December, it never dawned on 
us that at the very goal we might be baffled so com- 
pletely as we were now. There was only one comfort, 
however, in all this ; there was henceforward no incerti- 
tude. We had hoped to have met news of the Pasha here. 
A governor of a province, with two steamers, life-boats, 
and canoes, and thousands of people we had imagined 
would have been known everywhere on such a small lake 
as the Albert, which required only two days' steaming from 
end to end. He could not, or he would not, leave Wadelai, 
or he knew nothing yet of our coming.* When compelled 
through excess of weakness to leave our steel boat at 
Ipoto, we had hoped one of three things : either that the 
Pasha, warned by me of my coming, would have pre- 
pared the natives for our appearance, or that we could 
purchase or make a canoe of our own. The Pasha had 
never visited the south end of the lake ; there was no 
canoe to be obtained, nor was there any tree out of 
which one could be made. 

Since we had entered the grass land we had expended 
five cases of cartridges. There remained forty-seven 
cases with us, besides those at Ipoto in charge of Captain 
Nelson and Dr. Parke. Wadelai was distant twenty- 
five days' journey by land, though it was only four by 
lake. If we travelled northward by land, it was most 
likely we should expend twenty-five cases in fighting to 
reach Wadelai, assuming that the tribes were similar to 
those in the south. On reaching Emin Pasha we should 
then have only twenty-two left. If we then left twelve 

* In November, 1887, Emin Pasha wrote to his friend Dr. Felkin : " All 
well ; on best terms with chiefs and people ; will be leaving shortly for 
Kibiro, on east coast of Lake Albert. Have sent reconnoitering party to 
look out for Stanley, which had to return with no news yet. Stanley 
expected about December 15th (1887)." We arrived on the Utlx. 


1887. cases only with him, we should have only ten to return 

Dec, 14. |jy ^ route upon which we had fired thirty cases. Ten 

Nyanza. cascs would bc quitc as an inadequate supply for us as 

twelve would be for Emin. This was a mental review 

of our position as we trudged northward along the shore 

of the Albert. But hoping that at Kasenya Island, to 

which we were wending, we might be able to obtain a 

canoe, I resolved upon nothing except to search for a 

vessel of some kind for a couple of days, and failing 

that, discuss the question frankly with my companions. 

At our noon halt, a few miles north of Katonza's, the 

first note of retreat was sounded. The ofiicers were 

both shocked and grieved. 

" Ah, gentlemen," said I, " do not look so. You will 
make my own regrets greater. Let us look the facts 
fairly in the face. If the island of Kasenya has no canoe 
to give us, we must retrace our tracks ; there is no help 
for it. We will devote to-day and to-morrow to the 
search, but we are then face to face with starvation if we 
linger longer in this deserted plain. There is no culti- 
vation on this acrid lake terrace, nothing nearer than 
the plateau. Our principal hope was in Emin Pasha. I 
thought that he could make a short visit in his steamers 
to this end of the lake, and would tell the natives that he 
expected friends to come from the west. What has 
become of him, or why he could not reach here, we 
cannot say. But Katonza's villagers told us that they 
• had never seen a steamer or a white man since Mason 
Bey was here. They have heard that Casati is in 
Unyoro. Without a boat it means a month's journey 
to us to find him." 

"There is but oneway besides retreating that appears 
feasible to me, and that is by seizing upon some village 
on the lake shore, and build an entrenched camp, and 
wait events — say, for the news to reach Unyoro, or 
Wadelai, or Kabba Eega ; and Casati, Emin, or the 
Unyoro king may become curious enough to send to 
discover who we are. But there is the food question. 
These lake villagers do not cultivate. They catch fish 
and make salt to sell to the people on the plateau for 


grain. We should have to forage, ascending and i887. 

descending daily that dreadful mountain slope. For a ^®*^" ^^ 

O _ •/ _ _ _ _ -l All i 


week or so the natives of the plateau might resist every Nyanza. 
foraging party, but finally surrender, and emigrate 
elsewhere to distant parts, leaving a naked land in our 
possession. You must admit that this would be a most 
unwise and foolish plan." 

" Were our boat here, or could a canoe be procurable 
by any means, our position would be thus : — We could 
launch and man her with twenty men, supply them with 
ten or twelve days' provisions and an officer, and bid 
the crew ' God speed,' while we could re-ascend to the 
plateau, seize upon a good position near the edge of the 
plateau, render it quickly unassailable, and forage north, 
south, and west in a land abounding with grain and 
cattle, and keep sentries observing the lake and watching 
for the signal of fire or smoke. On her arrival, a hundred 
rifles could descend to the lake to learn the news of 
Emin Pasha's safety, or perhaps of his departure, via 
Ukedi and Usoga, to Zanzibar. The last is probable, 
because the latest news that I received from the 
Foreign Office showed that he meditated taking such 
a step. But now, as we are without canoe or boat, I 
feel, though we are but four days by water from 
Wadelai, that we are only wasting valuable time in 
searching for expedients, when common-sense bids us 
be off to the forest, find some suitable spot like Ibwiri 
to leave our surplus stores, sick men, and convalescents 
from Ugarrowwa and Ipoto, and return here again with 
our boat and a few dozen cases of ammunitior. In 
this inexplicable absence of Emin, or any news of him, 
we should be unwise in wasting our strength, carrying 
the too great surplus of ammunition, when perhaps the 
Pasha has departed from his province." 

During our afternoon march we travelled along the 
lake until the island of Kasenya bore from our 
camping-place 127° magnetic, or about a mile distant, 
and our observation point on the summit of the plateau 
bore 289°. 

We made a bush fence, and halted at an early hour. 


1887. The afternoon was likewise spent in considering our 
^*'' ^^' position more fully under the new light thrown upon 
NyanJa, it by the determined refusal of Katonza and his followers 
to entertain our friendship. 

On the morning of the 15th December I sent 
Lieutenant Stairs and forty men to speak with the 
people of Kasenya Island, which is about 800 yards 
from the shore. As the lake is very shallow, the 
canoe with two fishermen which Lieutenant Stairs hailed 
could not approach the shore to within several hundred 
yards. The mud was of unfathomed depth, and none 
dared to put a foot into it. Along the water's edge the 
singular wood ambatch thrives, and continues its narrow 
fringe around the southern extremity of the lake, re- 
sembling from a distance an extensive range of fisher- 
men's stakes or a tall palisade. The fishermen pointed 
out a locality further up the lake where they could 
approach nearer, and which was their landing-place, the 
distance they were then at barely allowing the sounds of 
the voice to be heard. We spent the morning awaiting 
Lieutenant Stairs, who had considerable difficulty with 
the mud and swamps. In the afternoon I sent Mr. 
Jephson and forty men to the landing-place indicated 
by the natives, which was a low bluff" wooded at the 
summit, with depth of water sufficient for all practical 
purposes. In reply to a hail a fisherman and his wife- 
came to within a good bow-shot from the shore, and 
deigned to converse with our party. They said — 

" Yes, we remember a smoke-boat came here a long 
time ago. There was a white man (Colonel Mason) in 
her, and he talked quite friendly. He shot a hippo- 
potamus for us, and gave it to us to eat. The bones lie 
close to where you stand, which you may see for 
yourselves. There are no large canoes on this lake or 
anywhere about here, for the biggest will but hold two 
or three people with safety, and no more. We buy our 
canoes from the Wanyoro on the other side for fish and 
salt. Will we carry a letter for you to Unyoro ? No 
(with a laugh). No, we could not think of such a 
thing ; that is a work for a chief and a great man, and 


we are poor people, no better than slaves. Will we sell iss?. 
a canoe ? A little canoe like this will carry you ^*^*'" ^^" 
nowhere. It is only fit for fishing close to shore in NyanL. 
shallow waters like these. Which way did you come 
here ? By the way of the Ituri ? Ah ! that proves you 
to be wicked people. Who ever heard of good people 
coming from that direction ? If you were not wicked 
people you would have brought a big boat with you, 
like the other white man, and shoot hippos like him. Go 
your ways — yonder lies your road ; but as you go you 
will meet with people as bad as yourselves, whose work 
is to kill people. There is no food close to this lake or 
in all this plain. Fishermen like we have no need of 
hoes. Look around everywhere and you wdll not find a 
field. You will have to go back to the mountains where 
there is food for you ; there is nothing here. Our 
business is to make salt and catch fish, which we take 
to the people above, and exchange for grain and beans. 
This island is Kasenya, and belongs to Kavalli, and the 
next place is Nyamsassi. Go on. Why do you not go 
on and try your luck elsewhere ? The first white man 
stopped in these waters one night in his boat, and the 
next morning he went on his way, and since then we 
have not seen him or any other." 

Go I The inevitable closed around us to fulfil the 
law that nothing worth striving for can be obtained but 
by pain and patience. Look where we might, a way to 
advance was denied to us, except by fighting, killing, 
destroying, consuming and being consumed. For 
Unyoro we had no money, or goods fit for Rabba Rega. 
Marching to Wadelai would only be a useless waste of 
ammunition, and its want of it would probably prevent 
our return, and so reduce us to the same helplessness 
as Emin Pasha was reported to be in. If we cast our 
eyes lakewards we became conscious that we were bipeds 
requiring something floatable to bear us over the water. 
All roads except that by which we came were closed, and 
in the meantime our provisions were exhausted. 

At the evening's council we resolved to adopt the 
only sensible course left us — that is, to return to Ibwiri, 

VOL I. w 


1887. eighteen days' journey from here, and there buiid a 
Dec. 15. strong stockade, then to send a strong party to Ipoto 
Nyan^ to bring up the boat, goods, officers, and convalescents 
to our stockade, and after leaving fifty rifles there under 
three or four officers, hurry on to Ugarrowwa's settle- 
ment, and send the convalescents from there back to 
Ibwiri, and afterwards continue our journey in search of 
the Major and the rear column before he and it was a 
wreck, or marched into that wilderness whence we so 
narrowly escaped, and then, all united again, march on 
to this place with the boat, and finish the mission 
thoroughly, with no anxieties in the rear bewildering or 
enfeebling us. 

The following day, December 16th, a severe rainstorm 
detained us in camp until 9 a.m. The low hard plain 
absorbed the water but slowly, and for the first hour we 
tramped through water up to the knee in some places. 
We then emerged on a gently rolling plain, where the 
grass was but three inches high, with clumps of bush 
and low trees a few score of yards apart, making the 
whole scene resemble an ornamental park. Arriving at 
the path connecting the landing-place of Kasenya with 
the mountain pass by which we descended, we crossed 
it, keeping parallel to the lake shore, and about a mile 
and a half from it. Presently herds of game appeared, 
and, as our people were exceedingly short of provisions, 
we prepared to do our best to obtain a supply of meat. 
After some trouble a male kudu fell to my share, 
and Saat Tato, the hunter, dropped a hartebeest. 
Two miles beyond the landing-place of Kasenya we 

Our object in halting here was to blind the natives of 
Katonza's, who, we felt sure, would follow us to see if 
we had moved on, for naturally, having behaved so 
unruly to us, they might well entertain fears, or at least 
anxiety, respecting us. At night we proposed to retrace 
our steps, and follow the road to the foot of the moun- 
tain pass, and before dawn commence the steep and 
stony ascent, and be at the summit before the natives 
of the table-land above would be astir — as a struggle 


with such determined people, heavily loaded as we were, i887. 
was to be avoided if possible. ^**'*'- ^^• 

About 3 P.M., as we were occupied in dividing the /yanza, 
game among the hungry people, some native yells were 
heard, and half a dozen arrows fell into the halting- 
place. Nothing can give a better idea of the blind 
stupidity or utter recklessness of these savages than 
this instance of half a score of them assaulting a well- 
appointed company of 170 men in the wilderness, any 
two of whom were more than a match for them in a 
fight. Of course, having delivered their yells and shot 
their arrows, they turned sharply about and fled. 
Probably they knew they could rely upon their speed, 
for they left our pursuing men far out of sight in an 
incredibly short time. The ten savages who thus visited 
us were the same who had affected such solicitude as to 
come to ascertain if we had lost the road yesterday. 

In my rambles after meat during the day, far down 
the shore of the Lake from the halting-place, I came to 
vast heaps of bones of slaughtered game. They seem to 
have been of many kinds, from the elephant and 
hippopotamus down to the small bush-bok. It is probable 
that they had been surrounded by natives of the district 
who, with the assistance of fire, had slaughtered them in 
heaps within a circle of not more than 300 yards in 

Saat Tato the hunter, after wounding a buffalo, was 
deterred from following it by the appearance of a full- 
grown lion, who took up the chase. 

The shore of the Lake as it trends North Easterly, 
increases greatly in beauty. Over a score of admirable 
camping places were seen by me close by the edge of the 
Lake, with slopes of white firm sand, over much oi 
which the waves rolled ceaselessly. Behind was a back- 
ground of green groves isleted amid greenest sward, and 
game of great variety abounding near by ; while a view 
of singular magnificence and beauty greeted the eye in 
every direction. 

At 5.30 P.M. we gathered together, and silently got 
into order of march for the base of the mountain. We 


1887. had tliree sick people with us, two of them had not yet 
Dec. 16. i-ecovered from the effects of our miserable days in the 
Nyania. great forcst, another suffered from a high fever incurred 
in last night's rain-storm. 

At 9 P.M. we stumbled upon a village, which confused 
us somewhat, but the huge mountain, rising like a dark 
cloud above us, prevented us from retracing our steps, 
which without it we might well have done, as it was 
extremely dark. In dead silence we passed through the 
sleeping village, and followed a path out of it, which, de- 
generating into a mere trail, was soon lost. For another 
hour we bore on, keeping our eyes steadily fixed on the 
darker shadow that rose to the starry sky above us, 
until at last wearied nature, betrayed by the petulance 
of the advance guard, demanded a halt and rest. We 
threw ourselves down on the grass even where we halted, 
and were soon in deepest slumber, indifferent to all 

At dawn we rose from a deep sleep, drenched with 
dew and but little refreshed, and gazing up at the 
immense wall of the table-land that rose in four grand 
terraces of about 600 feet each, we discovered that we 
were yet about two miles from the foot of the pass. We 
therefore pressed forward, and shortly reached the base 
of the ascent. By aneroids we were 150 feet above 
the level of the Lake, which was 2400 feet above the 
sea, and we were 2500 feet below the summit of 
the saddle, or sunken ridge between the Northern and 
Southern ranges whose Eastern ends frowned above us. 

While the carriers of the expedition broke their fast 
ou the last morsels of meat received from yesterday's 
hunting, thirty picked men were sent up to seize the 
top of the ascent, and to keep the post while the loaded 
caravan struggled upward. 

After half-an-hour's grace we commenced ascending 
up the rocky and rain-scoured slope, with a fervid 
*' Bismillah " on our iips. After the fatiguing night- 
march, the after-chill of the dew, and drizzling rain 
and cold of the early morn, we were not in the best 
condition to climb to a 2500 feet altitude. To increase 


our discomfort, the Eastern sun shone full on our backs, i887. 
and the rocks reflected its heat in our faces. One of the ^^*'- ^'• 
sick men in delirium wandered away, another suffering NyauL 
from high bilious fever surrendered and would proceed 
no further. When we were half-way up twelve natives 
of Katonza's were seen far below, on the plains, bounding 
along the track in hot chase of the Expedition, with the 
object of picking up stragglers. They probably stumbled 
across our sick men, and the ease with which a delirious 
and unarmed person fell a sacrifice to their spears would 
inspire them with a desire to try again. However, 
Lieutenant Stairs was in charge of the rear guard, and 
no doubt would give a good account of them if they 
approached within range. 

At the top of the second terrace we found a little 
stream which was refreshingly cool, for the quartzose 
rocks and gneissic boulders were scorching. That the 
column suffered terribly was evident by the manner it 
straggled in fragments over the slopes and terraced 
flats, and by the streams of perspiration that coursed 
down their naked bodies. It was a great relief that our 
sharp-shooters held the brow of the hill, for a few bold 
spearmen might have decimated the panting and gasping 

At the top of the third terrace there was a short halt, 
and we could command a view far down to the rear of 
the column, which had not yet reached the summit of 
the first terrace, and perceived the twelve natives 
steadily following at about 500 yards' distance, and^ one 
by one they were seen to bend over an object, which I 
afterwards found from the commander of the rear-guard 
was our second sick man. Each native drove his spear 
into the body. 

Observing their object, it was resolved that their 
hostility should be punished, and Saat Tato the hunter 
and four other experts were posted behind some large 
rocks, between which they could observe without being 

In two and three-quarter hours we reached the brow 
of the plateau, and were standing by the advance-guard. 



Dec. 17. 


who had done excellent service in keeping the enemy 
away, and as the rear-guard mounted the height we 
heard the sharp crack of rifles from the ambushed party, 
who were avenging the murder of two of their comrades. 
One was shot dead, another was borne away bleeding, 
and the ferocious scavengers had fled. 

During the short breathing pause the advance-guard 
were sent to explore the village near by, which, it seems, 
was the exchange place between the plateau natives and 
Lakists, and the gratifying news of a rich discovery soon 


spread through the column. A large store of grain and 
beans had been found, sufficient to give each man five 
days' unstinted rations. 

At 1 P.M. we resumed our march, after giving positive 
command that close order should be maintained in order 
to avoid accidents and unnecessary loss of life. From 
the front of the column, the aborigines, who had in the 
interval of the halt gathered in vast numbers, moved 
away to our flanks and rear. A large party hid in 
some tall grass through which they supposed we should 


pass, but we swerved aside through a breadth of short i887. 
grass. Baffled by this movement they rose from their ^'^; ^\' 
coverts and sought by other means to gratify their 
spleenish hate. 

In crossing a deep gully near the knoll, which had 
already witnessed a stirring contest between us, the 
centre and rear of the column became somewhat con- 
fused in the cany grass, and crossed over in three or 
four broken lines ; our third sick man either purposely 
lagged behind, or felt his failing powers too weak to 
bear him further, and laid down in the grass, but it is 
certain he never issued from the gully. We in the 
advance halted for the column to reform, and just then 
we heard a storm of triumphant cries, and a body of 
about 400 exulting natives came leaping down the 
slopes, infatuated with their noisy rage and indifferent 
to rear -guards. Doubtless the triumphant cries 
were uttered when the sick man's fate was sealed. 
We had lost three ! The rush was in the hopes of 
obtaining another victim. And, indeed, the rear- 
guard, burdened with loads and harassed by their 
duties, seemed to promise one speedily. But at this 
juncture an expert left the advance and proceeded to 
take position three hundred yards away from the line of 
march, and nearer to the exultant natives, who were 
bounding gleefully towards the tired rear-guard. His 
first shot laid a native flat, a second smashed the arm of 
another and penetrated his side. There was an instant's 
silence, and the advance leaped from their position to 
assist the rear-guard, who were immediately relieved of 
their pursuers. 

An hour's journey beyond this scene we ramped on a 
tabular hill, which commanded r wide view of rich 
plains, for the night — footsore and weary beyond any 
former experience. 

On this afternoon I reflected upon the singularity that 
savages possessing such acute fear of death should yet 
so frequently seek it. Most men would have thought 
that the losses which had attended their efforts on the 
10th, 11th, 12th, and 13th would deter such as these 


1887. from provoking strangers who had proved themselves 
Dec. 17. gQ ^vell able to defend themselves. At one time we had 
Gavua's. ^jj^Qg^ jjggi^ convinced that fire would teach them 
caution ; we had also thought that keeping in a quiet 
line of march, abstaining from paying heed to their 
war-cries and their manoeuvres, and only act when they 
rushed to the attack, were sufficient to give them 
glimpses of our rule of conduct. But this was the fifth 
day of our forbearance. We were losing men, and we 
could ill afford to lose one, for a vast work remained 
unfinished. We had still to penetrate the forest twice, 
we had to proceed to Ipoto to carry our boat to the 
Nyanza, search the shores of the Lake as far as Wadelai 
— even Duffle, if necessary — for news of Emin, to return 
back again to the assistance of Major Barttelot and the 
rear-column — who were by this time no doubt looking 
anxiously for help, wearied with their overwhelming 
task — and again to march through these grass-land tribes 
to be each time subject to fatal loss through their unpre- 
cedented recklessness and courage. I resolved, then, 
that the next day we should try to find what effect 
more active operations would have on them, for it might 
be that, after one sharp and severe lesson and loss of 
their cattle, they would consider whether war was as 
profitable as peace. 

Accordingly, the next day before dawm I called for 
volunteers. Eighty men responded with alacrity. The 
instructions were few — 

" You see, boys, these natives fight on the constant 
run ; they have sharp eyes and long limbs. In the 
work of to-day we white men are of no use. We are 
all footsore and weary, and we cannot run far in this 
country. Therefore you will go together with your 
own chiefs. Go and hunt those fellows who killed our 
sick men yesterday. Go right to their villages and 
bring away every cow, sheep, and goat you can find. 
Don't bother about firing their huts. You must keep 
on full speed, and chase them out of every cane-brake 
and hill. Bring me some prisoners that I may have some 
of their own people to send to them with my words^" 



Meanwhile M^e availed ourselves of the halt to attend 
to our personal affairs. Our shoes and clothing needed 
repair, and for hours we sat cobbling and tailoring. 

At five in the afternoon the band of volunteers 
returned, bringing a respectable herd of cattle with several 
calves. Six bulls were slaughtered at once, and dis- 
tributed to the men according to their companies, who 
became nearly delirious with happiness. 

" Such," said Three O'clock the hunter, " is life in 

Dec. 18 



this continent with a caravan. One day we have a 
feast, and on the next the stomach is craving. Never 
are two days alike. The people will eat meat now until 
they are blind, and next month they will thank God if 
they get as much as a wood-bean." Saat Tato had dis- 
covered, like myself, that life in Africa consists of a 
series of varied sufferings with intervals of short 

The cold was very great on this high land. Each 
night since we had entered the grass country we had been 


1887. driven indoors near sunset by tlic raw misty weather of 
Dec. 18, ^i^g evening, and we shivered with chattering teeth in 
^boS.* the extreme chilliness of the young day. On this morn- 
ing the temperature was at 59 ' Fahrenheit. The men 
were stark naked owing to the exactions and extortions 
of the Manyuema, and had taken kindly to the leather 
dresses of the natives, and the bark cloths worn by the 
aborigines of the forest. After experiencing the extremes 
of cold to which these open pasture-lands were subject, 
we no longer wondered at the tardiness shown by the 
inhabitants to venture out before nine o'clock, and it 
would have been manifest wisdom for us to have adopted 
their example, had our task permitted it. 

On the 19th December we struck across the rolling 
plains towards Mazamboni. As we came near Gavira's 
we were hailed by a group of natives, who shouted out, 
" The country lies at your feet now. You will not be 
interfered with any more ; but you would please us well 
if you killed the chief of Undussuma, who sent us to 
drive you back." 

At noon, as we were abreast of the Balegga Hills, two 
parties of forty men each were observed to be following 
us. They hailed us finally, and expressed a wish to 
" look us in the face." As they declined the permission 
to approach us without arms, they were sharply ordered 
away, lest we should suspect them of sinister designs. 
They went away submissively. 

In the afternoon we came to the villages of those who 
had so persistently persecuted us on the 12th. The 
people were spread over the hills vociferating fiercely. 
The advance-guard were urged forward, and the hills 
were cleared, despite the storms of abuse that were poured 
out by the Balegga. 

A few of the captured cattle furnished milk. Our 
goats also gave an ample supply for tea and coffee, which 
we were bound to accept as evidence that the heart of 
Africa could supply a few comforts. 

On the 20th our march lay through the rich valley of 
Undussuma,' the villages of which had been fired on the 
10th and 11th. Already it had recovered its aspect of 



populousness and prosperity, for the huts were all built i887 
anew, but it was still as death, the inhabitants sitting on ^^'^' ^'^ 
the mountains looking down upon us as we marched 
past. Not being challenged or molested, we passed 
through in close order amidst a voiceless peace. May it 
not be that by comparing one day's conduct with another, 
the now from then, the children of Mazamboni will 
accept the proffer of friendship which we may make on 
our return ? We felt that the next time we came into 
the land we should be received with courtesy, if not with 
hospitality. Thus steadily, in view of hundreds of 
Mazamboni's warriors, we passed through the renovated 
valley. The millet was now ripe for the harvest, and 
with our departure westward, happy days were yet in 
store for them. 

The next day we entered the Abunguma country, and 
after fording the East Ituri River, camped on the right 

The 22nd was a halt — both Lieutenant Stairs and my- 
self were prostrated by ague and footsores ; and on the 
23rd we marched to the main Ituri River, where we 
found that the Babusesse had withdrawn every canoe. 
We proceeded down along the bank to a part of the 
stream that was islanded. By 2 p.m. of the 24th we had 
made a very neat and strong suspension bridge from the 
left bank to an island in midstream, though only two 
men could travel by it at a time. Uledi, the coxswain 
of the advance, with a chosen band of thirteen men, 
swam from the island to the right bank with their rifles 
over their shoulders, and the gallant fourteen men scoured 
up and down the banks for canoes, but were unsuccessful. 
In the meantime a terrible storm of hail as large as 
marbles beat down our tents, nearly froze the men, and 
made everybody miserable with cold. The temperature 
had suddenly fallen from 75° to 52° Fahrenheit. After 
lasting fifteen minutes the sun shone on a camp ground 
strewn with hail. 

At daylight, Christmas morning, I sent Mr. Jephson 
and Chief Rashid across the river with instructions to 
make a raft of banana stalks, It was poon before it was 



Dec. 21. 


finished, but in the meantime the caravan was passing by 
the suspension bridge to the ishind, and the ferriage by- 
raft commenced, taking four men with loads at one trip. 
In one hour we transported forty men and their loads by 
these banana stalks. Getting more confident, we sent six 
men and six loads at one trip, and by 4 p.m. No. 2 Com- 
pany was safe across. No. 1 Company then turned to 
haul the cattle from the left bank island, and after the 
rear-guard had crossed by the bridge, " Three O'clock " 
laid his bill-hook to the suspension bridge, and with a 
few strokes destroyed it. 


By noon of the 26th the Expedition was across the 
main Ituri River. Six calves were slaughtered for a 
Christmas ration of l^eef The next day one of our head 
men died from inflammation of the lungs, caused by a chill 
caught while halting on the brow of the plateau after the 
perspiring ascent from the lake plain. By the 29th we 
had reached Inde'-sura ; we thence proceeded to the small 
village of three huts near lyugu. On the 1st of January, 



1 888, we camped at Inde-tongo, and the next day passed 
by a gigantic granite rock in the forest, which sometimes 
is used by the forest natives as a refuge resort durino- 
internecine strife. . 

On the 6th January we passed by Inde-mwani, and came 
across the spot whence Msharasha, a Zanzil)ari, had fallen 
from a log and l)roken his neck. The scavengers of the 
woods — the red ants — had eaten the scalp and picked the 
skull clean, until it resembled a large ostrich Qgg. The 
chest of the body was still entire, but the lower limbs 
were consumed clean. On the next day we entered 
Ibwiri, and came to Boryo's village ; but, alas ! for our 
fond hopes of rendering the village comfortable for occu- 
pation, the natives had set fire to their own fine dwell- 
ings.^ Fortunately for us, they had taken the precaution 
to pick out the finest boards, and had stacked many of 
them in the bush. The large stores of Indian corn had 
been hastily removed into temporary huts built within 
the recesses of impervious bush. We set to at once to 
collect the corn as well as the boards, and before night 
we had begun the construction of the future Fort Bodo 
or the " Peaceful Fort." 

Dec. 29. 




fort Bodo. 



Onr impending duties — The stockade of Fort Bodo — Instructions to 
Lieutenant Stairs — His departure for Kilonga-Longa's — Pestered by 
rats, mosquitoes, &c. — Nights disturbed by the lemur — ^Armies of 
• red ants— Snakes in tropical Africa — Hoisting the Egyptian flag^ 
Arrival of Surgeon Parke and Captain Nelson from Ipoto— Eeport 
of their stay with the Manyuema — Lieutenant Stairs arrives with 
the steel boat — We determine to push on to the Lake at once — 
Volunteers to convey letters to Major Barttelot — Illness of myself 
and Captain Nelson — Uledi captures a Queen of the Pigmies — Our 
fields of corn— Life at Fort Bodo — We again set out for the Nyanza. 

1888. On arriving at West Ibwiri, about to build Fort Bodo, 
Jan. 6. J £gj|. precisely like a " city man " returning from 
his holiday to Switzerland or the sea-side, in whose 
absence piles of business letters have gathered, which re- 
quire urgent attention and despatch. They must be 
opened, read, sifted, and arranged, and as he reflects on 
their import he perceives that there are many serious 
aflairs, which, unless attended to with method and 
diligence, will involve him in confusion. Our holiday 
trip had been the direct and earnest march to the Albert 
Lake, to serve a Governor who had cried to the world, 
"Help us quickly, or we perish." For the sake of this. 
Major Barttelot had been allowed to bring up the rear 
column, the sick had been housed at Ugarrowwa's and 
Kilonga-Longa's stations, the extra goods had been buried 
in a sandy cache at Nelson's starvation camp or stored 
at Ipoto, the boat Advance had been disconnected and 
hidden in the bush, and Nelson and Surgeon Parke 
had been boarded with the Manyuema, and everything 
that had threatened to impede, delay, or thwart the 
march had been thrust aside, or eluded in some way. 
But now that the Governor, who had been the cynosure 



of our imaginations and the subject of our daily argu- 
ments, had either departed homeward, or could, or would 
not assist in his own relief, the various matters thrust 
aside for his sake required immediate attention. So I 
catalogued our impending duties thus : — 

To extricate Nelson and Parke from the clutches of 
the Manyuema, also to bring up the convalescents, the 
Advance steel boat, Maxim machine gun, and 116 loads 
stored at Ipoto. 

To construct Fort Bodo, to securely house a garrison ; 
make a clearing; plant corn, beans, tobacco, that the 
defenders may be secure, fed, and comforted. 

To communicate with Major Barttelot by couriers, or 

Jan. 0. 

Fort I'xiJo 


proceed myself to iiim ; to escort the convalescents at 

If boat was stolen or destroyed, then to make a canoe 
for transport to the Nyanza. 

If Barttelot was reported to be advancing, to hasten 
supplies of corn and carriers to his assistance. 

And first, the most needful duty was to employ every 
soul in the building of the stockade, within which the 
buildings could be constructed at more leisure, and with- 
out the necessity of having rifles slung to our shoulders. 
During our absence the natives had burnt West Ibwiri, 
and Boryo's fine village was a smoking ruin when we 
entered. But the finest boards had been stripped ofi" 
the buildings, and were stacked outside, and the corn had 


1888. been hastily removed to temporary huts In impervious 
an. 6. i^ygjj ^-^Q hundred yards away. These were now invalu- 

Fort Bodo. i i , "^ •' 

able to us. 

By the 18th of January the stockade of Fort Bodo 
was completed. A hundred men had been cutting tall 
poles, and bearing them to those who had sunk a narrow 
trench outlining the area of the fort, to plant firmly and 
closely in line. Three rows of cross poles were bound 
by strong vines and rattan creepers to the uprights. 
Outside the poles, again, had been fixed the planking, 
so that while the garrison might be merry-making by 
firelight at night, no vicious dwarf, or ferocious aborigine 
might creep up, and shoot a poisoned arrow into a 
throng, and turn joy to grief. At three angles of the 
fort, a tower sixteen feet high had been erected, fenced, 
and boarded, in like manner, for sentries by night and 
day to observe securely any movement in the future 
fields ; a banquette rose against the stockade ' for the 
defenders to command greater view. For during the 
months that we should be employed in realizing our 
stated tasks, the Manyuema might possibly unite to 
assault the fort, and its defence therefore required to 
be bullet-proof as well as arrow-proof. 

When the stockade was completed, the massive 
uprights, beams, hundreds of rafters, thousands of 
climbers, creepers, vines, for the frames of the officers' 
buildings, storerooms, kitchens, corn-bins, outhouses, 
piles of phrynia leaves for roofing the houses, had to 
be collected, and then when the gross work was so far 
advanced on the evening of the 18th, Lieutenant Stairs 
was summoned to receive his special instructions, which 
were somewhat as follows : — 

" You will proceed to-morrow with a hundred rifles to 
Ipoto, to see what has become of Nelson, Parke, and our 
sick men, and if living to escort every man here. You 
will also bring the boat Advance, and as many goods as 
possible. The last letters from Nelson and Parke informed 
us of many unpleasant things. We will hope for the 
best. At any rate, you have one hundred men, strong 
and robust as the Manyuema now, and their march to 

Fort Bodo. 


the Albert Lake has made men of them. They are filled isss. 
with hate of the Manyuema. They go there indepen- ■'^"- ^^• 
dent, with corn rations of their own. You may do what 
you like with them. Now, if Nelson and Parke have no 
complaints of hostility other than general niggardliness 
and sulkiness of the Manyuema, do not be involved 
in any argument, accusation, or reproach, but bring 
them on. If the boat is safe, and has not been injured, 
halt but one day for rest, and then hoist her up on your 
shoulders and carry her here. But if the survivors will 
prove to you that blood has been shed by violence, and 
any white or black man has been a victim, or if the boat 
has been destroyed, then consult with the surviving 
whites and blacks, think over your plans leisurely, and 
let the results be what they ought to be, full and final 
retaliation. That is all, except remember for God's sake 
that every day's absence beyond a reasonable period 
necessary for marching there and back, will be dooming 
us here to that eternal anxiety which follows us on 
this Expedition wherever w^e go. It is enough to be 
anxious for Barttelot, the Pasha, Nelson and Parke and 
our sick men, without any further addition." 

Three cows were slaughtered for meat rations for 
Stairs* Expedition, each man received 120 ears of corn, 
goats, fowls, and plaintains were taken for the com- 
mander and his two friends, and the party set off for 
Kilono-a-Lonffa on the 19th. 

o o 

Stairs' party at muster consisted of — The garrison numbered — 

88 men. 60 men. 
6 chiefs. 3 cooks. 

1 officer. 4 boys. 

1 boy. 3 whites. 

1 cook. — 

1 Manyema. 70 


After the departure of Stairs, I commenced the con- 
struction of a corn-bin to store 300 bushels of Indian 
corn, and to plaster the interior of head-quarters. 
Jephson busied himself in levelling floor of officers' 




J«n. 18. 

Fort Bodo. 

house. Men carried clay, others rammed and tamped 
Some men were on the roofs arranging the large-leaved 
phrynia one above the other on a kind of trestle frame, 
others formed ladders, made clay-dough for the walls, 
doors and windows for the houses, built kitchens, 
excavated latrines, or dug the ditch — ten feet wide, six 
feet deep — through a hard yellow clay, that lay under the 
twenty-four inches of humus and loam of the clearing. 
When the houses were completed, we made a whitewash 
out of wood ashes, which gave them a clean and neat 


On the 28th, head-quarters was ready for occupation. 
We had cleared three acres of land, cut down the bush 
clean to the distance of 200 j^ards from the fort, chopped 
the logs — the lighter were carried away, the heavier were 
piled up — and fire applied to them, and the next day 
folded the tents and removed to our mansions, which, as 
Jephson declared, were " remarkably snug." There was 
at first a feeling of dampness, but a charcoal fire burning 
night and day soon baked the walls dry. 

Fort Bodo 


To February 6 we extended the clearing, but dis- issa 
covering that natives were prowling about the fort, ■^*''°- ^®- 
planting poisoned splinters in the paths, cutting down 
the bananas, and bent on general mischief, half of the 
garrison were divided into two parties of patrols, to 
scour the plantations and the adjoining forest. On this 
day's explorations several camps of dwarfs were found 
at the distance of a mile from the fort, with stores of 
plaintains in their possession. They were thoroughly 
rousted out, and their camps were destroyed. 

After a few days' experiences of life in the buildings 
we found we were to be annoyed by hosts of rats, fleas, 
and microscopically sn^cill mosquitoes. The rats de- 
stroyed our corn and bit our feet, sported wantonly over 
our faces, and played hide-and-seek under our bed- 
clothes. It seems that by their wondrous craft they 
had discovered the natives were about to burn West 
Ibwiri, and had migrated in time out of harm's way into 
the deep bush and the corn fields, and they probably 
had a dim idea that such an eligible place would not 
remain long without tenants. When the commodious 
houses of the Europeans were erected, with spacious 
lofts, and corn-bins with an inexhaustible supply of 
grain, they had waited until everything was prepared ; 
but in the meantime the strange white men had 
excavated a long and deep ditch half round the fort, the 
walls of which had been carved perpendicularly out of 
the clay, into which, in their scurry and hurry to take 
possession, several families of rats tumbled, and one 
morning " Randy," the fox-terrier, leaped in among 
them, and exterminated the unfortunates. Still, from 
the Zanzibari village some wise old rats had found safe 
entrance and multiplied so fast that, until we became 
accustomed to their playful though rude sport, we 
thought them to be an intolerable nuisance. 

At the same time the warm dry clay floors began to 
breed fleas by myriads. Poor " Randy " was most 
miserable from tnese vexatious torments. AVe were in 
no better plight. While dressing they made our limbs 
black with their numbers. To suppress this pest we 


1888. had recourse to keeping the floors constantly damp, and 

Feb. 6. ^Q sweeping the floors twice a day. 

or o, fjij^^ ordinary mosquito netting was no protection 
against the mosquitoes of the clearing. They sailed 
through the open work as mice would creep through 
antelope nets, and the only remedy was to make 
mosquito curtains out of cotton muslin, which happily 
succeeded, but half suffocated the sleepers. 

Our soap had long ago been exhausted, and as a 
substitute, though it was not agreeable to the smell, 
and was an altogether unsaleable article, we manu- 
factured a soft soap out of castor-oil and lye, and, after 
a few experiments, succeeded in turning out a hard ball- 
like substance, which had all the desired effect. 

Every night, from Yambuya to the plains, we had 
been troubled by harsh screams from the lemur. It 
began at a startling loud key, very deliberate, and as 
it proceeded the sounds became loader, quicker, and 
higher, in a quick succession of angry, grating, wailing 
cries. In the darkness and silence of the night, they 
sounded very weird. Soon, from a distance of perhaps 
200 yards, commenced a response in the same strain, 
from another sexual mate. Sometimes two or three 
pairs of these would make sleep impossible, if any 
indisposition had temporarily disturbed the usual rest. 

Armies of red ants would sometimes invade the fort 
from the clearing ; their columns were not interrupted 
by the ditch. In long, thick, unbroken lines, guarded 
by soldiers on either flank, the innumerable insects 
would descend the ditch and ascend the opposite sides, 
over the parapets, through the interstices of the poles, 
over the banquette, and down into the plaza of the fort, 
some columns attacking the kitchen, others head- 
quarters, the officers' mess-house, and woe betide any 
unlucky naked foot treading upon a myriad. Better 
a flogging with nettles, or cayenne over an excoriated 
body, or a caustic bath for a ravenous itch, than these 
biting and venomous thousands climbing up the limbs 
and body, burying themselves in the hair of the head, 
and plunging their shining, horny mandibles into the 

Fort Boda 


flesh, creating painful pustules with every bite. Every isss. 
living thing seems disturbed at their coming. Men are _^^^'J 
screaming, bellowing with pain, dancing, and writhing. 
There is a general rustle, as of a host of migrant 
creatures among the crisp dry phrynia leaves overhead. 
The rats and mice, snakes, beetles, and crickets are 
moving. From a slung cot I have observed, by candle- 
light, the avengers advancing over the floor of my 
house, scaling the walls, searching the recesses of every 
layer of leaves, skirmishing among the nooks and cran- 
nies, mouse-holes, and cracks ; heard moaning and crying 
of little blind mice, and terrified squealing of motherly and 
paternal rats, and hailed them as a blessing, encouraging 
them along on their career of destruction, until presently 
some perverse and undisciplined tribes would drop from 
the roof on my cot, and convert their well-wisher into a 
vindictive enemy, who, in his rage, would call aloud for 
hot glowing embers and roast them alive by thousands, 
until the air was heavy with the odour of frizzling and 
frying ants. Bad luck to them ! 

While digging in the stiff" yellow clay, to form the 
ditch, we have come across burnt wood in the hard 
compacted material, 5 feet below the surface of the 
humus. Yet there were stately trees, 100, 150, and 
200 years old, above. The site was level, and apparently 

One of our surprises has been the immunity we have 
enjoyed from snake-bites in tropical Africa. The con- 
tinent swarms with reptiles of all kinds, from the silvery 
and blind typhlops to the huge python ; but while 
travelling and navigating over 24,000 miles of land and 
water in Africa, only two men have been wounded, 
neither of which cases proved mortal. But the instant 
we begin clearing a forest, or hoeing a field or a road- 
way, we begin to realize the dangers we have escaped. 
During the work of clearing the prostrate logs, and 
rooting out the bushy undergrowth and preparing for 
cultivation, we came across many specimens, some 
remarkably beautiful. Coiled in the bushes, green as a 
tender young wheat-blade, were the slender whip-snakes, 

tort Bodo. 


1888. which dropped down among the men when the bill-hook 
Feb. 6. ^g^g applied to destroy their perches. Various species 
of the Dendrophis, of brilliant colouring, also were 
revealed. Three bloated puff-adders, gorgeous in their 
complicated system of decorations, were killed ; four 
horned snakes crept out of their holes to attack and be 
slain ; one of the Lycodontidse, curious for its long 
fangs, was roasted out of its hiding-place, while several 
little, blind, blunt-headed, silvery snakes, not much 
larger than earthworms, were turned up by the hoes. 
Tortoises were very common, and the mephitis left 
frequent traces of his existence. 

While kites, the most daring of their tribe, soared 
above every clearing in the forest, we never met a single 
vulture until we reached the grass-land. A few white- 
collared eagles now and then made their appearance, 
but there were parrots innumerable. From grey dawn 
to dusk these birds always and everywhere made their 
presence known. A few herons occasionally rested on 
trees in the clearing towards evening. They were 
probably fatigued with their flight from the Nyanza. 
The black ibis and wagtails were our constant com- 
panions in the wilds. Trees with weaver birds and 
their nests were a feature near every forest village. 
The neighbourhood, and finally our plantations, even 
within a dozen yards of the fort, were visited by troops 
of elephants. Buffalo and wild-hog tracks were common, 
but we were not naturalists. None of us had leisure, 
and probably but little taste, for collection of insects, 
butterflies, and birds. To us an animal or a bird was 
something to eat, but with all our efforts we seldom 
obtained anything. We only noted what happened to 
catch our eyes or cross our track. We had too many 
anxieties to be interested in anything save what was 
connected with them. If a native or a Zanzibar! picked 
up a brilliant longicorn beetle or hawk-moth, or fine 
butterfly, or a huge mantis, or brought birds' eggs, or a 
rare flower, a lily or an orchid, a snake or a tortoise, my 
mind wandered to my own special business, even while 
gazing at and approving the find. My family was 

Fort Bodo 


altogether too large to permit frivolity ; not an hour isss. 
passed but my fancies fled after Stairs at Ipoto ; or ''^^- ^■ 
my thoughts were filled with visions of Barttelot and 
Jameson struggling through the forest, overwhelmed 
with their gigantic task, or they dwelt upon the mystery 
surrounding the Pasha, or upon the vicious dwarfs and 
the murderous Balesse and their doings, or upon the 
necessities of providing, day after day, food and meat 
for the present, as well as for future months. 

On the 7th of February the sounding line was 
stretched out to measure out the approaches to the gates 
of the fort, and most of the garrison were employed for 
several days in cutting broad, straight roads, east and 
west, for quick travel and easy defence. Mighty logs 
were cut through and rolled aside, the roads were 
cleaned, so that a mouse might be detected crossing 
them at 200 yards off, a bridge was built across the 
stream west of the fort, by which the scouts were 
enabled to proceed from each of the plantations in a 
short time, by night or by day. It may well be 
imagined what effect this flood of light had upon the 
crafty natives, who preferred burrowing in dark shades, 
and creep under the lee of monster logs, furtively spying 
out opportunities for attack. They felt that they could 
not cross the road at any point without becoming a 
target for a sentry's rifle, or their tracks would betray 
them to the patrols. 

On the next morning we raised a flag-stafi" 50 feet 
high, and as the Egyptian flag was hoisted up, the 
Soudanese were permitted to salute it with twenty-one 

We had scarcely finished the little ceremony when a 
shot was fired at the end of the western road, the sentry 
at the tower commanding it sang out, " Sail ho/' and 
we knew the caravan was coming in from Ipoto. 

Surgeon Parke was the first to arrive, looking won- 
derfully well, but Nelson, who suff"ered from sore feet, 
and entered the fort an hour later, was prematurely 
old, with pinched and drawn features, with the bent 
back and feeble legs befitting an octogenarian. 


1888. The following account will speak for itself, and will 
Feb. 8. pj.Qyg j^Q^^ ^\^Q g^g^y (jf thcsc officers at the Manyema 

° "■ village required greater strength of mind and a moral 
courage greater than was needed by us during our 
stormy advance across the grass-land. They were not 
inspired by energising motives to sustain or encourage 
them in their hour of suffering from physical pros- 
tration, sickness, and the wearying life they led 
among those fearful people, the Manyuema, whereas we 
had been borne up by the novelties of new scenes, the 
constant high pitch of excitement, the passion of travel 
and strife. They suffered from the want of the neces- 
saries of life day after day, while we revelled in 
abundance, and the greatest difficulty of all was to bear 
all these sufferings inflicted upon them by Ismailia, 
Khamis, and Sangarameni, who were slaves of Kilonga- 
Longa, who was the slave of Abed bin Salim, of 
Zanzibar, sweetly and pleasantly. 

Report of Surgeon T. H. Parke, Army Medical Department, in medical 
charge of E. I', R. Expedition. 

Fort Bodo, 8 February, 1888. 

Sir, — I have the honour to forward this report for yonr information. 
In compliance with your ordei's dated 24th October, 1887, I remained at 
the Manyuema Camp to take cliarge of invalids and impedimenta left there 
on your departure, 28th October, up to the time the relief party arrived, 
25th January, 1888. Of those invalids whom jou left at camp, seven 
were sufficiently recovered to send on with Captain Jephson, 7th Novem- 
ber ; those remaining were increasec' in number by the arrival of Captain 
Nelson, his two boys, and two men, 3rd November ; also headman Umari 
and nine men, who were found in a starving condition in the bush by 
Kilonga-Longa, and brouglit to camp by him 9th January ; this made a 
total of one sick officer and thirty-nine invalids remaining in camp ; of 
this number Captain Nelson and sixteen men left with the relief party. 
Twelve men were away on a journey looking for food, therefore remain 
at Manyuema Camp, and eleven deaths occurred; this extremely high 
mortality will no doubt astonish you, especially as it was entirely due to 
starvation, except in two instances only. From the time you left the 
Manyuema Camp until our departure, 26th January, the chiefs gave little 
or no food to either officers or men ; those men who were sufficiently 
strong to do a good day's work, sometimes got as many as ten heads of 
corn (Indian) per man, but as the working men were not constantly 
employed, their average ration of corn was about three per day ; those 
invalids unable to work, of whom there were many, received no food 
from the chiefs, and were therefore obliged to exist on herbs. Remember- 
ing the wretched and debilitated condition of all these men, both from 
privation and disease, you will readily understand that the heartless 


treatment of the Manyiiema chiefs was suflBcient to cause even a much 1888. 
greater mortality. Feb. 8. 

The men were badly housed, and their scanty clothing consisted of p . g, 
about half a yard of native bark-cloth, as they sold their own clothes for ° * 

food ; they experienced not only the horrors ol starvation, but were 
cruelly and briitally treated by the Manyuema, who drove them to commit 
theft by withholding food, and then scored their backs with rods, and in 
one case sjieared a man to death (Asmani bin Hassan) for stealing. 

Captain Nelson arrived in a very weak condition, requiring good food 
and careful treatment. He visited the chiefs, and made them handsome 
presents of articles costing aboiat £75, with a view to win their sympathy ; 
however, they continued to give little or no food to officers or men : they 
said that no arrangement had been made for provisioning Captain Nelson, 
and any food they sent to me was entirely of their own generosity, as no 
arrangement had been made by you. I asked them to let me see the 
Written agreement between you and them, which they did ; also another 
document written in Arabic characters, which I could not read. In 
their agreement with you I saw that they had promised to provision the 
officers and men whom you would leave. 1 appealed to them, and 
remonstrated with them, nevertheless they supplied les-s and less food, 
until finally they refused to give any on the plea that they had none. 
The height of this generosity would be reached when they would send 
two or three cups of Indian meal to feed Captain Nelson, myself and the 
boys, until the next donation would turn \\p in six or seven days after- 
wards. During the last seven weeks we did not receive any food what- 
ever from the chiefs. Owing to their refusal to give us food, we were 
obliged first to sell our own clothes, and eight rifles belonging to the 
Expedition to provide ourselves and boys with food. I repeatedly re- 
minded Ismaili (chief) of the conversation he had with you in your tent 
the night before yoii left the camp, Avhen he promised to look after and 
care for the officers and men whom you left in camj). Although the 
chiefs had no food to supjjly according to their agreement, yet they had 
always plenty to sell, their object being to compel us to sell the arms and 
ammunition for food. 1 send you a complete list of elfects left in my 
charge by Captain Jephson, 7th November, all of which were correct 
when the relief party arrived, with the following exceptions, viz. : — two 
boxes Eemington ammunition, and one rifle, which were stolen by a 
Zanzibari (Saraboko), and, I believe, sold to the Manyuema chiefs. 

Several attempts were made to steal the arms, boxes, &c. ; on the night of 
November 7tli, the hut in which the baggage was stored was set on tire 
with a view to taking everything with a rush in the confusion caused by 
the fire : however, their dream was frustrated, as Captain Nelson, who 
was ever awake saw the blaze, and gave the alarm just in time for our- 
selves and our boys to put out the fire before it got to the baggage. • 
I then had the tents pitched according to your directions, not being able 
to do so earlier, as I had no assistance. All the rifles, ammunition, 
boxes, &c., were packed in the tents, one of which was occupied by 
Captain Nelson, and the other by myself. Every effort was made to 
prevent things being stolen; nevertheless, even Captain Nelson's blankets 
were taken by a thief who got under the tent from behind. On another 
occasion I heard a noise at my tent-door, and, jumping out of bed quickly, 
I found a box of ammtinition ten yards off, which had just been taken 
out of my tent. The thief escaped in the dark. 

On the night of January 9th, I heard a noise outside my tent, and, 
suspecting a thief, I crept out noiselessly to the back, where 1 caught 
" Camaroni," a Zanzibari, in the act of stealing a rifle through a hole 
which he had cut in the tent for this offence. Life at the Manyuema Camp 


1888 ^^^ almost intolerable. Apart from starvation, the people, their manner 
Feb. 8. ^^^ surroundings, were of the lowest order, and, owing to the mounds of 
„ „ , fecal matter and decomposing vegetation which were allowed to collect 
on the paths and close to their dwellings, the place was a hotbed of 
disease Captain Nelson was confined to his bed from sickness for over 
two months, and I got blood-poisoning, followed by erysipelas, which 
kept me in bed for five weeks. During our illness the chiefs paid us 
frequent visits, but always with a view to covet something which they 
saw in our tents. Their avarice was unbounded, and they made agree- 
ments one day only to be broken the next. After the arrival of Kilonga- 
Longa and his force of about 400, including women, children, and slaves, 
food became really scarce, therefore the Mauyuema were obliged to send 
out lar^e caravans to bring in food. Twelve Zanzibaris who are absent 
accompanied these caravans in search of food, and had not returned when 
I left the camp with the relief party. Starvation was so great just before 
we left that the native slaves seized one of their comrades, who had gone 
some distance from the camp to draw water, cut him in pieces, and 
ate him. 

In conclusion, I may mention that Captain Nelson and myself did 
everything we could to preserve a good feeling with the Manyuema 
chiefs and people, and we parted on friendly terms. 

T. H. Parke. 
{Surgeon A. M. D.) 
To H. M. Stanley, Esq., 
Commanding E. P. R. Expedition. 

The contrast between the sadlj-worn men who 
reached us from that hot-bed of suffering at Ipoto and 
our beautifully sleek and glossy men who had reached 
the Albert was most marked. Their flesh was wasted, 
their muscles had become shrivelled, their sinews were 
shrunk, and their distinctive and peculiar individualities^ 
seemed to have altogether vanished until it had become 
a diflicult matter to recognise them. 

On the 12th of February Lieutenant Stairs and his 
column appeared with every section of the boat in good 
order. He had been absent twenty-five days, and his 
mission had been performed with a sacred regard to his 
instructions and without a sino;le flaw. 

The evening of that date was remarkable for a dis- 
cussion between the head-men and ourselves as to our 
future steps. I discovered that all the headmen were 
unanimous for proceeding to the Nyanza to launch 
the boat and search for news of Em in. My desire was 
equally great to obtain news of the Pasha ; nevertheless, 
I think very little was required to induce me to 
abandon the search for the Pasha to obtain news of 


Major Barttelot, but officers and men were alike unani- isss. 
mous in their demand that we should resolve the fate of ^^^- ^'^• 
Emin Pasha. A compromise was finally effected. It was ^*''* ^^^ 
determined that couriers should be sent with our 
letters to Major Barttelot, with a map of our route and 
such remarks as would be of practical use to him. It 
was also decided that Lieutenant Stairs, after two days' 
rest, should escort these couriers as far as Ugarrowwa's, 
and see them safely across the river, and that on return- 
ing he should escort the convalescents, who, too feeble to 
march, had been housed in that settlement on the 18th 
September ; that in order that Lieutenant Stairs should 
" participate in the honour of being present at the relief 
of Emin Pasha," we should wait for him until the 2oth 
of March. Meantime we should continue the work of 
enlarging our domain for corn and bean planting, to 
prevent any scarcity of food while engaged in the 

The distance between Fort Bodo and Ipoto was 
seventy-nine miles,* or 158 miles the round journey, 
which had occupied Lieutenant Stairs twenty-five days, 
at the average of six and one-third miles per day, but 
he had reached Ipoto within seven days, and Jephson 
and Uledi had accomplished the distance in the same 
time, that is, at an average rate of travel of a little over 
eleven miles per day. Now, as Ugarrowwa was 104 
miles beyond Ipoto, or 183 miles from Fort Bodo, it 
was estimated that the journey of 366 miles which 
Stairs was now about to undertake might be performed 
within thirty-fom- days, or at the rate of ten and three 
quarter miles per day. This would be magnificent 
travelling, especially in the forest, but as various circum^ 
stances might protract the period, it was agreed that if 
we moved towards the Nyanza on the 25th March, and 
as the carriage of the boat would necessitate short stages, 
we should travel slowly, that he might have the oppor- 
tunity of overtaking us. 

On the morning of the 16th February, at muster, it 
was proclaimed that twenty first-class volunteers were 
* Seventy-nine miles one way, and eighty-four miles by another way. 

Fort Bodo. 


1888. required to convey our letters to Major Barttelot, at 
Feb. 16. £YQ reward for each man if they succeeded in reaching 
him, because, said I, " You have all combined to demand 
that we should find the Pasha first. It is well. But I 
feel as anxious about the Major as I do about the Pasha. 
We must find both. You who remember what we 
suffered must feel what the Major and his friends feel, 
in those horrible stretches of unpeopled woods, having 
no idea where they are going or what is waiting for 
them. You know how grateful we should have been, 
had we met anybody who could have warned us of the 
hunger and misery we should meet. Therefore every 
man who volunteers must be acknowledged as the fittest 
for this noble work by everyone here. Master Stairs, 
whom you all know as a man who is never tired, and 
never says ' enough ' when there is something to be done, 
will show you the road as far as Ugarrowwa's, he will 
see that you are ferried over with food, and cartridges 
sufficient, and when you leave, you must race along 
our old road, which you cannot lose, like men running 
for a big prize. These letters must be put into the 
hands of the Major, that he and your brothers may be 
saved. Where are these fifty dollar men ? " 

Of course at such times the Zanzibaris are easily 
roused to enthusiasm, and every man considers himself a 
hero. Over fifty men came to the front challenging any 
one to say aught against their manliness or courage, but 
they had to undergo a searching criticism and bantering 
review from their fellows and officers, their courage, 
powers of endurance, activity, dispositions, strength, 
soundness of mind and body were questioned, but at last 
twenty men satisfactory to Commander and people 
received rations, and they were specially enrolled among 
the men of merit who for distinguished service were to 
be rewarded with varying sums of money, in addition to 
their pay, on reaching Zanzibar. Lieutenant Stairs left 
for Ipoto and Ugarrowwa's at 9 o'clock with fowls, goats, 
corn, and plantain flour rations for the long journey. 

On the 18th my left arm, which had been very painful 
for four days previously, developed a large glandular 

■^ -S 



swelling, which our surgeon said would prove to be an 1888 

The following is taken from my diary : — 

February 19th to March ISth. — On Sunday night, the 
19th, I was attacked with inflammation of the stomach, 
which has been called by Dr. Parke sub-acute gastritis, 
of so severe a character that during the first week I had 
only a confused recollection of great pain in the arm and 
stomacli, and general uselessness. Dr. Parke has been 
most assiduous in his application to my needs, and 
gentle as a woman in his ministrations. For once in my 
life every soul around me was at my service, and I found 
myself an object of universal solicitude night and day. 
My faithful friends, Parke and Jephson, waited, and 
watched, and served. Poor Nelson was himself a victim 
to ill-health, fevers, debility, eruptions and ulcers, the 
effects of his terrible agony at Starvation Camp, but he 
would come, sometimes tottering weakly, to express his 
sympathy. In the afternoons the Doctor would permit 
the headmen to visit me, to convey to the anxious 
Zanzibaris their personal opinions and views of my case. 
During most of these twenty-three days I have been 
under the influence of morphia, and the time has passed 
in unconsciousness. But I am now slowly recovering. 
Two days ago the abscess, which had become very large, 
was pierced, and I am relieved of that pain. Meanwhile 
my daily diet has consisted of a pint of milk — thanks to 
the Balegga cow — mixed with water. I am therefore so 
feeble as to be scarcely able to move. 

During my illness I have to regret the loss of two 
good men, Sarmini and Kamwaiya, who have been killed 
with arrows, and one of the headmen has been severely 
wounded. This occurred during a patrolling tour as far 
as the Ihuru, fourteen geographical miles due north 
from here. Uledi and a party has discovered the haunts 
of the dwarfs and taller aborigines who rob our plantain 
groves to be at Alesse' and Nderi, fourteen geographical 
miles east. 

I find that Uledi has captured a Queen of the 
Pigmies, who is the wife of the Chief of Indekaru. She 



1888. was brought in to be seen by me with three rings of 
Feb. 19. pQiished iron around her neck, the ends of which were 
Fort Bodo. ^^.|^^ like a watch spring. Three iron rings were 
suspended to each ear. She is of a light brown com- 
plexion, with broad round face, large eyes, and small but 
full lips. She had a quiet modest demeanour, though 
her dress was but a narrow fork clout of bark cloth. 


Her height is about four feet four inches, and her age 
may be nineteen or twenty. I notice when her arms 
are held against the light, a whity-brown fell on them. 
Her skin has not that silky smoothness of touch common 
to the Zanzibaris, but altogether she is a very pleasing 
little creature. 

March Idth to April \st. — By the 25th I was well 


enougli to be able to move about a few hundred yards isss. 
at a time. My arm was still stiff and I was exceedingly ^^''^'^ ^^• 
feeble. Nelson lias recovered somewhat from his "^^ ° "" 
successive fits of illness. During my convalescence I 
have been supported each afternoon to the centre of a 
lofty colonnade of trees, through which our road to the 
Nyanza leads, where in an easy chair I have passed hours 
of readino^ and drowsino;. 

It has been a daily delight while helped to my leafy 
arcade to observe the rapid change in the growth of 
the corn in the fields, and to see how we have been 
encroaching upon the forest. Our cultivable area, after 
being cleaned, hoed, and planted, was not long left with 
its bare brown face naked. On a certain day it became 
green with the young corn blades, it had sprouted by 
thousands as though at the word of command. Only 
yesterday, as it were, we smiled to see the tender white 
stalk arched for a spring under a slowly rising clod, and 
now the clods have been brushed aside, the arched 
stalks have sprung upright, and the virgin plants have 
unfolded their tender green crests. Day by day it has 
been a wonder how the corn has thriven and grown, 
with what vigour the stalks have thickened, enlarged in 
leaf, and deepened in green. Side by side in due rank 
and order they have risen, the blades have extended 
towards one another in loving embrace, until the whole 
has become a solid square field of corn, the murmur of 
which is like the distant wash of a languid sea over a 
pebbly beach. 

This is the music to which I listen devoutly, while my 
medical friend sits not far off" on the watch, and sentries 
stand still at each end of the avenue on guard. A 
gentle breeze blows over the forest and breathes upon 
the corn, causing a universal shiver and motion through- 
out, and I sit watching the corn tops sway and nod, and 
salute each other, with the beautiful grace and sweet 
undertones of many wavelets, until drowsiness over- 
comes me and seals my senses, and sleep bears me to 
the region of fantasy. As the sun appears low in the 
west, and lights the underwood horizontally with mellow 

VOL. I. Y 


1888. light, my kind doctor assists me to my feet and props 
March 25. j^^^ ^g J yy-gjj^^ ^q ^j^g Fort, my corn with dancing motion 
" °" and waving grace bidding me farewell. 

In the warm teeming soil the corn has grown apace 
until it has reached a prodigious height, tall as the 
underwood of the forest. Only a few weeks ago 1 
searched amid the clods for a sign of sprouting ] a little 
later and I might still have seen a scampering mouse ; a 
few days ago it was breast high ; to- day I look up and I 
can scarcely touch the point of a rapier-like blade with a 
five-foot staff, and a troop of elephants might stand 
underneath undetected. It has already flowered ; the 
ears, great and swelling, lying snug in their manifold 
sheaths, give promise of an abundant harvest, and I glow 
with pleasure at the thought that, while absent, there 
need be no anxiety about the future. 

I am resolved to-morrow to make a move towards the 
Nyanza with the boat. This is the forty-sixth day of 
Stairs' absence. I had sent twenty couriers — one of 
whom returned later — to Major Barttelot. Stairs and 
his personal attendants numbered seven. I shall leave 
forty-nine in fort ; inclusive of Nelson there will be 
126 men left to escort the boat to the Nyanza. Total, 
201 of advance column remaining out of 389, ex- 
clusive of such convalescents as may be obtained at 

Tippu-Tib has evidently been faithless, and the Major 
is therefore working the double stages, some hundreds of 
miles behind ; the nineteen couriers are speeding towards 
him, and are probably opposite the Nepoko at this date, 
and Stairs has found so many men yet crippled with 
ulcers that he is unable to travel fast. With 126 men 
I attempt the relief of Emin Pasha the second time. The 
garrison consists of all those who suffer from debility, 
ansemia — who were fellow-sufferers with Nelson at 
Starvation Camp — and leg sores, some of which are 
perfectly incurable. 

The labour performed about the fort is extensive. 
Nelson has an impregnable place. The fields of corn 
and beans are thriving, and of the latter I have enjoyed 



The plantain groves appear to be 1888. 

Marcli 25. 

a first dish to-day. 

Our broad roads extend about half a mile each way. '''"'"^ ^"^'*- 
Ten scouts patrol the plantations every morning, that 
the mischievous pigmies may not destroy the supplies ' 

of the garrison, and that no sudden onsets of natives 
may be made upon the field hands while at work. 

Surgeon Parke accompanies us to the Nyanza to- 
morrow according to his own earnest request. Though 
his place is in the fort with the invalids, there are none 


who require greater attention than can be given by 
Captain Nelson through his boys, who have been in- 
structed in the art of bathing the sores witb lotions of 
carbolic acid and water. 

Our men on the Sundays have amused themselves 
with performing military evolutions after the method 
taught by General Matthews at Zanzibar. They are 
such capital mimics that his very voice and gesture have 
been faithfully imitated. 

Life at Fort Bodo, on the whole, has not been un- 
pleasant except for Captain Nelson and myself. It is 

March 25. 
Fort Bodo 


1888. true we have fretted and never been free from anxiety 
respecting the whereabouts and fate of our friends. We 
have also been anxious to depart and be doing some 
thing towards terminating our labours, but circum- 
stances which we cannot control rise constantly to thwart 
our aims. We have therefore striven to employ every 
leisure hour towards providing unstinted supplies of 
food, in the hope that fortune will be good enough to 
veer round once in our favour, and bring Barttelot and 
our friends Jameson, Ward, Troup, and Bonny, with 
their little army of men, to Fort Bodo before our second 
return from the Nyanza. 



Difficulties with the steel boat— African forest craft— Splendid capture 
of pigmies, and descri])tiou of the same— We cross the Ituri river — 
Dr. Parke's delight on leaving the forest— Camp at Besse— Zanzibar! 
wit^ — At Nzera-Kum-hill once more — Intercourse with the natives — 
" Malleju," or the " Bearded One," being first news of Emin — Visit 
from chief Mazamboni and his followers— Jephson goes through the 
form of friendship with Mazamboni — The medicine men, Nestor and 
Murabo — The tribes of the Congo — Visit from chief Gavira— A 
Mhuma chief— The Bavira and Wahuma races— The varying African 
features— Friendship with Mpinga— Gavira and the looking-glass — 
Exposed Uzanza — W e reach Kavalli — The chief produces " Malleju's " 
letter — Emin's letter — Jephson and Parke convey the steel boat to 
the lake— Copy of letter sent by me to Emin through Jephson— 
Friendly visits from natives. 

On the 2nd day of April, 1888, after a drizzly rain had isss 
ceased to fall, we filed out at noon with a view to at- ^p"^ ^ 
tempt a second time to find the Pasha, or to penetrate 
the silence around him. We had now our steel boat in 
twelve sections, and the stem and stern being rather 
beamy we discovered very soon that a good deal of 
cutting with axes and bill-hooks was required to permit 
them to pass between the trees. The caravan in single 
file, laden with boxes, bales, and baggage, would find no 
difficulty ; the narrower sections two feet wide passed 
through without trouble, but the plough-shaped stem 
and stern pieces soon became jammed between two 
colossal trees which compelled a retreat and a detour 
through the bush, and this could not be effected without 
clearing a passage. It was soon evident that our second 
trip to the Nyanza through the forest would consume 
some days. 

The advance guard scanning the track, and fully 




1888. lessoned in all the crooked ways and wiles of the pigmies 
April 4. ^^^ aborigines, picked up many a cleverly-hidden skewer 
from the path. At some points they were freely planted 
under an odd leaf or two of phrynium, or at the base of 
a log, over which, as over a stile, a wayfarer might 
stride and plant his foot deep into a barbed skewer well 
smeared with dark poison. But we were too learned 
now in the art of African forestcraft, and the natives 
were not so skilled in the invention of expedients as to 
produce new styles of molestation and annoyance. 

The dwarfs' village at the crossing was our next resting- 
place, and Inde-mwani was reached on the 4th. The next 
day we moved to another dwarfs' village, and in the 
neighbouring plantain grove Saat Tato and a few friends, 
while collecting a few of the fruit, made a splendid 
capture of pigmies. We had four women and a boy, 
and in them I saw two distinct types. One evidently 
belonged to that same race described as the Akka, with 
small, cunning, monkey eyes, close, and deeply set. The 
four others possessed large, round eyes, full and pro- 
minent, broad round foreheads and round faces, small 
hands and feet, with slight prognathy of jaws, figures 
well formed, though diminutive, and of a bricky com- 
plexion. " Partial roast coffee," " chocolate," " cocoa," 
and " cafe au lait," are terms that do not describe the 
colour correctly, but the common red clay brick when 
half baked would correspond best in colour to that of the 
complexion of these little people. Saat Tato reported 
that there were about twenty of them stealing plantains 
which belonged to the natives of Indepuya, who were 
probably deterred from defending their property by the 
rumour of our presence in the woods. The monkey- 
eyed woman had a remarkable pair of mischievous orbs, 
protruding lips overhanging her chin, a prominent 
abdomen, narrow, flat chest, sloping shoulders, long 
arms, feet turned greatly inwards and very short lower 
legs, as being fitly characteristic of the link long sought 
between the average modern humanity and its Darwinian 
progenitors, and certainly deserving of being classed as 
an extremely low, degraded, almost a bestial type of a 



human being. One of the others was a woman evidently isss. 
a mother, though she could not have seen her seventeenth "^l"",'/^' 
year. No fault could be found in the proportion of any 
one member ; her complexion was bright and healthy ; 
her eyes were brilliant, round, and large ; her upper lip had 
the peculiar cut of that of the AVambutti noticeable in the 
woman at Ugarrowwas, and the chiefs wife of Indekaru, 
which is the upper edge curving upward with a sharp 
angle and dropping perpendicularly, resembling greatly 
a clean up and down cut with a curl up of the skin aa 
though it had contracted somewhat. I believe this to 
be as marked a feature of the Wambutti as the full 
nether lip is said to be clvaracteristic of the Austrian. 
The colour of the lips was pinkish. The hands were 
small, fingers delicate and long, but skinny and puckered, 
the feet measured seven inches and her height was four 
feet four inches. 

So perfect were the proportions of this girl-mother 
that she appeared at first to be but an undersized 
woman, her low stature being but the result of prema- 
ture sexual intercourse or some other accidental circum- 
stance, but when we placed some of our Zanzibar boys 
of fifteen and sixteen years old by her side, and finally 
placed a woman of the agricultural aborigines near her, 
it was clear to everyone that these small creatures were 
a distinct race. 

Three hours beyond this great Mbutti village we 
reached Barya-Kunya amid a drizzly rain. 

On the 8th we reached Indepessu, and two days later 
we travelled from the base of Pisgah, along an easterly 
path, a new track which led us through the little villages 
of Mande to the Ituri river. The natives had all fled 
from Mande and the slopes of Pisgah across the river 
with their movable property, and the men were awaiting 
events on the left bank, confident that they were beyond 
reach. As we emerged into view on the right bank I 
was quite struck with the light brown mass the warriors 
made against the blackish green of the vegetation behind 
them. Had they been of the colour of the Zanzibaris 
they would have formed an almost black mass, but they 


1888. resembled in colour tlie ochreous clay banks of tliis river, 
^prii 8. They shot a few arrows amongst us across the 150 yards' 
^^'^^^' wide stream ; some fell short and others hurtled harm- 
lessly by us several yards. In our turn we replied and 
a general scamper occurred. Ninety minutes later the 
Expedition was across the Ituri by means of the boat. 
The vanguard picked up a ten-pound packet of clean 
native salt which had been dropped by the natives in 
their flight. Salt was a condiment greatly needed, and 
we were greatly rejoiced at the prize. We were now in 
the territory of the Bakuba, near the clearing of Kande- 
kore', which was one of the richest clearings in the forest 
of the Upper Congo basin. "On the edge of the bank 
we were 3,000 feet above the sea. 

Three-and-a-half hours' march from the Ituri, we 
issued out of the forest, and again the change from 
perpetual twilight to brilliant sunlight, and a blue sky 
was astonishing, and we all smiled to witness its effects 
on the nerves of our gentle friend and companion, the 
first son of Erin who had ever viewed the grass lands 
of these regions. This was the 289th day of Dr. Parke's 
forest life, and the effect of this sudden emergence out 
of the doleful shades in view of this enlarged view from 
the green earth to the shining and glowing concave of 
Heaven caused him to quiver with delight. Deep 
draughts of champagne could not have painted his 
cheeks with a deeper hue than did this exhilarating 
prospect which now met him. 

On the road just before leaving the bush we passed a 
place where an elephant spear had fallen to the ground, 
and buried itself so deep that three men were unable to 
heave it up. Such a force, we argued, would have slain 
an elephant on the instant. 

While sketching Pisgah Mountain in the afternoon 
from our first camp in the pasture land, I observed a 
cloud approaching it from the N.W., and all the forest 
beyond was shaded by its deep shadows, while the 
rolling plains still basked in hot sunshine. Presently 
another cloud from the S.E. appeared round the southern 
extremity of Mazamboni's range, and as it advanced, 



spread over the blue sky, and became merged witli the 
cloud over the forest, and then rain fell. ^^^\]^ 

At an altitude of 3,200 feet above the sea the village 
of Besse' is situated, seven hours' march from the Ituri. 
Though it was yet early forenoon we camped, the 
abundance of good ripe bananas, corn, fowls, sugar-cane, 
and banana wine being very tempting, and the distance 
to other villages east being unknown. Quite an active 
skirmish soon occurred while we were engaged making 
ready our quarters. Fetteh, the sole interpreter to the 
tribes of the plains, was grievously wounded over the 
stomach. The Babesse attempted various* means to 
molest us as the long grass favoured them, but by post- 
ing sharpshooters in the native lookouts in the trees 
the knowledge that their tactics were supervised soon 
demoralised them. 

We had some speech by means of a native of Uganda 
with one of these natives, who among his remarks 
said, " We are quite assured that you black men are 
creatures like ourselves, but what of those white chiefs 
of yours ? Whence do they come ? " 

" Oh," our man replied, with wonderful facility for 
fraudful speech, " their faces change with the birth of 
each moon, when the moon is getting full their colour 
is dark like our own. They are different from us, as 
they came from above originally." 

" Ah, true, it must be so," responded the astonished 
native, as he brought his hand up to his mouth from 
politeness, to cover the mouth that expanded with 

The more we understand the language of these natives, 
the more we are struck with the identity of a common 
origin. How could such as these people have ever heard 
of such a thing as wit. I heard one native say to a 
Zanzibari who had met more than his match when he 
burst out so impatiently at one who had staggered 
against him, 

" Such a fool as thou wast surely never seen else- 
where ? " 

To which the native replied, with a benevolent smile. 



" Ay, it is my lord, who is the sole possessor of 
.^priii2. wisdom." 

"Ah, but you are wickedness itself" (personified). 

" I must not deny it, for all goodness is with thee." 

It is a common reply among a certain class of white 
folks when one is accused of being naughty, to reply to 
the accuser that he is a gentleman, but it must be 
admitted that the African reply is not inferior in 

A little east of Besse' we lost the native track, and 
were obliged to strike across country, steering straight 
for Undussuma Peak which now began to lift itself into 
view, over the swells of grass-land that spread in great 
waves towards its foot. The sun was fearfully hot, and 
as the march was mainly through tall grass, we were 
greatly fatigued. In the afternoon we reached a wooded 
hollow near a pellucid cool stream, which had its birth- 
place somewhere among the slopes of Undussuma Range 
now distant about five miles. 

On the 14th, after a march of six hours, we were 
camped on the spur of Nzera Kum hill, and before us 
was the same scene which on the 10th and 11th of 
December witnessed our struggles for mastery with 
Mazamboni and his tribe. So far our experiences on 
this journey were very different. We saw no leaping 
exulting warriors, nor heard a single menace or war-cry ; 
but, as we intended to halt here a day, it was necessary 
to know what to expect, and we despatched our Mganda 
interpreter to hail the natives, who were seated afar off 
on the hilltops looking down upon us. At 5 P.M. after 
several patient eftbrts, they were induced to descend 
and approach, and they finally entered our camp. The 
process of establishing a friendship then was easy. We 
could look into one another's faces, and read as in a 
book what each thought of the other. We mutually 
exchanged views, wherein they learned that we only 
needed a free passage to the Lake unmolested, that we 
iiad not appeared as enemies, but strangers seeking a 
halting-place for the night, to pursue our road the next 
day without disturbance. They pleaded, as an excuse 



for tlieir former behaviour, that they were assured wc isss. 
were Wara Sura (soldiers of Kabba Rega) who periodi- ■^^'"'' ^"^ 
cally visited their country, devastated their land, and 
carried off their cattle. 

When we were both convinced that friendship was 
possible, that our former misunderstanding should not 
interfere with our future relations, they heard the 
mystery of our presence explained, that we were only 
travelling to discover a white chief, who years ago was 
reported to be somewhere near the sea of Unyoro. Had 
they ever heard of such a man ? 

They answered eagerly, " About two moons after you 
passed us — when you came from the Nyanza — a white 
man called ' Malleju,' or the Bearded One, reached 
Katonza's in a big canoe, all of iron. 

" Mother ! however could she float ; and in the middle 
of it there rose a tall black tree, and out of it came 
smoke and sparks of fire, and there were many many 
strange people aboard, and there were goats running 
about as in a village square, and fowls in boxes with 
bars, and we heard the cocks crow as merrily as they do 
among our millet. Malleju with a deep deep voice 
asked about you — his brother ? What Katonza said to 
him we do not know, but Malleju went away in the big 
iron canoe, which sent as much smoke up into the air as 
though she was on fire. Have no doubt you will find 
him soon ; Mazamboni shall send his runners to the 
Lake, and by to-morrow's sunset Katonza shall be told 
of the arrival of Malleju s brother." 

This was the first news we had heard of Emin Pasha, 
and it was with the view of this news spreading abroad, 
and for preparing the natives for the irruption of 
strangers out of the unknown west, that I had sent 
couriers from Zanzibar in February, 1887. Had Emin, 
who expected us December 15th, but taken the trouble 
to have sent his steamers a nine-hours' steaming 
distance from his station of Mswa, we should have met 
with his people December 14th, been spared five days' 
fighting, a four months' loss of time, and on or about 
the 15th of March I should have been within the pali- 


1888. sades of Yambuya in time to save Barttelot from his 

April 14. assassin, Jameson from his fatal fever attack, Troup from 

suma.* the necessity of being invalided home, Ward from his 

wholly useless mission to St. Paul de Loanda, and Mr. 

Bonny from days of distress at Banalya. 

The next day was a severe one for me. All the 
talking was levelled at me, and I was imprisoned in my 
chair from dawn to dusk by crowds of Bavira agri- 
culturists and Wahuma shepherds and herdsmen, chiefs 
and slaves, princes and peasants, warriors and women. 
It was impolitic to stir from the close circle which the 
combined oligarchy and democracy of Undussuma had 
formed around me. What refreshments were taken 
were handed to me over the heads of nobles and serfs 
five deep. My chair was in the centre, three umbrella 
bearers relieved one another — the sun ran his course 
from east to west ; ib glowed at noon hours with the 
intense heat known in torrid deserts, from three to five 
it scorched my back, then it became cooler, but until 
the circles broke and were dissolved by the approaching 
cold accompanying the dusk, I was a martyr to the 
cause of human brotherhood. 

At a very early hour Mazamboni appeared outside of 
the zeriba with an imposing retinue of followers. He 
was escorted to the middle of the camp with every 
mark of respect, officers gracefully bowing their welcome, 
Zanzibaris and Soudanese, who had chased him and his 
legions over the hills in December, looking as innocent 
as though they had never tasted meat and smiling a 
summer greeting. Our best mats were spread under a 
sickly dwarf tree for the convenience of the august 
guest, ivory horns gave forth mellow blares, reminding 
me of the imperial court of the Eamessean autocrat of 
Uganda, Usoga, and the island archipelagoes of the 
Victorian Sea. Nothing was omitted that experience 
with a thousand chiefs of dark Africa had taught me 
was necessary for lighting up a swarthy face with 
humour, pleasure, content, and perfect trust. Mazam- 
boni accepted every attention as his by right Divine, 
but no smile or word greeted us. Was the man deaf and 



dumb ? No ; he spoke briefly and low to his sub-chiefs, and 1888. 
his satellites roared with bull voices, as though I needed ^^p"' ^* 
an auricular trumpet to hear, and the sounds stunned 
me as though they were rung with a trip-hammer. 

" My friends," said I, " my head will crack if you go 
on thus ; besides, you know wisdom is precious. Why 
should the herd hear State policy ? " 

" Ah, truly I " said one sage with a beard as white as 
the father of the Commons ought to have. Nestor 
lowered his voice, and garrulously rehea,rsed the history 
of the land, described the eff'ect created upon it by the 
column's approach in December, the hasty councils that 
were held, and the rash resolution they had adopted, 
confessing that when they heard there were white men 
with the strangers they suspected they were wrong 
in continuing their hostile attitude, but the youthful 
warriors had been too impetuous and overruled the 
cautious counsels of the ancients of their tribe ; that when 
they had seen us return from the Nyanza and depart in 
peace towards the forest, they then knew that the Wara 
Sura, as we were believed to be, would never have re- 
turned so soon from their own Lake, but would have 
crossed the Semliki to their own country, and then, 
when they had heard of Malleju, the white chief of the 
iron canoe, was seeking for us, they were convinced they 
had been all wrong." " But never mind," said we, 
" the strangers will return from the Kivira (forest), 
and we shall make it up with them. If they seek our 
friendship they shall have it, and Mazamboni's blood 
shall mingle with that of their chief ; and we shall be 
one people, and lo ! you have come, and the dreams of 
our wise men have become real facts. Mazamboni sits 
as a brother by the side of the white chief; let us see 
the blood mingle, and never a cloud shall come between 
you while you are in the land ; the belongings of Ma- 
zamboni are yours, his warriors, wives, children, the 
land and all that stands on the face of it are yours. 
Have I said well, oh, warriors ? " 

"Well and truly you have spoken," murmured the 



*' Shall Mazamboni be a son of ' Bula Matari ? ' " 

TnLl^' "He shall." 

suma!' " Shall there be true peace between us and the 
strangers ? " 

" Yea," came in an emotional shout from the mass. 

Then the mutual right hands of my son, Mr, Jephson, 
who volunteered to be sacrificed, were clasped crosswise 
over the crossed knees, the native Professor of Medicine 
made a slight incision in his arm until the red blood 
dyed it. My Professor of Secret Ritualism caused the 
dark red blood of Mazamboni to well out of the 
vein, and as the liquid of life flowed and dropped over 
the knees, the incantations were commenced by the sage 
with the white beard, and as he shook the pebbles in 
the magic gourd at the range of the peak opposite, and 
at the horse-shoe range yonder in the plains, and to 
eastward and westward of the valley, he delivered his 
terrible curses from the summit of Nzera-Kum, and all 
men listened unto him with open lips : — 

" Cursed is he who breaks his plighted vow. 

" Cursed is he who nourisheth secret hate. 

" Cursed is he who turneth his back against his 

" Cursed is he who in the day of war denietb his 

" Cursed is he who deviseth evil to his friend whose 
blood has become one with his own. 

" May the itch make him loathsome, and the hair of 
his head be lost by the mange ; may the adder wait for 
him by the path, and the lion meet him on his way ; 
may the leopard in the darkness besiege his house, and 
his wife when she draweth water from the stream, be 
seized ; may the barbed arrow pin his entrails, and the 
sharp spear be dyed in his vitals ; may sickness waste his 
strength, and his days be narrowed with disease ; may 
his limbs fail him in the day of battle, and his arms 
stiff"en with cramps," and so on, invoking every evil and 
disease most dreaded, and the Zanzibar! Professor of 
Secret Ritualism, somewhat dumbfounded at first at 
the series of curses delivered so volubly by Nestor, 


seized his magic gourd, and shook it at the hills and the isss. 
valley, at the head of Mazamboni with awful solemnity ; "'^p"^ ^* 
at Nestor himself, and the awe-struck following around, sumT 
and outdid Nestor, from perverted ambition, by frenzy, 
voice, and gesture, in harmony with it ; his eyes rolled 
wildly, foam came from his lips ; he summoned every 
blight to fall upon the land and its productions, every 
damnable agency in his folk-lore to hound Mazamboni 
for ever ; every dark and potent spirit out of the limbo 
of evil imagination to torture him in his waking and 
sleeping hours, until his actions were so fantastic, his 
denunciation so outrageous, his looks so like one 
possessed with a demon, that everyone, native and 
Zanzibari, broke out into uncontrollable laughter, which 
caused Murabo, our " medicine man," to sober instantly, 
and to say in Swahili to us, with a conceited shake of 
the head, 

" Ay 1 master, how do you like that style for high 
acting ? " which reminded me of nothing so much as 
Hamlet out-ranting Laertes. 

Mazamboni, though undoubtedly paramount chief of 
Undussuma, seems to be governed by an unwritten con- 
stitution. His ministers also are his principal kinsmen, 
who conduct foreign and home policy even in his 
presence, so that in affairs of government his voice is 
seldom heard. Most of the time he sat silent and 
reserved — one might almost say indifferent. Thus this 
unsophisticated African chief has discovered that — 
whether from intuition or traditional custom it is hard 
to say — it is best to divide government. If the prin- 
ciple has been derived from custom, it proves that from 
the Albert Nyanza down to the Atlantic the thousand 
tribes of the Congo basin spring from one parent tribe, 
nation, or family. The similarity in other customs, 
physiognomy, and roots of languages, lend additional 
proofs to substantiate this. 

We discovered that the chiefs, as well as the lesser 
folk, were arrant beggars, and too sordid in mind to 
recognise a generous act. Though a peace was strenu- 
ously sought by all, yet the granting of it seemed to 



April 14. 


them to be only a means of being enriched with gifts 
from the strangers. Mazamboni, even after a long day's 
work, could only be induced to give more than a calf 
and five goats as a return for a ten-guinea rug, a bundle 
of brass wire, and ivory horns from the forest. The 
chief of Urumangwa and Bwessa, that flourishing settle- 
ment which in December 
had so astonished us with 
its prosperity, likewise 
thought that he was ex- 
ceedingly liberal by en- 
dowing us with a kid and 
two fowls. 

Among; our visitors to- 
day were Gavira, the chief 
of the Eastern Bavira, 
who proclaimed from a hill 
that the land lay at our 
feet when we were return- 
ing from the Lake ; and 
also a Mhuma chief, who 
wore unblushingly the 
fine scarlet cloth of which 
we had been mulcted in 
December to buy peace. 
He never ofiered a return 
oift so lono- deferred. 

We discovered that 
there were two different 
and distinctly differing 
races living in this region 
in harmony with each 
other, one being clearly of 
Indo- African origin, possessing exceedingly fine features, 
aquiline noses, slender necks, small heads, with a grand 
and proud carriage ; an old, old race, possessing splendid 
traditions, and ruled by inflexible custom which would 
admit of no deviation. Though the majority have a 
nutty-brown complexion, some even of a rich dark brown, 
the purest of their kind resemble old ivory in colour, and 



their skins have a beautifully soft feel, as of finest satin. 1888. 
These confine themselves solely to the breeding of cattle, "^p"' ^'* 
and are imbued with a supercilious contempt for the g^niT 
hoemen, the Bavira, who are strictly agricultural. No 
proud dukeling in England could regard a pauper with 
more pronounced contempt than the Wahuma profess 
for the Bavira. They will live in the country of the 
Bavira, but not in their villages ; they will exchange 
their dairy produce for the grain and vegetables of the 
hoemen, but they will never give their daughters in 
marriage but to a Mhunia born. Their sons may possess 
children by Bavira women, but that is the utmost con- 
cession. Now in this I discover the true secret of the 
varying physiognomies, and the explanations in the 
variation of facial types. 

We have the true negroidal cast of features in the 
far-away regions of West Africa, with which this proud 
high-caste race could not possibly come in contact during 
many -centuries ; we have the primitive races of the 
forest, the Akkas, Wambutti, Watwa, and Bushmen, of 
which the Wambutti are by far the handsomest ; have 
the Zulus, the Mafitte, Watuta, Wahha, Warundi, 
Wanya-Euanda, semi-Ethiopic ; we have the Ethiopia, 
slightly degraded, except in the aristocratic families, as 
in the Wahuma, or, as they are variously called, Waima, 
Wachw^ezi, Wawitu, and the Wataturu, who repre- 
sent two human streams, one coming from Ethiopia 
by way of South-East Galla into Unyoro and the higl: 
pastoral lake regions, and the other flow^ing direct south. 
The Victoria Lake lies between these sections of superior 
African humanity. 

A Bavira chief complained to me of the haughty 
contempt with which the Bavira were regarded by the . 
Wahuma, in just such words as these : " They call us 
hoemen, and laugh to scorn the sober regularity with 
which we, tilling the dark soil, live through our lives 
in honest labour. They sweep round on foraging 
excursions, and know no loved and fixed home ; they 
settle down wherever they are tempted (by pasture), and 
when there (is trouble) they build a house in another spot." 

VOL. L z 


1888. But to my narrative, as I may deal with the subject 
April 16, fyj.^}jer in a special chapter. On the 16th, furnished by 
Mazamboni with twelve guides, escorted by Gavira and 
fifty warriors, accompanied by a long line of new friends 
behind the rear guard, assisted by more than a hundred 
carriers, we marched to the territory of Gavira, to the 
village where we had rested in the naked hill-village, 
after a terrible day of excitement, on the 12th of 
December. We were now a peaceful procession, with 
somewhat of a triumphal character. For at every 
village we appeared the warriors came out and hailed 
us with friendly greetings, and at Makukuru, the name 
of the village which we already knew, the w^omen lu-lu- 
lued. From this settlement in Uzanza we enjoyed an 
extensive view, embracing all eastward to the brow of 
the high land overlooking the gulf of the Albert Lake 
westward as far as Pisgah, six marches distant north- 
■ ward to the cones of Bemberri, southward the hills of 

the Balegga rose, a mile off. 

The Chief of the Bavira is known as Gavira — an he- 
reditary title, though his name is Mpinga. He was a 
pleasant little man, but stingy ; and when not engaged 
in State councils, talkative. He and his tribe begged 
for friendship similar to that which was established with 
Mazamboni ; w^e were only too willing to accede — the 
conditions being that he should be hospitable to the 
Expedition on its journeys through his country. Having 
halted one day at Mazamboni's, it was necessary that we 
should do equal honour to Gavira ; and as this place was 
only two short marches, or one long march, to the 
Nyanza, we agreed. 

In the evening, two natives arrived from Mbiassi, of 
the tribe Ba-biassi, chief of the district of Kavalli, which 
extended, in a broad strip, down to the Nyanza, who in- 
formed me that their chief possessed a small packet, 
covered with dark cloth, for me, which had been given 
him by Mpigwa, of Nyamsassi, who had received it from 
a white man known to them as Malleju. 

We were surrounded on the next day by hundreds of 
friendly people, who seemed unable to gaze sufficiently 


at us. They therefore placidly squatted on their isss. 
haunches, quietly contemplating our movements ; the "^p"' ^^ 
younger members were deputed by the old to gather 
fuel and sweet potatoes, and to bring millet grain to 
camp. For trifling gifts, the Zanzibaris obtained their 
most devoted service for building their huts, and carry- 
ing water and attending to their fires, grinding their 
millet grain into flour ; while our men contentedly sat 
down, encouraging them to hard labour with a friendly 
nod and bland smile, some bit of iron-work, a pinch 
of beads, a cowrie or two, or a wristlet of brass wire. 
Every man picked up a warm-hearted, and ingenious 
brother ; and, excepting in cooking, the natives were 
admitted into the privilege of fast friendship. 

The chief Gavira was robed, in the afternoon, in 
bright scarlet cloth of first-class quality, and escorted 
around the camp, with all honour, by our headmen, who 
introduced him to the various messes with high" tribute 
to his good disposition. He was afterwards shown a 
mirror, at which he and his elders expressed extra- 
ordinary astonishment and fright. They took the 
reflection of their own faces to be a hostile tribe ad- 
vancing from the earth towards them, and started to 
run to a safer distance ; but instinctively they halted, as 
they saw that we did not stir. They then returned on 
tip-toe, as if to ask what that sudden vision of black 
faces could possibly have been ; for the mirror had 
been dropped on its face into the case. In answer 
to their mute appeal, it was opened again, and they 
gazed at it fixedly. They whispered to one another — 
" Why, the faces resemble our own ! " They were told 
that what they saw was a reflection of their own remark- 
ably prepossessing features ; and Mpinga, with pride, 
blushed darkly at the compliment. Perceiving that he 
could be trusted v/ith it without shock to his nerves, it 
was put into his hand ; and it was amusing to see how 
quickly personal vanity increased ; his elders crowded 
around him, and all grouped around and were pleased to 
note how truthfully the mirror reflected each facial 
characteristic. " See that scar — it is just and exact : 



1888. but lo 1 look at your broad nose, Mpinga ; why, it is 
April 18. pgjfect I Ay, and look at that big feather ; it actually 
waves 1 It is too — too wonderful 1 What can it be 
made of? It is like water ; but it is not soft by any 
means ; and on the back it is black. Ah, but we have 
seen a thing to-day that our fathers never saw, eh ? " 

Uzanza exposed, and open to every blast from each 
quarter of heaven, will be remembered for a long time. 
As the sun set, the cold winds blew from lakeward, and 
smote us sorely ; we were so accustomed to the equable 
temperature of the forest, and so poor in clothing. One 
officer armed himself wdth his waterproof; another put 
on his ulster ; and still the wind penetrated to the 
marrow ; and there was no warmth but in the snug bee- 
hive huts of the Bavira — whither we retired. 

Instead of pursuing along our first course to the Lake, 
we struck north-east to the village of Kavalli, where the 
mysterious packet was said to be. The grass was short 
cropped by numerous herds of cattle, and covered every 
inch and made it resemble a lawn, save where the land 
dipped down into the miniature canons, which had been 
scooped out by centuries of rain. 

As we traversed the smiling land, hailed, and greeted, 
and welcomed, by the kindly Bavira, we could not forbear 
thinking how different all this was from the days when 
we drove through noisy battalions of Bavira, Babiassi, 
and Balegga, each urging his neighbours, and whooping 
and hallooing every one to our extermination, with the 
quick play of light on crowds of flashing spears, and 
yard-long arrows sailing through the air to meet us ; and 
now we had 157 Bavira actually in front of the advance 
guard, as many behind the rear guard, while our 90 
loads had been distributed among voluntary carriers who 
thought it an honour to be porters to the same men whom 
they had hounded so mercilessly a few months previous. 

Soon after the arrival of tlie now numerous column 
before the thorny zeriba of Kavalli, the chief, a hand- 
some young Mliuma, with regular features, tall, slender, 
and wonderfully composed in manner, appeared, to show 
us where we might camp. To such as chose to avail 



tliemselves of shelter in his village he accorded free per- 1888. 
mission ; and on being asked for the packet of Malleju, ^'"■'' \^ 
he produced it ; and, as he handed it to me, said that ^'^"^^ ' ^ 
only his two young men, of all the country, knew that 
he possessed it ; and anxiously asked if he had not done 
an excellent thing in keeping the secret safe. 


Untying the cover, which was of American oil-cloth, I 
found the following letter : — 

Deak Sir,^ 

Eumoiirs having: been afloat of white men Iiaving made their 
apparition somewhere south of this Lake, I have come here in cjixest of 
news. A start tc the furthest end of tlie Lake, whic'i I could reach by 


1888. steamer, has been without success, the people being greatly afraid of 
April 18. Kabba Rega people, and their chiefs being under instructions to conceal 
1^ ,,., whatever they know. 

To-day, however, has arrived a man from Chief Mpigwa, of Nyamsassi 
covmtry, who tells me that a wife of the said chief has seen you at 
Undussuma, her birthplace, and that his chief volunteers to send a letter 
of mine to you. I send, therefore, one of our allies, Chief Mogo, with the 
messenger to Chief Mj^igwa's, requesting him to send Mogo and this 
letter, as well as an Arabic one, to you, or to retain Mogo and send the 
letter ahead. 

Be pleased, if this reaches you, to rest where you are, and to inform me 
by letter, or one of your people, of your wishes. I could easily come to 
Chief Mpigwa, and my steamer and boats would bring you here. At the 
arrival of your letter or man, I shall at once start for Nyamsassi, and 
from there we could concert our further designs. 

Beware of Kabba Eega's men ! He has expelled Captain Casati. 

Believe me, dear Sir, to be 

Tunguru (Lake Albert).* ^?SLT ^^'Sr^F^, 

25/3/88. 8 p.m. (Signed) Dr. Emin. 

The letter was translated to our men, upon hearing 
which, they became mad with enthusiasm ; nor were the 
natives of Kavalli less affected, though not with such 
boisterous joy, for they perceived that the packet 
they had guarded with such jealous care was the cause 
of this happiness. 

Food poured in gratuitously from many chiefs, and I 
directed Mbiassi to inform the districts around that a 
contribution from each tribe or section would be gladly 

On the 20th, I despatched Mr. Jephson and Surgeon 
Parke, with 50 rifles and two native guides of Kavalli, 
to convey the steel boat, Advance, down to Lake Albert. 
I am informed by the guides that Mswa station was 
distant two days only, by boat sailing along the western 
shore. Mr. Jephson was entrusted with the following 
letter to Emin Pasha : — 

* When, after reaching Zanzibar, I read Emin Pasha's letter to the 
Editor of Petermann's ' Mitteilungen ' (see No. 4 of the ' Gotha Geog. 
Journal '), dated 25th March, 1888 (the same date that the above letter 
was written), which concluded with the significant words : *' If Stanley 
does not come soon, we are lost," most curious thoughts came into my 
mind which the intelligent reader will find no difficulty in guessing 
Happily, however, the Pasha kept his own secret until I was far away 
from Bagamoyo, and I was unable to inquire from him personally what 
were his motives for not coming to Kavalli, December 14th, 1887, th > 
date he expected us; for remaining sili nt two months and a half in his 
own stations after that date, and then writing two such letters as the 
one above and that to Poterniiir.n's Magazine on the same date. 



Dear Sir,— ^P''^^ ^^^^' ^^^^- i«88. 

Tour letter was put into my hands by Chief Mbiassi, of Kavalli 
(on the plateau), the day before yesterday, and it gave us all great 

I sent a long letter to you from Zanzibar by carriers to Uganda, 
informing you of my mission and of my purpose. Lest you may not 
have received it, I will recapitulate in brief its principal contents. It 
informed you first that, in compliance with instructions from the Relief 
Committee of London, I was leading an Expedition for your relief. Half 
of the fund necessary was subscribed by the Egyptian Government, the 
other half by a few English friends of yours. 

It also informed you that the instructions of the Egyptian Government 
were to guide you out of Africa, if you were willing to leave Africa ; if 
not, then I was to leave such ammunition as we liad brought with us for 
you, and you and your people were then to consider yourselves as out of 
the service of Egypt, and your pay was to cease upon such notification 
oeing given by you. If you were willing to leave Africa, then the pay of 
yourself, officers and men, was to continue until you had landed in Egypt. 

It further informed you that you yourself was promoted from Bey to 

It also informed you that I proposed, on account of the hostility of 
Uganda, and political reasons, to approach you by way of the Congo, and 
make Kavalli my objective point. 

I presume you have not received that letter, from the total ignorance 
of the natives at Kavalli about you, as they only knew of Mason's visit, 
which took place ten years ago. 

We first arrived here after some desperate fighting on the 14th Decem- 
ber last. We stayed two days on the shore of the Lake near Kavalli, 
inquiring of every native that we could approach if they knew of you, and 
were always answered in the negative. As we had left our boat a month's 
march behind, we could get no canoe by fair purchase or force, we resolved 
to return, obtain our boat, and carry it to the Nyanza. This we have 
done, and in the meantime we constructed a little fort fifteen days' march 
from here, and stored such goods as we could not carry, and marched 
here with our boat for a second trial to relieve you. This time the most 
violent natives have received us with open arms, and escorted us by 
hundreds on the way. The country is now open for a peaceful march 
from Nyamsassi to our fort. 

Now I await your decision at Nyamsassi. As it is difficult to supply 
rations to our people on the Nyanza plain, I hope we shall not have to 
wait long for it. On the plateau above there is abundance of food and 
cattle, but on the lower plain, bordering the Nyanza, the people are 
mainly fishermen. 

If this letter reaches you before you leave your place, I should advise 
you to bring in yoiir steamer and boats, rations sufficient to subsist us 
while we await your removal, say about 12,000 or 15,000 lbs. of grain, 
millet, or Indian corn, &c., which, if your steamer is of any capacity, you 
can easily bring. 

If you are already resolved on leaving Africa, I would suggest that 
you should bring with you all your cattle, and every native willing to 
follow you. Nubar Pasha hoped you would bring all your Makkaraka, 
and leave not one behind if you could help it, as he would retain them 
all in the service. 

The letters from the Ministry of War, and from Nubar Pasha, which 
I bring, will infoi-m you fully of the intention of the Egyjjtian Govern- 
ment, and perhaps you had better wait to see them before taking any 



April 18. 


action. I simply let you know briefly about the intentions of the 
Government, that you may turn the matter over in your mind, and be 
enabled to come to a decision. 

I hear you have abundance of cattle with you ; three or four milk 
cows would be very grateful to us if you can bring them in your steamer 
and boats. 

I have a number of letters, some books and maps for you, and a 
packet for Captain Casati. I fear to send them by my boat, lest you 
should start from your place upon some native rumour of our having 
arrived here, and you should miss her. Besides, I am not quite sure 
that the boat will reach you; I therefore keep them until I am assured 
they can be placed in your hands safely. 

We shall have to forage far and near for food while we await your 
attendance at Nyamsassi, but you may depend upon it we shall endeavour 
to stay here until we see you. 

All with me join in sending you our best wishes, and are thankful that 
you are safe and well. 

Believe me, dear Pasha, 

Your most obedient servant, 
Henry M. Stanlev. 
Commanding Eelief Exjjedition 
His Excellency Emin Pasha, 
Governor of Equatorial Provinces, &c., &c., &c. 

During our lialt at Kavalli several Imndred natives 
from the districts round about paid us friendly visits, 

and the chiefs and elders 
tendered their submission to 
me. They said the country 
was mine, and whatever my 
commands mio;ht be, M'ould 
be promptly done. By the 
ready way food was brought 
in, there was no reason to 
doubt their sincerity, though 
as yet there was no necessity 
to take it too literally. So 
long as we were not starving, 
nothing could happen to 
disturb the peaceful rela- 
tions commenced with Ma- 
zamboni. According to my 
means each chief received a 
present of cloth, beads, cow- 
w«^ ^oo^r r.^ n^rr^ ^ ^ .. i"ies, aud wirc. Mbiassi fur- 


nished me with a quart of 
milk daily in a wooden bowl of this pattern. 



"Tur ffeDp Ht iBiindi — Mbiassi, the chief of Kavalli — Tlie Balegga 
gi-auaj-ies — Chiefs Katonza and Komubi express contritiou— The 
kites c)t Badzwa — A note from Jephson — Emin, Casati and Jephson 
walk into our camp at old Kavalli — Descriptions of Emin Pasha 
aiid Captain Casati — The Pasha's Soudanese — Our Zanzibaris — The 
steamer Kliedive — Baker and the Blue Mountains — Drs. Junker and 
Eelkin's descriptions of Emin — Proximity of Kabba Eega — Emin and 
the Equatorial Provinces — Dr. Junker's report of Emin —I discuss 
with Emin our future proceedings — Captain Casati's plans — Our 
camp and provisions at Nsabe — Kabba Eega's treatment of Captain 
Casati and Mohammed Biri — Mabruki gored by a buftalo — Emin 
Pasha and his soldiers — My propositions to Emin and his answer — 
Emin's position — Mahommet Achmet — The Congo State — The 
Foreign Office despatches. 

On tlie 2 5 til we departed from Kavalli and camped at isss. 
Bmidi, at an altitude of 4,900 feet above the sea. The Apni 25. 
village proper was situated 400 feet higher, on the crest ^° "* 
of one of those ranges of hills which form the dividing- 
line between the Congo basin and that of the Nile. 
From its folds westerly escaped the first infant streams 
which flowed into East Ituri. On the other side of the 
narrow rocky spine issued streams which dropped into 
the gulf of the Albert. Our camp was situated on the 
very brow of the plateau, in full view of a large portion 
of the south end of the Albert. 

Mbiassi, the handsome chief of Kavalli, accompanied 
us to do the honours of his tribe to his guests. He 
commanded the people of Bundi to hurry forward an 
ample contribution to the camp, and also despatched 
messengers to the redoubtable Komubi, chief of the 
Eastern Balegga, who seemed to be considered by these 
stubborn foes of Kabba Rega as their "' Only General,'* 


1888. with a message not to lag behind in supplying with 

April 25. ^QQf\ r^ n^an, who might be induced to lend his aid in 

punishing Kabba Rega some day. Mbiassi, commonly 

called Kavalli by his people, after his district, was a 


On the 26th we descended the plateau slope once 
more in 2 hours 45 minutes — and at the foot of it we 
were quartered in the Balegga village of Badzwa, 2,300 
feet below J^undi camp. The Balegga had decamped, 
but as it was Kavalli's property, he assumed charge, and 
distributed corn from its granaries, according to the 
needs of our united followers, sufficient for five days' 

Messengers from Katcnza, the chief who had declined 
our friendship on Decemoer 14th, who had refused our 
proffered gifts, who had sent his men to throw arrows 
into our bivouac of the 16th, and murdered our two 
sick men, came to say that he was " dying " to see me. 
He had now heard that Mazamboni, Gavira, Kavalli, 
and many others were hand-and-glove with the strangers 
who had humbly begged a drink of water from his 
people, and he had hastened to make reparation, like 
Shimei the Benjamite. Before I could frame an answer, 
stalwart Komubi, the " only general," had descended 
from the Balegga Hills with a white cow, several goats, 
and bundles of sweet potatoes, besides many jars of 
potent beer. It was Komubi and his stubborn fellows 
who had clung to the rear guard on the 13th December 
with such persistency, and had attempted a night 
attack. He now frankly came to express contrition and 
sorrow that he had mistaken us for Kabba Rega's 
bandits, and to surrender his country wholly into my 
hands, and his life, if I so wished it. With this bold 
chieftain we made friends quickly enough, and after a 
lengthy interview parted. To Katonza we replied that 
we would think of his messaofe. 

I now turn to the diary form. 

August 27//i.— Halt at Badzwa. The kites are very 

bold in this neighbourhood. Seeing their daring, we 

' amused ourselves with putting pieces of meat on the 


roof of a hut within arm's length of a man standing by, isss. 
and each time the kite succeeded in escaping with the "^P"' ^'' 
meat, as the bird, sailing and wheeling round the spot, 
seemed to know when the attention was relaxed, and 
that moment dropped plump upon the meat, and sailed 
away with it fast gripped before the outstretched hand 
could seize him. 

Our hunter, " Three o'clock," went out, and returned 
with the meat of a fine kudu he had shot. 

April 2Sfh.- — -Halt, Wadi Mabruki, another hunter, 
went out this morning to compete at game-hunting with 
" Three o'clock," and in the afternoon he and his followers 
brought three young roan antelope. 

April 29th. — At 8 a.m., as we were about to break 
camp to march to the Lake, a native guide appeared with 
a note from Jephson, dated April 23rd, which stated 
that he had safely reached Mswa, a station of Emin 
Pasha's, and that messengers had been despatched by 
the Commandant, Shukri Agha, to apprise Emin Pasha 
of our appearance on the lake. A basket of onions — a 
gift from Shukri Agha — accompanied the note. 

At 9 A.M. w^e set out for the Lake. Two hours later 
we were camped about a quarter of a mile from the 
shore, not far from the bivouac ground occupied by us 
on the 1 6th December, and on the site of old Kavalli, as 
the chief showed us. AVe had five days' rations of grain 
with us, and meat could be procured from the plain 
behind us, as it swarmed with large game of various 

From my tent-door, at 4.30 p.m., I saw a dark object 
loom up on the north-east horizon of the lake. I thought 
it might be a native canoe, or perhaps the steel boat 
Advance returning, but a binocular revealed the dimen- 
sions of a vessel much larger than a boat or canoe could 
possibly be, and presently a dark puff" of smoke issuing 
from it declared her to be a steamer. An hour later we 
could distinguish a couple of boats in tow, and at 
6.30 P.M. the steamer dropped anchor in the baylet of 
Nyamsassi, in shore of the island of that name. Scores 
of our people were on the beach in front of our camp 


1888. firing guns, and waving signals, but though we were 
April 29. Qjjiy ^^Q miles from the island, no one appeared to 

Albert 1 -^ •> jrr 

Nyanza. observe US. 

Ardent messengers were therefore sent along the shore 
to inform the party on board of our presence, and these 
were, unhappily, so exuberant, that as they fired their 
rifies to give notice, they were fired at in return by the 
Soudanese, who naturally enough took the wild figures 
for Kabba Rega's people. However, no harm was done ; 
the boat's crew distinguished their comrades' cries, the 
word was passed that the people on shore were friends, 
and the boat w^as made ready to convey our visitors to 
the beach near the camp. At eight o'clock, amid great 
rejoicing, and after repeated salutes from rifles, Emin 
Pasha himself walked into camp, accompanied by Captain 
Casati and Mr. Jephson, and one of the Pasha's ofticers. 
I shook hands with all, and asked which was Emin 
Pasha ? Then one rather small, slight figure, wearing 
glasses, arrested my attention by saying in excellent 
English, " I owe you a thousand thanks, Mr. Stanley ; I 
really do not know how to express my thanks to you." 

" Ah, you are Emin Pasha. Do not mention thanks, 
but come in and sit down. It is so dark out here we 
cannot see one another." 

At the door of the tent we sat, and a wax candle threw 
light upon the scene. I expected to see a tall thin mili- 
tary-looking figure, in faded Egyptian uniform, but in- 
stead of it I saw a small spare figure in a w^ell-kept fez 
and a clean suit of snowy cotton drilling, well-ironed and 
of perfect fit. A dark grizzled beard bordered a face of a 
Magyar cast, though a pair of spectacles lent it some- 
what an Italian or Spanish appearance. There was not a 
trace on it of ill-health or anxiety ; it rather indicated 
good condition of body and peace of mind. Captain 
Casati, on the other hand, though younger in years, 
looked gaunt, care-worn, anxious, and aged. He like- 
wise was dressed in clean cottons, with an Egyptian fez 
for a head-covering. 

Brief summaries of our incidents of travel, events in 
Europe, occurrences in the Equatorial Provinces, and 


matters personal, occupied the best part of two hours, isss. 
after which, to terminate the happy meeting, five half- ^p"^ ^^• 
pint bottles of champagne — a present from my friend i^anzi. 
Greshoff, of Stanley Pool — were uncorked and duly drank 
to the continued good healths of Emin Pasha and Cap- 
tain Casati.* 

The party were conducted to the boat, which conveyed 
them to the steamer. 

Apil Both. — Marched Expedition to Nsabe, a fine dry 
grassy spot, fifty yards from Lake and about three miles 
from Nyamsassi Island. As we passed the anchorage of 
the steamer Khedive, we found a detachment of the 
Pasha's Soudanese drawn up on the Lake shore on parade 
to salute us with music. The Pasha was dressed in his 
uniform coat, and appeared more of a military man than 
last night. 

Our Zanzibaris, by the side of these upright figures, 
seemed altogether a beggarly troop, and more naked 
than ever. But I was not ashamed of them. It was by 
their aid, mean as they appeared, that we had triumphed 
over countless difficulties, and though they did not 
understand drill, nor could assume a martial pose, the 
best of these Soudanese soldiers were but children to 
them for the needs of a Eelief Expedition. After this 
little ceremony was over I delivered to the Pasha thirty- 
one cases of Eemington ammunition, and I went aboard 
the steamer, where I breakfasted on millet cake fried in 
syrup, and a glass of new milk. 

The steamer proved to be the Khedive, built by 
Samuda Brothers in 1869, and is about ninety feet long 
by seventeen or eighteen feet wide ; draught five feet. 
Though nearly twenty years old, she is still serviceable, 
though slow. The upper works look well enough, but 
she is much patched below water, I am told. 

On board, besides the Pasha, were Casati, Vita Hassan, 
a Tunisian apothecary, some Egyptian clerks, an Egyp- 

* The following entries must be read while bearing in mind that 
thirty-five days previously the Pasha had written to the Editor of Peter- 
mann's ' Mitteilungen ' a letter, which he concluded with the significant 
words, " If Stanley does not come soon, we are lost.'" 


1888. tian lieutenant, and some forty Soudanese soldiers, be- 
Apni 30. gi(jgg c^ f^jjg crew. Sometimes, from the familiar sounds 
i^^anza. heard during moments of abstraction, I fancied myself at 
Alexandria or on the Lower Congo ; but, looking up, and 
taking a sweeping view around, I became assured that I 
was on board of a steamer afloat on Lake Albert. As we 
move slowly about a mile and a half from the shore 
northward, the lofty mass of the plateau of Unyoro is to 
our right, and to our left is an equally formidable plateau 
wall, the ascents and descents of which w^e know so well. 
By a glance at the mass of Unyoro, which is darkly blue, 
I see the reason Baker gave the name of Blue Mountains 
to our plateau wall, for were we steaming along the 
Unyoro shore the warm vapour would tint our plateau 
wall of similar colour. When w^e have left Nyamsassi 
Island- astern, a damp sheet of rock, wetted by the stream 
we crossed yesterday in our descent, glistens in the sun 
like a mirror, and makes it resemble a clear falling sheet 
of water. Hence Baker gave it the name of a Cascade, 
as seen by him from the eastern side. 

Dr. Junker and Dr. Felkin, especially in the Graphic 
numbers of January, 1887, made us expect a nervous, 
wiry, tall man of six feet, or thereabouts, but in reality 
Emin Pasha does not exceed 5 feet 7 inches in 
height. I remember that the former was anxious 
that the trousers ordered in Cairo for his friend should 
be long enough in the extremities. About six inches 
were cut off" the legs before they fitted. He tells me he 
is forty-eight years old. In appearance he does not 
indicate such an age ; his beard is dark almost to black- 
ness, while his activity would befit a man of thirty or 

The Pasha tells me that he has visited Monbuttu, but, 
like the travellers Schweinfiirth, Casati, Piaggia, and 
Junker, he has not made any astronomical observations, 
but confined himself solely to the compass survey. The 
meteorology of this climate, however, has received greater 
attention, as might be expected from his methodical 
habitude of mind. 

About noon we anchored ofi" Nsabe, and I went ashore 


to bestir the men to make a respectable camp suitable isss. 
for a protracted halt in a country that we might well ^^^^^ ^^ 
call dangerous owing to the proximity of Kabba Rega. ^^^^' 
That king, having thrown down the gage of battle to ^ 
Emin Pasha, might fancy himself strong enough, with 
his 1,500 riHes, to test our strength ; or the Waganda, 
during their raids, might hear of our vicinity and be 
tempted by expected booty to make a visit to us. 

This evening Emin Pasha came ashore, and we had a 
lengthy conversation, but after all I am unable to 
gather in the least what his intentions may be. I have 
delivered to him his mails, the Khedive's "High Order," 
and Nubar Pasha's letter. 

I had an idea that I might have to wait about two 
weeks, when we would all march to the plateau and 
occupy a suitable spot in Undusuma, where, after seeing 
everything done for complete security and comfort, I 
could leave him to return to the assistance of the rear 
column. On being re-united we could resume our 
march within a few days for Zanzibar ; but the Pasha's 
manner is ominous. When I propose a return to the 
sea to him, he has the habit of tapping his knee, and 
smiling in a kind of " We shall see " manner. It is 
evident he finds it difficult to renounce his position in a 
country where he has performed viceregal functions. 

After laying before him at some length the reasons of 
the abandonment of the Equatorial Provinces by Egypt 
he replied, " I see clearly the difficulty Egypt is in as 
regards retention of these provinces, but I do not see so 
clearly my way of returning. The Khedive has written 
to me that the pay of myself, officers and men will be 
settled by the Paymaster General if we return to Egypt, 
but if we stay here we do so at our own risk and on 
our own responsibility, and that we cannot expect 
further aid from Egypt. Nubar Pasha has written to 
me a longer letter, but to the same effect. Now, I do 
not call these instructions. They do not tell me that I 
must quit, but they leave me a free agent." 

" Well, I will supplement these letters with my 
own positive knowledge, if you will permit me, as the 

VOL. I. A A 


1888. Khedive and Nubar Pasha are not here to answer for 
April 30. themselves. Dr. Junker arrived in Egypt telling the 
^"^ world that you were in great distress for want of 
^ ammunition, but that you had a sufficient quantity to 
defend your position for a year or perhaps eighteen 
months, providing no determined attack was made on 
you, and you were not called upon to make a prolonged 
resistance ; that you had defended the Equatorial Pro- 
vinces so far successfully ; that you would continue to 
do so to the utmost of your ability, until you should 
receive orders from your Government to do otherwise • 
that you loved the country and people greatly ; that the 
country was in a prosperous state — quiet and contented 
— possessed of almost everything required to maintain 
it in this happy condition ; that you would not like to 
see all your work thrown away, but that you would 
much prefer that Egypt should retain these provinces, 
or failing Egypt, some European Power able and willing 
to continue your work. Did Dr. Junker report you 
correctly, Pasha ? " 

" Yes, he did." 

" Well, then, the first idea that occurred to the minds 
of the Egyptian officials upon hearing Dr. Junker's 
report was, that no matter what instructions you 
received, you would be disinclined to leave your pro- 
vinces, therefore the Khedive says that if you remain 
here, you do so upon your own responsibility, and at 
your own risk, and you are not to expect further aid 
from Egypt, 

" Our instructions are to carry a certain quantity of 
ammunition to you, and say to you, upon your obtaining 
it, ' Now we are ready to guide and assist you out of 
Africa, if you are willing to accompany us, and we shall 
be delighted to have the pleasure of your company ; but 
if you decline going, our mission is ended.' 

" Let us suppose the latter, that you prefer remaining 
in Africa. Well, you are still young, only forty-eight ; 
your constitution is still good. Let us say you will 
feel the same vigour for five, ten, even fifteen years 
longer ; but the infirmities of age will creep on you, and 


your strength will fade away. Then you will begin to isss. 
look doubtingly upon the future prospect, and mayhap ■'^p*'' '^'^• 
suddenly resolve to retire before it is too late. Some 
route will be chosen — the Monbuttu route, for instance 
— to the sea. Say that you reach the Congo, and are 
nearing civilization ; how will you maintain your people, 
for food must then be bought for money or goods ? 
And supposing you reach the sea, what will you do 
then ? Who will assist you to convey your people to 
their homes ? You rejected Egypt's help when it was 
offered to you, and, to quote the w^ords of the Khedive, 
' You are not to expect further aid from Egypt.' 

" If you stay here during life, what becomes of the pro- 
vinces afterwards ? Your men will fio-ht among them- 
selves for supremacy, and involve all in one common 
ruin. These are grave questions, not to be hastily 
answered. If your provinces were situated within 
reasonable reach of the sea, whence you could be fur- 
nished with means to maintain your position, I should 
be one of the last to advise you to accept the Khedive's 
offer, and should be most active in assisting you with 
suggestions as to the means of maintenance ; but here, 
surrounded as this lake is by powerful kings and warlike 
peoples on all sides, by such a vast forest on the west, 
and by the fanatic followers of the Mahdi on the north, 
were I in your place, I would not hesitate one moment 
what to do." 

" What you say is quite true," replied the Pasha, " but 
we have such a large number of women and children, 
probably 10,000 people altogether ! How can they all 
be brought out of here ? We shall want a great many 

" Carriers for what ? " 

" For the women and children. You surely would not 
leave them, and they cannot travel." 

" The women must walk ; for such children as cannot • 
walk, they will be carried on donkeys, of which you say 
you have many. Your people cannot travel far during 
the first month, but little by little they will get accus- 
tomed to it. Our women on my second expedition 


1888 crossed Africa ; your women, after a little while, will do 
April 30. qui^g as well." 

" They will require a vast aniouut of provisions for 
the road." 

"Well, you have a large number of cattle, some 
hundreds, I believe. Those will furnish beef The 
countries through which we pass must furnish grain and 
vegetable food. And when we come to countries that 
will accept pay for food, we have means to pay for it, 
and at Msalala we have another stock of goods ready for 
the journey to the coast." 

"Well, well. We will defer further talk of it till 

May 1st. — Halt at Nsabe'. 

About 11 A.M. Emin Pasha came ashore, and upon 
being seated we resumed in a short time our conversa- 
tion of last evening. 

" What you told me last night," began the Pasha, 
"has led me to think that it is best we should retire 
from Africa. The Egyptians are very willing to go I 
know. There are about fifty men of them besides 
women and children. Of those there is no doubt, and 
even if I stayed here I should be glad to be rid of them, 
because they undermine my authority, and nullify all 
my endeavours for retreat. When I informed them that 
Khartoum had fallen and Gordon Pasha was slain they 
always told the Nubians that the story was concocted 
by me, and that some day we should see the steamers 
ascend the river for their relief. But of the Regulars, 
who compose two battalions I am extremely doubtful. 
They have led such a free and happy life here, that they 
would demur at leaving a country where they enjoy 
luxuries such as they cannot hope for in Egypt. They 
are married, and besides, each soldier has his harem ; 
most of the Irregulars would doubtless retire and follow 
. me. Now supposing the Regulars refused to leave, you 
can imagine my position would be a difficult one. Would 
I be right in leaving them to their fate ? Would it not 
be consigning them all to ruin ? I should have to leave 
them their arms and ammunition, and on my retiring all 



recognized authority and discipline would be a^ an end. isss. 
There would presently rise disputes and factions would ^''^^^ ** 
be formed. The more ambitious would aspire to be 
chiefs by force, and from rivalries would spring hate and 
mutual slaughter, involving all in one common fate." 

"It is a terrible picture you have drawn. Pasha," I 
said. " Nevertheless, bred as I have been to obey orders, 
no matter what may happen to others, the line of your 
duty, as a faithful officer to the Khedive, seems to me 
to be clear. 

" All you have to do, according to my idea, is to read 
the Khedive's letter to your troops, and ask those willing 
to depart with you to stand on one side, and those pre- 
ferring to remain to stand on the other, and prepare the 
first for immediate departure, while to the latter you can 
leave what ammunition and guns you can spare. If 
those who remain number three-fourths or four-fifths 
of your force, it does not at all matter to any one what 
becomes of them, for it is their own choice, nor does it 
absolve you personally from the line of conduct duty 
to the Khedive directs." 

"That is very true," replied the .Pasha; "but sup- 
posing the men surround me and detain me by force ? " 

" That is unlikely, I should think, from the state of 
discipline I see among your men ; but of course you 
know your own men best." 

" Well, I shall send the steamer down to-morrow with 
the Khedive's letter, and you would oblige me greatly 
if you would allow one of your officers to go and show 
himself to the troops at Duffle. Let him speak to the 
men himself, and say that he has come from the repre- 
sentative of the Government, who has been specially 
sent by the Khedive to bring them out, and perhaps 
when they have seen him, and talked with your 
Soudanese, they will be willing to depart with us. If 
the people go, I go ; if they stay, I stay." 

" Now supposing you resolve to stay, what of the 
Egyptians ? " 

"Oh, those I shall have to ask you to take 
charge of." 


1888. " Now will you be good enough to ask Captain Casati 
^"^J" if we are to have the pleasure of his company to the 
coast, for we have been instructed to lend him every 
assistance in our power ? " 

Captain Casati answered through Emin Pasha. 

" If the Governor Emin goes, I go ; if he stays, I stay." 

"Well, I see, Pasha, that in the event of your staying 
your responsibilities will be great, for you involve 
Captain Casati in your own fate." 

(A laugh), and the sentence was translated to Casati, 
and the gallant Captain at once replied. 

" Oh, I absolve Emin Pasha from all responsibility 
connected with me, for I am governed by my own choice 

" May I suggest then. Pasha, if you elect to remain 
here, that you make your will ? " 

" Will ! What for ? " 

" To dispose of your pay of course, which must by 
this time be considerable. Eight years I believe you 
said ? Or perhaps you meditate leaving it to Nubar 
Pasha ? " 

" I give Nubar Pasha my love. Pho ! There can be 
only about two thousand and odd pounds due. What is 
such a sum to a man about to be shelved ? I am now 
forty-eight and one of my eyes is utterly gone. When 
I get to Egypt they will give me some fine words and 
bow me out. And all I have to do is to seek out some 
corner of Cairo or Stamboul for a final resting-place. 
A fine prospect truly ! " 

In the afternoon Emin Pasha came again to my tent, 
and during our conversation he said that he had resolved 
to leave Africa — " if his people were willing ; if not, he 
would stay with them." 

I learned also that the Egyptians were only too 
willing to leave for their mother-land, and that there 
were about sixty -five of them. That the first battalion 
of Regulars numbered a little over 650, and that the 
second battalion amounted to nearly 800. That he had 
about 750 Remington rifles, and that the rest were 
armed with percussion muskets. 



May 2nd. — The Khedive steamer left this morning isss. 
for the northward, first to Mswa Station, thence to ^'^^^^ 
Tunguru, fourteen and a half hours' steaming from hence ; 
two days later she will sail for Wadelai, the third day 
for Duffle. She carries letters from the Pasha to bring 
up sixty or seventy soldiers, a Major, and as many 
carriers as can be mustered. She will probably be 
fourteen days absent. In the meantime we await here 
her return. 

I omitted to state before that the Pasha brought with 
him, according to my letter, a few bullocks and milk 
cows, about forty sheep and goats, and as many fowls, 
besides several thousand pounds of grain, as rations to 
subsist the Expedition pending the time we should 
remain on the Nyanza, as the shore in the neighbourhood 
of Nsabe is entirely destitute of food except what may be 
obtained by hunting. With care we have quite three 
vveeks' provisions on hand. 

Meanwhile the Pasha remains here with Captain 
Casati and about twenty soldiers, and is camped about 
300 yards south of us. He and his people are com- 
fortably hutted. There is every prospect of a perfect 
rest free from anxiety for some two weeks, while myself 
and ofiicers will have the society of a most amiable and 
accomplished man in the Pasha. Casati does not 
understand English, and his French is worse than my 
own, so I am excluded from conversing with him, I 
learn from the Pasha, however, that Casati has had a 
difficult time of it in Unyoro. Until December last, 
things progressed tolerably well with him. Residing in 
Unyoro as Emin Pasha's Agent, he w^as the means of 
forwarding the Pasha's letter to Uganda, and trans- 
mitting such packets of letters, books, medicines, 
etc., that Mr. Mackay, Church Missionary Agent, could 

Then from Uganda there came suddenly news to 
Kabba Rega of our Expedition, whose force rumour had 
augmented to thousands of well-appointed soldiers, who 
intended to unite with the Pasha's force, and sweep 
through Unyoro and Uganda devastating every land ; 


1888. and presently a packet of letters for myself and officers 
^^^' was put in Kabba Rega's hands, confirming in a measure 
the truth of this report. An officer was sent to Casati's 
house, and the Wanyoro pillaged him of every article, 
and bound him and his servants to a tree, besides treat- 
ing him personally with every mark of indignity. 
Mohammed Biri, an Arab, who had been mainly the 
medium of communication between Casati and Mr. 
Mackay, was, I am told, treated in a worse fashion — 
probably executed as a spy and traitor. Captain Casati 
and his personal servants, after a while were led out 
from Unyoro, by Kabba Rega's officials, and when 
beyond the frontier were tied to trees again in a nude 
state. By some means, however, they managed to 
untie themselves and escape to the neighbourhood of 
the Lake, where one of the servants discovered a canoe 
and set out for the western shore across the Lake to 
Tunguru to obtain help from Emin Pasha. One of the 
Pasha's steamers came across the daring fellow, and the 
captain on hearing the news, after supplying his vessel 
with fuel, steamed away to acquaint the Pasha. In a 
few hours the Khedive steamer was under way, com- 
manded by the Governor in person, who had a detach- 
ment of soldiers with him. After searching for some 
time the eastern shore, as directed by Casati's servant, 
the steamer was hailed from shore by Casati, who in a 
few moments found himself safe in the arms of his 
friend. Some soldiers were sent on shore, and Kibero 
was burnt in retaliation for the injuries done to his 
agent. Of course, Casati, having been turned out naked 
into the wilderness, lost all his personal property, journals 
and memoirs, and with these our letters. 

The Captain placed a way-bill in my hand, wherein I 
learn that postal carriers left Zanzibar on the 27th July, 
just one month after we had left Yambuya, so that our 
letters were duly received at Msalala on the 11th 
September, and arrived at the Church Missionary 
Station in Uganda, November 1st ; and that Captain 
Casati received six packets of letters on the 1st 
December, just twelve days before we arrived on the 



western shore of the Nyanza. As he was expelled on isss. 
the 13th February, 1888, according to his account our ^^^^ 
mails seem to have long lain on his hands, probably no 
means having been presented of sending them to the 

This morning 3 o'clock (Saat Tato) the hunter set out 
to shoot game for the camp, accompanied by a few 
young fellows anxious to participate in the sport. Two 
buffalo fell victims to the hunter's unerring aim, but a 
third one, wounded only in the leg, according to the 
cunning instinct of the beast, rushed away, and making 
a circle hid himself in some branchy acacias to await his 
opponent. Mabruki, the son of Kassin, thought he knew 
the art of buffalo hunting, and set out on the tracks of 
the wounded animal. The buffalo on the alert no sooner 
discovered his enemy, than uttering a hoarse bellows 
charged and tossed him, one of his horns entering the 
thigh of the unhappy man. While thus prostrate, he 
was pounded with the head, gored in the side, arms, and 
ripped in the body, until Saat Tato, hearing the screams, 
rushed to the rescue when almost too late, and planting 
a shot in the buffalo's head, rolled him over, dead. A 
young man hurried to camp to acquaint us with the sad 
accident. " Three O'clock " set out again, and shot four 
fine buck roan antelope. While Mabruki was being borne, 
shockingly mangled, in a cot to our camp, a strong detach- 
ment of men were bearing the remains of three buffaloes, 
and four roan antelopes to serve as provisions for a 
people already gorged with beef and grain, but, strange to 
say, there was as much eager clamour and loud demand 
for their due share as if the men were famished. 

On the night of April 30th a strong gale blew nearly 
all night, and the Pasha signalled to the Khedive to 
drop two anchors. As there was good holding ground 
the steamer rode the gale safely. Since then we have 
had several strong squalls accompanied with rain day 
and night. 

May 3rd. — Nsabe Camp. 

Kavalli's people, like good subjects to their absent 
prince, came to visit him to-day, bringing with them 



1888. ten baskets of potatoes, which were kindly distributed 

^^.^' between us and Emin Pasha, 

During a Ion 2; conversation this afternoon Emin 

• -I 
Pasha stated, " I feel convinced that my people will 

never go to Egypt. But Mr. Jephson and the Soudanese 

whom you are kind enough to leave with me will have an 

opportunity to see and hear for themselves. And I 

would wish you w^ould write out a proclamation or 

message which may be read to the soldiers, in which 

you will state what your instructions are, and say that 

you await their declaration. From what I know of them 

I feel sure they will never go to Egypt. The Egyptians, 

of course, will go, but they are few in number, and 

certainly of no use to me or to any one else." 

This has been the most definite answer I have 
received yet. I have been awaiting a positive declara- 
tion of this kind before venturing upon any further 
proposition to him. Now, to fulfil my promise to 
various parties, though they appear somewhat conflict- 
ing, I have two other j^ropositions to make. My first 
duty is to the Khedive, of course ; and I should be glad 
to find the Pasha conformable, as an obedient ofticer who 
kept his post so gallantly until ordered to withdraw. 
By this course he would realise the ideal Governor his 
letters created in my mind. Nevertheless, he has but 
to speak positively to induce me to assist him in any 
way to the best of my power. 

" Very well," I said ; " and now pray listen, Pasha, to 
two other propositions I have the honour of making to 
you from parties who would be glad to avail themselves 
of your services. Added to that which comes from His 
Highness the Khedive, these two will make three, and I 
would suggest that, as there appears to be abundant 
time before you, that you examine each on its merits 
and elect for yourself 

" Let me repeat them. The first proposition is that 
you still continue to be an obedient soldier and accom- 
pany me to Egypt. On arrival, yourself, your officers 
and men, will receive your pay up to date. Whether 
you will be employed by the Government in active 



service I do not know ; I should think you would, isss. 
Officers of your kind are rare, and Egypt has a frontier '^^^ ^ 
where such services as you could render would be 
valuable. In answer to this proposition you, however, 
say that you feel convinced your men will not depart 
from here, and that in the event of a declaration to that 
effect being given by them that you will remain with 

" Now, my second proposition to you comes from 
Leopold, King of the Belgians. He has requested me 
to inform you that in order to prevent the lapse of the 
Equatorial Provinces to barbarism, and jDrovided they 
can yield a reasonable revenue, the Congo State might 
undertake the government of them if it could be done 
by an expenditure of about £10,000 or £12,000 per 
annum ; and further, that his Majesty King Leopold 
was willing to pay a sufficient salary to you— £1,500 
as Governor, with the rank of General — in the belief 
that such employment agrees with your own inclination. 
Your duty would be to keep open the communications 
between the Nile and Congo, and to maintain law and 
order in the Equatorial Provinces. 

" My third proposition is : If you are convinced that 
your people will positively decline the Khedive's offer 
to return to Egypt, that you accompany me with such 
soldiers as are loyal to you to the north-east corner of 
Victoria Nyanza, and permit me to establish you there 
in the name of the East African Association. We will 
assist you to build your fort in a locality suitable to the 
aims of such an association, leave our boat and gfuch 
things as would be necessary for your purpose with you, 
and then hasten home across the Masai Land, lay the 
matter before the East African Association, and obtain 
its sanction for the act, as well as its assistance to 
establish you permanently in Africa. I must explain to 
you that I have no authority to make this last proposi- 
tion, that it issues from my own goodwill to you, and 
with an earnest desire to save you and your men from 
the consequences of your determination to remain here. 
But I feel assured that I can obtain its hearty approval 



1888. and co-operation, and that the Association will readily 
May 3. appreciate the value of a trained battalion or two in 
their new acquisition, and the services of such an 
administrator as yourself. 

" Pray, grant me a patient hearing for a moment or 
two while I explain definitely to you your position here. 
The whole system of Egyptian extension up to the 
Albert Nyanza was wrong. In theory it was beautiful, 
and it was natural. What more natural than that the 
Government established at the mouth of a river should 
desire to extend its authority up along the banks to its 
source, and such a source as the Nile has. Unhappily, 
however, it was an Egyptian Government, which, how- 
ever honest in its intentions, could only depend upon 
officials of the lowest moral quality and mental calibre. 
It is true the chief official in these regions has been a 
Baker, or a Gordon, or an Emin, but all the subordinates 
were Egyptians or Turks. As you multiplied your 
stations and increased your posts, you lessened your 
own influence. While in the centre of your orbit there 
might be a semblance of government ; the outer circles 
remained under the influences of Turkish and Egyptian 
officers of some Cairene Pasha, or Bey, or Eflendi, whose 
conduct was licentious and capricious. By military 
force the country was taken and occupied, and by force 
the occupation has been maintained ever since. A 
recognized Government, even if it be that of Egypt, has 
a legal and moral right to extend its authority and 
enlarge its domain. If it executes its will effectively, 
so much the better. Civilization will be benefited, and 
all peoples are better under a constituted Government 
than under none. But was there an effective Govern- 
ment ? As far as Lado and Gondokoro, near the White 
Nile Cataracts, it was tolerable I admit. Steamers could 
steam from Berber as far as Lado, and the chief official 
could superintend such sub - Governments as were 
established, but when, before making roads or pre- 
paring and ensuring the means of communication, the 
Egyptian Government approved the acts of expan- 
fiion undertaken over the immense, trackless, inacces- 



sible area of the extreme Soudan, it invited the isss. 
catastrophe that happened. When Mohammed Achmet ^^'^ ^' 
fired the combustible material that the extortionate 
subordinates had gathered, the means for extinguishing 
the flames were scattered over an area of about 500,000 
square miles. The Governor-General was slain, his 
capital taken ; one province after another fell ; and their 
governors and soldiery, isolated and far apart, capitu- 
lated ; and you, the last of these, only saved yourself 
and men by retreating from Lado. Expanded on the 
same system, and governed only by the presence of the 
military, these former Egyptian acquisitions, if retaken, 
would invite a similar fate. If the military occupation 
were effective, and each sub-Government cohered to the 
other, the collapse of the Government need not be 
feared ; but it can never be effective under Egypt. 
Neither her revenues nor her population can afford it. 
In the absence of this, only self-interest of the peoples 
governed can link these distant territories to the 
Government of Egypt ; and this is an element which 
seems never to have been considered by those respon- 
sible for this sudden overgrowth of Cairene empire. 
When has this self-interest of the people been cultivated 
or fostered ? The captains marched their soldiery to a 
native territory, raised a flag-staff", and hoisted the red 
banner with the crescent, and then with a salute of 
musketry declared the described district around formally 
annexed x>yj Egypt. Proclamations were issued to all 
concerned, that henceforth the ivory trade was a 
monopoly of the Government ; and in consequence, such 
traders as were in the land were deprived of their 
livelihood. When, to compensate themselves for the 
loss of profit incurred by these measures, the traders 
turned their attention to slaves, another proclamation 
crushed their enterprise in that traffic also. A large 
number of the aborigines derived profit from the sale oi 
ivory to the traders, others had large interests in the 
capture and sale of slaves, while the traders themselves, 
having invested their capital in these enterprises, dis- 
covered themselves absolutely ruined, both money and 



1888. occupation gone. Remember, I am only considering the 
May 3. pQ}i(3y_ Thus there were left in the Soudan hundreds 
of armed caravans, and each caravan numbered from a 
score to hundreds of rifles. When Mohamed Achmet 
raised the standard of revolt he had some advantages to 
ofler to the leaders of these caravans made desperate 
by their losses. What had the Government oflacials 
to offer ? Nothing. Consequently all vestiges of the 
Government that had been so harsh, so arbitrary, and 
unwise, were swept away like chaff. It was to the 
interest of traders to oppose themselves to the Govern- 
ment, and to endeavour to restore a state of things 
which, though highly immoral as considered by us, 
to them meant profit, and, what is more, relief from 

" Now consider the Congo State, which has extended 
itself much more rapidly than Egyptian authority was 
extended in the Soudan. Not a shot has been fired, no 
violence has been offered to either native or trader, not 
a tax has been levied except at the seaport where the 
trader embarks his exports. Native chiefs voluntarily 
offered their territories, and united under the blue flag 
with the golden star. Why ? Because there w^ere many 
advantages to be derived from the strangers living 
among them. First, they were protected against their 
stronger neighbours, every eatable they could raise and 
sell brought its full value to them of such clothing and 
other necessaries they needed. Whatever trade they 
had --ivory, rubber, palm-oil, or kernels — was free and 
untaxed, and their native customs, or domestic matters, 
were not interfered with. It was founded without 
violence, and subsists without violence ; when, however, 
the Congo State initiates another policy, taxes their 
trade, lays hands upon the ivory as a Government 
monopoly, meddles wdth their domestic institutions, 
absorbs tyrannically all the profits of the European 
trader, before it is firmly established on the soil, and 
gathered about its stations sufficient physical force to 
enable it to do so with impunity, the Congo State will 
collapse just as disastrously and as suddenly as was the 



case witli Egyptian authority in the Soudan. The 1888 
disaster that occurred at Stanley Falls station is an ^^^^ 
indication of what may be expected. 

" Now every man who reflects at all will see that these 
Provinces of yours can never be re-occupied by Egypt 
while Egypt is governed by Egyptian officials. Egypt 
cannot atibrd the sums necessary to maintain an eflective 
occupation over a territory so remote. They are too 
distant from Wadi Haifa, the present true limit of her 
territory. When she connects Wadi Haifa with Berber, or 
Khartoum or Suakim with Berber by railway, Lado may 
be considered the extreme southern limit of her territory. 
When a railway connects Lado with Dufile the true limit 
of Egyptian authority will be the southern end of this 
Lake, provided always that the military force will be 
sufficient to maintain this mode of communication unin 
terrupted. When do you think all this will happen ? 
During your lifetime ? 

"Who else, then, will be so quixotic as to casta covetous 
eye on these Provinces ? The King of the Belgians ? 
Well, there is a stipulation connected with this proposal, 
and that is, if the Provinces can ' give a reasonable 
revenue.' You are the best judge of this matter, and 
whether £10,000 or £12,000 subsidy will suffice for the 
support of the Government of these Provinces. The 
revenue, whatever it may be with this additional sum, 
must be sufficient to maintain about twenty stations be- 
tween here and Yambuya, a distance of 650 miles or 
thereabouts; that is, to pay about 1,200 soldiers, about 
fifty or sixty officers, and a supreme Governor, furnish 
their equipments, the means of defence, and such trans- 
port force as may be necessary to unite the most distant 
part with the Congo. 

" Failino; the Kino; of the Bels^ians, who else will 
undertake your support and maintenance, befitting 
your station and necessity ? There are enough kind- 
hearted people in this world possessed of sufficient 
superfluous means to equip an Expedition once, say, 
every three years. But this is only a temporary 
(.'Xpedient for mere subsistence, and it scarcely re- 



1888. sponds to your wishes. What then ? I await your 
■'*^ ^* answer, Pasha, again begging to be excused for being so 

" I thank you very much, Mr. Stanley, I do assure 
you, from my heart. If I fail to express my gratitude, 
it is because language is insufficient. But I feel your 
kindness deeply, I assure you, and will answer you 

" Now, to the first proposition you have made me, 
I have already given my answer. 

"To the second I would say that, first of all, my 
duty is to Egypt. While I am here, the Provinces 
belong to Egypt, and remain her property until I retire. 
When I depart they become ' no man's land.' I can- 
not strike my flag in such a manner, and change the red 
for the blue. I have served the first for thirty years ; 
the latter I never saw. Besides, may I ask you if, with 
your recent experience, you think it likely that commu- 
nication could be kept open at reasonable cost ? " 

" Undoubtedly not at first. Our experiences have 
been too terrible to forget them soon ; but we shall 
return to Yambuya for the rear column, I anticipate, 
with much less sufiering. The pioneer sufiers most. 
Those who follow us will profit by what we have 

" That may be, but we shall be at least two years 
before any news can reach us. No, I do not think that 
proposition, with all due gratitude to His Majesty King 
Leopold, can be entertained, and therefore let us turn to 
the last proposition. 

" I do not think that my people would object to accom- 
panying me to the Victoria Nyanza, as their objection, 
so far as I know, only applies to going to Egypt. As- 
suming that the people are willing, I admire the project 
very much. It is the best solution of the difficulty, and 
by far the most reasonable. For consider that three- 
fourths of the 8,000 people are women, children, and 
young slaves. What would the Grovernment do with 
such a mass of people ? Would it feed them ? Then 
think of the difficulty of travel with such an army of 



helpless people. I cannot take upon myself the respon- isss, 
sibility of leading such a host of tender-footed people to ^*^ ^" 
die on the road. The journey to the Victoria is possible. 
It is comparatively short. Yes, by far the last proposi- 
tion is the most feasible." 

" There is no hurry, since you are to await the arrival 
of the rear column. Turn the matter over in your mind 
while I go to bring the Major up. You have certainly 
some weeks before you to consider the question tho- 

I then showed him the printed Foreign Office 
despatches furnished to me by order of Lord Iddes- 
leigh. Among these was a copy of his letter to Sir 
John Kirk, wherein he offered the Province in 1886 to 
England, and stated that he would be most happy to 
surrender the Province to the British Government, or, 
in fact, any Power that would undertake to maintain 
the Province. 

" Ah," said the Pasha, '* they should never have 
published this letter. It was private. What will the 
Egyptian Government think of my conduct in ven- 
turing to treat of such a matter ? " 

" I cannot see the harm," I replied ; " the Egyptian 
Government declares its inability to keep the Province, 
the British Government will have nothing to do with 
it, and I do not know of any company or body of mee 
who would undertake the maintenance of what I regard, 
under all the circumstances, as a useless possession. In 
my opinion it is just 500 miles too far inland to be of 
any value, unless Uganda and Unyoro have been first 
brought under law ; that is, if you persist in declining 
King Leopold's offer. If you absolutely decline to 
serve the King of the Belgians, and you are resolved 
to stay in Africa, you must trust in my promise to get 
a British Company to employ you and your troops, 
which probably has by this time been chartered with 
the purpose of constituting a British possession in East 




WITH THE PASHA (continued). 

Itortified stations in the Province — Storms at Nsahe — A nest of yonng 
crocodiles — Lake Ibrahim — Zanzibari raid on Bale^ga villages — 
Dr. Parko goes in search of the two missing men — The Zanzibaris 
again — A real tornado — The Pasha's gifts to ns — Introduced to 
Emin's officers — Emin's cattle forays — The Khedive departs for Mswa 
station — Mabruki and his wages — The Pasha and the use of the 
sextant — Departure of local chiefs — Arrival of the Kliedive and 
Nyanza steamers with soldier.? — Arrangements made to return in 
search of the rear-column — My message to the troops — Our Badzwa 
road — A farewell dance by the Zanzibaris — The Madi carriers' dis- 
appearance — First sight of Piuwenzori — Former circumnavigators of 
the Albert Lake — Lofty twin-peak mountain near the East Ituri 
Eiver — Aid for Emin against Kabba Pega — Two letters from Emin 
Pasha — We are informed of an intended attack on us by chiefs 
Kadongo and Musiri — Fresh Madi carriers — ^'\'e attack Kadongo's 
cam]D — With assistance from Mazamboni and Gavira we march on 
Musiri's camp whicli turns out to be deserted — A phalanx dance by 
Mazamboni's warriors — Music on the African Continent — Camj) at 
Nzera-kum Hill — Presents from various chiefs — Chief Musiri wishes 
for peace. 

1888 May Uh. — Mswa, I am told, is 9 hours' distance from 

^^^. Nsabe camp by steamer, thence to Tunguru is 5 hours, 
and to Wadelai 18 hours. The other fortified stations 
are name 1 Fabbo, east of Nile ; Duffle' end of naviga- 
tion ; Horiyu, Lahore, Muggi, Kirri, Bedden, Rejaf, and 
three or four small stations inland, west of the Nile. 

He has spoken in a more hopeful tone to-day of the 
prospects of returning from the shores of the Albert, 
the Victoria Lake region appearing even more attrac- 
tive than at first. But there is something about it all 
that I cannot fathom. 

May 6 th. — Halt at Nsabe. 

Another storm broke out to-day, commencing at 
8 A.M., blowing from the north-east. The previous 
gales were south -easters, veering to east. Looking 



8T0BMS AT NSAB&. 419 



toward the steep slope of the plateau walls east and 
west of us, we saw it shrouded in mist and vapour, ^^^', 
and rain-clouds ominous of tempests. The whole 
face of the Nyanza was foam, spray, and white rollers, 
which, as they approached the shore, we saw were 
separated by great troughs, very dangerous to any 
small craft that might be overtaken by the storm. 

May 7tk — Halt at Nsabe'. 

"While at dinner with me this evening, the Pasha 
informed me that Casati had expressed himself very 
strongly against the route proposed to be taken, vid 
Usongora, south, and advised the Pasha to take the 
Monbuttu route to the Congo. From which I conclude 
that the Pasha has been speaking to Casati about going 
home. Has he then altered his mind about the 
Victoria ? 

May 8^ A. —Halt at Nsabe'. 

Each day has its storm of wind and rain, loud 
thunder-claps, preceded by a play of lightning flashes, 
most beautiful, but terrible. 

Discovered a nest of young crocodiles, thirty-seven in 
number, having just issued from their egg-homes. By- 
the-bye, to those unacquainted with the fact, a crocodile 
has five claws on the fore feet, and only four claws on 
the hinder. It has been stated that a crocodile raises 
the upper jaw to devour, whereas the fact is it depresses 
the lower jaw like other animals. 

May 9th, 10th. — Halt at Nsabe'. 

May 11th. — Food supply is getting low. Five men 
have wandered off in search of something, and have not 
returned since yesterday. I hope we are not going to 
be demoralized again. 

Mr. Jephson is suffering from a bilious attack. 

Lake Ibrahim, or Gita Nzige according to the Pasha, 
is only an expansion of the Victoria Nile, similar to that 
below Wadelai and Lake Albert, the Upper Congo, and 
Stanley Pool. Consequently it has numerous channels, 
separated by lines of islets and sand-bars. Both 
Gordon and Emin Pasha have travelled by land along 
its right bank. 



1888. At 9 P.M. I received dismal intelligence. Four men, 
May ^11 whom I observed playing on the sandy shore of the 
lake at 4 o'clock, suddenly took it into their heads to 
make a raid on some Balegga villages at the foot of the 
plateau N.N.W. from here. They were surrounded by 
the natives, and two of them seemed to have been 
killed, while the other two, who escaped, show severe 

May I2tk — Halt at Nsabe'. 

This morning sent Doctor Parke with forty-five rifles to 
hunt up the two missing men. One of them came in at 
9 A.M. after a night spent in the wilderness. He has a deep 
gash in the back from a spear that had been hurled at 
him. Fortunately it did not penetrate the vital parts. 
He tells me he was exchanging meat for flour when he 
heard rifle shots ahead, and at once there was general 
alarm. The natives fled one way and he fled another, 
but presently found himself pursued, and received a 
spear wound in the back. He managed to outrun the 
pursuer, until in the deep grass of watercourse he 
managed to hide while a number of natives were 
searching for him. He lay there all night, and when 
the sun was up, lifted his head to take a look round, 
and seeing no one, made his way to the camp. 

I am never quite satisfied as to the manner of these 
accidents, whether the natives or the Zanzibaris are the 
aggressors. The latter relate with exceeding plausibility 
their version of the matter, but they are such adepts in 
the art of lying that I am frequently bewildered. The 
extraction of the truth in this instance seems to be so 
hopeless that I tell them I judge of the matter thus : 

*' You Zanzibaris, so long as you receive five or six 
pounds of flour and as many pounds of meat daily, 
become so lazy, you would not go to the steamer for 
more to provide rations while she would be absent. 
She has been gone now several days, your rations are 
nearly exhausted, of course, for who can supply you 
with as much meat as you can waste, and you left 
camp without permission, to steal from the Balegga. 
There was quite a party of you, I hear, and most of you, 



on seeing the village fairly crowded with natives, were isss. 
more prudent than others, and traded a little meat for ■'^"^ ^^' 
flour, but your bolder companions passed on, and began 
to loot fowls. The natives resented this, shot their 
arrows at the thieves, who fired in return, and there 
was a general flight. One of your number has been 
killed. I have lost a rifle, and three more of you have 
been wounded, and will be unfit for work for a long 
time. That is the truth of the matter, and therefore I 
shall give you no medicines. Cure your own wounds if 
you can, and you three fellows, if you recover, shall pay 
me for my rifle. 

May 13^/i.— Halt at Nsabe'. 

The doctor returned from his quest of the missing 
without further incident than burning two small vil- 
lages and firing a few shots at distant parties. He 
was unable to recover the body of the Zanzibari, or 
his Winchester rifle. Where he fell was marked with 
a good deal of blood, and it is probable that he wounded 
some of his foes. 

A real tornado blew last night. Inky clouds gather- 
ing to the S.E.E. and N.E. prepared us somewhat for a 
wet night, but not for the fearful volume of wind which 
pressed on us with such solid force as to wreck camp 
and lay low the tents. The sound, as it approached, 
resembled that which we might expect from the rupture 
of a dam or the rush from a collapsed reservoir. The 
rain, swept by such a powerful force, pierced every- 
where. No precaution that we had been taught by 
past experience of this Nyanza weather availed us 
against the searching, penetrative power of the rain 
and its fine spray. From under the huts and tents, 
and along the ridge poles, through close shut windows, 
ventilators, and doors, the tornado drove the rain in 
until we were deluged. To contend against such power 
of wind and water in a pitchy darkness in the midst of 
a deafening uproar was so hopeless a task that our only 
refuge was to bear it in silence and with closed lips. 
Daylight revealed a placid lake, a ragged sky, plateau 
tops buried in masses of vapour, a wrecked camp, 



1888. prostrate tents, and soaking furniture. So terrible was 
May lo. ^YiQ roar of the surf that we should have wished to 
have viewed the careering rollers and tempestuous face 
of the lake by daylight. It is to be hoped that the 
old Khedive was safely harboured, otherwise she must 
have foundered. 

May lAth. — Halt at Nsabe'. 

The steamer Khedive arrived this afternoon, bringing 
in a supply of millet grain and a few milch cows. The 
Pasha came up smiling with welcome gifts for each of 
us. To me he gave a pair of stout Avalking shoes in 
exchange for a smaller pair of boots to be given him on 
my return with the rear column. Mr. Jephson was 
made happy with a shirt, a singlet, and a pair of 
drawers ; while Dr. Parke, whose grand kit had been 
stolen by an absconding Zanzibari, received a blue 
jersey, a singlet, and a pair of drawers. Each of us 
also received a pot of honey, some bananas, oranges, 
and water melons, onions, and salt. I also received a 
pound of " Honeydew Tobacco " and a bottle of pickles. 

These gifts, such as clothes, that our officers have 
received from Emin Pasha, reveal that he was not in 
the extreme distress we had imagined, and that there 
was no necessity for the advance to have pressed for- 
ward so hurriedly.* AVe left all our comforts and 
reserves of clothing behind at Yambuya, that we might 
press on to the rescue of one whom we imagined was 
distressed not only for want of means of defence from 
enemies, but in want of clothing. Besides the double 
trip we have made to Lake Albert, I fear I shall have 
to travel far to go to the rescue of Major Barttelot and 
the rear column. God only know^s where he is. He 
may not have left Yambuya yet, and if so we shall 
have 1300 miles extra marching to perform. It is a 
terribly long march through a forbidding country, and 
I fear I shall lose many and many a good soul before it 
is ended. However, God's will be done. 

* Yet, Emin Pasha wrote a letter on the 25th March, 1888, to the 
Editor of Petermann's Magazine, fifty days previously, which he con- 
cluded with the words, " If Stanley docs not come soon, we are lost." 



He introduced to me to-day Selim Bey and Major isss. 
Awash Effendi, and other officers. I had suggested to ^^^_2t 
him two or three days ago that he could assist me 
greatly if he constructed a small station on Nyamsassi 
Island, where we would be sure to have easy communi- 
cation with his people, on which he also could store a 
reserve of corn ready for the arrival of the united 
Expedition, and he readily promised me. But I confess 
to experiencing some wonder to-day when he turned to 
Awash Effendi, the Major, and said, rather pleadingly 
I thought, " Now promise me before Mr. Stanley that 
you will give me forty men to build this station, which 
Mr. Stanley so much desires." There is something 
about this that I do not understand. It is certainly 
not like my ideal Governor, Vice-King, and leader of 
men, to talk in that strain to subordinates. 

Had another conversation with Emin Pasha to-day, 
from which I feel convinced that we shall not only have 
to march to the Albert Nyanza again, but that we shall 
have to wait afterwards at least two months before he 
can get his people together. Instead of setting to work 
during our absence to collect his people and prepare 
for the journey, it is proposed to wait until my return 
with the rear column, when it is expected I shall go as 
far as Duffle to persuade the people to follow me. He 
still feels assured his people will not go to Egypt, 
but may be induced to march as far as the Victoria 

I asked him if the report was true that he had cap- 
tured 13,000 head of cattle during an incursion to the 
western cattle-lands. 

" Oh, no ; it is an exaggeration. A certain Bakhit 
Bey succeeded in taking 8000 head during a raid he 
made in Makraka, during Eaouf Pasha's Governor- 
Generalship ; but he was severely censured for the act, 
as such wholesale raiding only tended to depopulate a 
country. That has been the greatest number of cattle 
obtained at one time. I have had occasion to order 
forays to be made to obtain food, but 1600 head has 
been the greatest number we have ever succeeded in 


1888. obtaining at one time. Other forays have resulted in 
May 14. bringing us 500, 800, and 1200 head." 
Nsabe. goth yesterday and to-day have been very pleasant. 

The temperature of air in shade, according to Fahrenheit, 

has been as follows : — 

9 A.M. Breeze from S.E. 

10.30 A.M. 

1.30 P.M. 

7 P.M 


6 A.M. 


88° 30^ 
88° 30" 

Compensated aneroid. Mean 2*350 feet above sea. 

Mai/ 16 th. — Nsabe' Camp. 

The steamer Khedive departed this morning for Mswa 
Station and Tunguru, and probably for Wadelai, to 
hurry up a certain number of porters to replace our 
men lost by starvation in the wilderness. Captain 
Casati and Mons. Vita Hassan, the Tunisian apothecary, 
have sailed with her. 

In order to keep my men occupied, I have begun 
cutting a straight road through the plain towards 
Badzwa Village. When we take our departure hence 
we shall find our advantage in the shorter cut than by 
taking the roundabout path by Nyamsassi Island and 
the site of old Kavalli. 

Fetteh, our interpreter, wounded in the stomach at 
the skirmish of Besse, is now quite recovered, and is 
fast regaining his old weight. 

Mabruki, the son of Kassim, so mangled by the 
buffalo the other day, is slowly improving. 

The man wounded by a spear in the back during his 
foray into the villages of Lando, shows also signs of 
rapid recovery. 

We live in hay-cock huts now, and may consider 
ourselves householders (according to Emin Pasha) of the 
Albert Nyanza Province. 

il/ay 17 th. — Nsabe' Camp. 

Our road is now 2,360 paces long towards Badzwa 

May IS th. — Nsabe Camp. 

Our hunters, when receiving cartridges, insist on their 


being laid on the ground. Ill luck would follow if the isss. 
cartridges were delivered to them from the hand. ^^^ ^7 

I have been instructing the Pasha in the use of the 
sextant the last two days preparatory to taking lessons 
in navigation. His only surveying instrument hitherto 
has been a prismatic compass, and as he has never been 
taught to discover its variation, it is probable that his 
surveys have been from magnetic bearings. 

The son of Kassim, the victim to the fury of an 
angry buffalo, called me this morning to his bedside, that 
I might register his last wishes respecting the wages 
due to him. His friend Maruf and adopted brother 
Sungoro are to be the legatees. Poor Mabruki desired 
to remember another friend, but the legatees begged him 
not to Jill the Master's hook with names. He was so 
dejected that I told him that the doctor had great faith 
that he would recover. " You are in no danger. Your 
wounds are very bad, but they are not mortal, and as 
the Pasha will take care of you in my absence, I shall 
find you a strong man when I return. Why do you 
grieve to-day ? " 

" Ah, it is because something tells me I shall never 
see the road again. See, is not my body a ruin ? " 
Indeed he was a pitiable sight, right eye almost obscured, 
two ribs broken, right thigh and fork lacerated in the 
most dreadful manner. 

The Chief Mbiassi of Kavalli departed homeward two 
days ago. Mpigwa, Chief of Nyamsassi, and his retinue 
left yesterday. Kyya-nkondo or Katonza, for he has 
two names, also went his way (which, by the way, is in 
the wilderness owing to a late visit of Kabba Pega's 
brigands), while Mazamboni's people after entertaining 
the Pasha and his officers with a farewell dance last 
night, took their leave this morning. 

Three buffalo and a water buck were shot yesterday 
by two of our hunters. 

The last four days and nights have given us better 
thoughts of this African land and lake shore than we 
previously entertained. The weather has been some- 
what warm, but the lake breeze blowing light and soft, 



1888. just strong enough to swing pendulous foliage, has been 
'^'''^' ^■'' coolino; and erateful. The nio;hts have been more 
refreshing. In a sky of radiant brightness the moon 
has stood high above the plateau's crown, turning the 
lake into a quivering silver plain, the lake surf so 
blustering and restless, rolls in a slow and languid 
cadence on a gray shore of sand before the light 
breath of an eastern wind. As if to celebrate and 
honour this peaceful and restful life, the Zanzibaris and 
natives, who, last December were such furious foes, 
rival one another with sons;- and chorus and strenuous 
dance to a late hour each night. 





May 19 til. — Nsabe' Camp. 

Our road towards Badzwa is now three and a 
third miles long. We have but to hoe up the grass 
along a line, and we have a beautiful path, with the 
almost imperceptible rise of 1 foot in 200. 

May 20th. — Nsabe Camp. 

Captured two small brown snakes of a slight coppery 
tint in my tent this morning. 

May 2lst. — Nsabe Camp. 


The Paslia is now able to read the sextant very well. isss. 
He has also made an advance towards finding index ^^^J'^ 
error ; though he labours under the infirmity of short 
sight, he is quick and devoted to his intention of 
acquiring the art of observing by the instrument. At 
noon we took meridian altitude for practice. He 
observed altitude was 70° 54' 40" at one-and-half miles 
distant, height of eye five feet. Index error to add 3' 1 5". 

May 22nd. — Nsabe Camp. 

The steamers Khedive and Nyanza, the latter towing 
a lighter, appeared to-day about 9 a.m., bringing 80 
soldiers, with the Major and Adjutant of the 2nd 
Battalion, and 130 carriers of the Madi tribe. We 
received gifts of raki (ten-gallon demijohn, a kind of 
Russian vodka, from the Pasha's distillery,, pome- 
granates, oranges, water-melons, and more onions, be- 
sides six sheep, four goats, and a couple of strong 
donkeys, one for myself and one for Doctor Parke). 
The Nyanza steamer is about 60 feet by 12. I propose 
leaving the Albert Lake for my journey in search of 
the rear column of the Expedition the day after to- 

I leave with the Pasha, Mr. Mounteney Jephson, 
three Soudanese soldiers, and Binza, Doctor Junker's 
boy, besides the unhappy Mabruki. Of the baggage we 
carried here, exclusive of thirty-one cases Remingtons 
already delivered, I leave two boxes Winchesters, one 
box of brass rods, lamp, and sounding iron ; also my 
steel boat. Advance^ with her equipments. 

In accordance with the request of the Pasha, I have 
drawn up a message, which Mr. Jephson will read to the 
troops. It is as follows : — 

Soldiers, — After many months of hard travel, I have at last reached the 
Nyanza. I have come expressly at the command of the Khedive Tewfik, to 
lead you out of here and show you the way home. For you must know 
that the Eiver el Abiad is closed, that Khartoum is in the liands of the 
followers of Mohamed Achmet, that the Pasha Gordon and all his people 
v.ere killed, and that all the steamers and boats between Berber and the 
Bahr Ghazal have been taken, and that the nearest Egyptian station to 
you is Wady Haifa, below Dougola. Four times the Khedive and your 
friends have made attempts to save you. First, Gordon Pasha was sent 
to Khartoum to bring you all home. After ten months of hard fighting 



1888 Khartoum was taken, and Gordon Pasha was killed, he and his soldiers. 
May 22. Next came the English soldiers under Lord Wolseley to try and help 
Gordon Pasha out of his troubles. They were four days too late, for 
they found Gordon was dead and Khartoum was lost. Then a Doctor 
Lenz, a great traveller, was sent by way of the Congo to find out how 
you could be assisted. But Lenz could not find men enough to go with 
him, and so he was obliged to go home. Also a Doctor Fischer was sent 
by Doctor Junker's brother, but there were too many enemies in the 
path, and he also returned home. I tell you these things to prove to 
you that you have no right to think that you have been forgotten in 
Egypt. No, the Khedive and his AVazir, Nubar Pasha, have all along 
kept you in mind. They have heard by way of Uganda how bravely 
you have held to your post, and how stanch you have been to your 
duties as soldiers. Therefore they sent me to tell you this ; to tell you that 
you are well remembered, and that your reward is waiting for you, but that 
you miist follow me to Egypt to get your pay and your reward. At the 
same time the Khedive says to you, through me, that if you think the 
road too long, and are afraid of the journey, that you may stay here, 
but in that case you are no longer his soldiers ; that your pay stops at 
once ; and in any trouble that may hereafter befall you, you are not to 
blame him, but yourselves. Should you decide to go to Egypt, I am to 
show you the way to Zanzibar, put you on board a steamer and take 
you to Suez, and thence to Cairo, and that you will get your pay until 
you arrive there, and that all promotions given you will be secured, and 
all rewards promised you here will be paid in full. 

I send you one of my oflBcers, Mr. Jephson, and give him my sword, 
to read this message to you from me. I go back to collect my people 
and goods, and bring them on to the Nyanza, and after a few months 1 
shall come back here to hear what you have to say. If you say, Let us 
go to Egypt, I will then show you a safe road. If you say, We shall not 
leave this country, then I will bid you farewell and return to Egypt with 
my own people. 

May God have you in His keeping. 

Your good friend, 

(Signed) Stanley. 

Mai/ 2Srd. — Halt. 

The Zanzibaris entertained the Pasha and his officers 
to-night with a farewell dance. Though they are quite 
well aware of the dangers and fatigue of the journey 
before them, which will commence to-morrow, there are 
no symptoms of misgiving in any of them. But it is 
certain that some of them will take their last look of the 
Pasha to-morrow. 

Mai/ 2Uh. — March to Badzwa village, 10 miles; per- 
formed it in 4 hours. 

Emin Pasha marched a company along our new road 
at dawn this morning, and halted it about two miles 
from the Lake. Having arranged the Madi carriers 
in their place in the column, the advance guard issued 
out from camp and took the road towards the west at 



6.15 A.M. In half-an-hoar we found the Paslui's 
Soudanese drawn up in line on one side of the road .^/''.^ ^'* 
They saluted us as we passed on, and the Pasha fer- 
vently thanked us and bade us good-bye. 

At the end of the new road twenty -one of the Madis 
broke from the line of the column and disappeared 
towards the north rapidly. Fourteen men were sent 
back to inform the Pasha, while we held on our way to 
Badzwa. About a mile from the village there was 
another stampede, and eighty-nine Madis deserted in a 
body, but not without sending a shower of arrows 
among the rear guard. The doctor, believing that this 
was preliminary to an attack on his small detachment, 
fired his rille, and dropped a Madi dead, which precipi- 
tated the flight of the deserters. The remaining nine- 
teen out of the 130 were secured. 

A second message was therefore sent to the Pasha 
acquainting him with the events of the march. 

When about five miles from Nsabe Camp, while 
looking to the south-east, and meditating upon the 
events of the last month, my eyes were directed by a 
boy to a mountain said to be covered with salt, and I 
saw a peculiar shaped cloud of a most beautiful silver 
colour, which assumed the proportions and appearance of 
a vast mountain covered with snow. Following its form 
downward, I became struck with the deep blue-black 
colour of its base, and wondered if it portended another 
tornado ; then as the sight descended to the gap between 
the eastern and western plateaus, I became for the first 
time conscious that what I gazed upon was not the 
image or semblance of a vast mountain, but the solid sub- 
stance of a real one, with its summit covered with snow. 
I ordered a halt and examined it carefully with, a field- 
glass, then took a compass bearing of the centre of it, 
and found it bear 215° magnetic. It now dawned upon 
me that this must be the Euwenzori, which was said to 
be covered w^ith a Avhite metal or substance believed to 
be rock, as reported by Kavalli's two slaves. 

This great mountain continued to be in sight most 
distinctly for two hours, but as we drew nearer to 


1888, Badzwa at the foot of the plateau, the lofty wall of the 
J^iay 24. plateau hid it from view. 

a z«a. n^\^{^ discovery was announced to the Pasha in the 
second message I sent. When I come to reflect upon 
it, it strikes me as singular that neither Baker, Gessi, 
Mason, or Emin Pasha discovered it long ago, 

Gessi Pasha first circumnavigated the Albert Lake, 
steaming along the western shore tow^ards the south, 
rounding the southern end of the lake and continuing 
his voyage along the eastern shore. 

Mason Bey, in 1877, is the next visitor, and he 
follows the track of Gessi with a view of fixing positions 
by astronomical observations, which his predecessor was 
unable to do. 

Emin Pasha, eleven years later, comes steaming south 
in quest of news of the white men reported to be at 
the south end of the Lake, 

If a fair view of this snowy mountain can be obtained 
from the plain of the Nyanza, a much better view ought 
to be obtained from the Lake, and the wonder is that 
none of these gentlemen saw it. Whereas Baker, cast- 
ing his eyes in its direction, on a " beautifully clear day," 
views only an illimitable Lake, 

Messrs, Jephson and Parke, while carrying the boat 
from Kavalli's to the Lake, report that they saw snow 
on a mountain, and the latter officer, pointing to the 
little range of Unya-Kavalli, inquired of me on his 
return if it was possible that snow would be found on 
suet hills. As their highest peak cannot be 5,500 feet 
above the sea, I replied in the negative, but the 
doctor said that he was equally certain that he had 
seen snow. I explained to him then that a certain 
altitude of about 15,000 feet in the Equatorial regions 
is required before rain can be congealed into permanent 
snow ; that there might be a hail-storm or a fall of 
snow, caused by a cold current, even on low altitudes in 
a tropic region, but such cold would only be temporary, 
and the heat of tropic waters or tropic soil would in a 
few moments cause the hail and snow to disappear. 
Standing as we were in camp at Bundi, on the crest of 



the plateau, in plain view of Unya Kavalli and other isss. 
hills, there was no height visible anywhere above 6000 ^^^ ■^'*' 
feet of an altitude above the sea. 

Considering the above facts, it will be evident that it 
requires a peculiar condition of the atmosphere to enable 
one to see the mountain from a distance of 70 miles, 
which I estimate it at. Near objects, or those 10, 15, 
or 20 miles, an ordinarily clear atmosphere may enable 
us to distinguish ; but in such a humid region as this 
is, on a bright day such a quantity of vapour is exhaled 
from the heated earth, that at 30 miles it would be 
intensified into a haze which no eyesight could pene- 
trate. But at certain times wind-currents clear the 
haze, and expose to the view objects which we w^onder 
we have not seen before. As, for instance, in December 
last, returning from Nyanza to Fort Bodo, I took com- 
pass bearings of a lofty twin-peak mountain from a 
table hill near the East Ituri River. I noted it down 
that the twin-peak mass was already seen, and I pointed 
it out to Mr. Jephson. Strange to say, I have never 
seen it since, though I have been twice over the ground. 

Kavalli passed our camp this afternoon with 400 men 
to assist Emin Pasha in a demonstration he proposes to 
make against Kabba Rega. Katonza and Mpigwa of 
Nyamsassi will also, perhaps, lend an equal number to 
his assistance. 

I received the following letters to-day from the 
Pasha. When he talks of pride and joy at being in our 
company, I think we are all unanimous in believing 
that he has given us as much pleasure as we have 
given him. 

Nsabe Camp, 
25<A May, 1888, 5 a.m. 
Dear Sir, 

I should not need to tell you how distressed I have been when 
I heard of the misfortune happened by the desertion of onr Madi people. 
I at once sent out different searching parties, but I am sorry to state that 
up to noon their efforts were of no avail, although Shiikri Agha and 
his party, who went yesterday to Kahanama, liave not returned. 

By a mere chance it happened that when Dr. Parke came a boat from 
Mswa station had arrived, bringing me intelligence of the arrival there of 
120 porters from Duffle. 1 therefore started immediately the Khedive 
steamer to bring them here, and expect her back this very night, when, 


1888. ^t t®^ arrival, I shall start the whole gang, accompanied by a detachment 
May 2*4. of my people. 

Badzwa Allow me to be the first to congratulate you on your most splendid 
discovery of a snow-clad mountain. We will take it as a good omen for 
further directions on our road to Victoria * I propose to go out on your 
track to-day or to-morrow, just to have a look at this giant. 

In expectance of two words of you this morning I venture to offer you 
my best wishes for the future. I always shall remember with pride and 
joy the few days I was permitted to consort with you. 
Believe me, dear Sir, 

Yours very sincerely, 

(Signed) De. M. Emin. 

Nsabe Camp, 
26<?iMa2/, 1888, 2-30 A.M. 

Dear Sir, 

Your very welcome and most interesting note of yesterday has 
reached me at the hands of your men. The steamer has come in this 
very instant, but she brought only eighty- two carriers, the rest having 
run away on the road between Tunguru and Mswa. I send, therefore j 
these few men, accompanied by twenty -five soldiers and an officer, hoping 
they may be of some use to you. Their arms having been collected I 
handed them to the officer, from whom you will kindly receive them. 
We heard yesterday evening that your runaways had worked tlieir way 
to Muganga, telling the people they were sent by me. 

The ten men you kindly sent here accompanying the carriers as well 
as Kavalli and his men. Having caught yesterday a spy of Eavidongo f 
in Katonza's Camp, I told this latter he would better retire, and he acted 
on this advice. I have acquainted Kavalli with my reasons for not 
interfering just now with Eavidongo, and have asked him to return to 
you. He readily assented ; he had some presents, and starts now with 
the courier. He entreats me, further, to beg you to send some of your 
men to take hold of his brother Kadongo, who stays, says he, with the 
Wawitu somewhere near to his residence. 

I shall try hard to get a glimpse of the new snow mountain, as well 
from here as from some other points I j^ropose to visit. It is wonderful 
to think how, wherever you go, you distance your predecessors by your 

And now as this, for some time at least, is probably the last word I 
will be able to address you, let me another time thank you for the 
generous exertions you have made, and you are to make for us. Let me 
another time thank you for the kindness and forbearance yoii have shown 
me in our mutual relations. If I cannot find adequate words to express 
what moves me in this instant you will forgive me. I lived too long in 
Africa for not becoming somewhat negrofied. 

God speed you on your course and bless your work ! 

Yours very faithfully, 

(Signed) Dr. Emin. 

May 25th and 26th. — Halt at Badzwa. 
The Pasha has abandoned his idea of making a 
demonstration against Unyoro, and his allies, who have 

* It is clear that he was smitten with the Victoria Lake proposition. 
t Eavidongo, one of the principal generals of Kabba Eega. 



much to avenge, liave been quickly dismissed home- I888. 
ward. M^y26 

In the afternoon Balegga descended from Bundi Hill 
Village, and secretly informed us that Kadongo and 
Musiri — the latter a warlike and powerful chief — have 
banded their forces together and intend to attack us on 
the road between Gavira's and Mazamboni's. We have 
given neither of them any cause for this quarrel, unless 
our friendship with their rivals may be deemed sufficient 
and legitimate. I have only 111 rifles and ten rounds 
of ammunition for each rifle, to reach Fort Bodo, 125 
miles distant. If any determined attack is made on us 
in the open country, a few moments' firing will make us 
helpless. Therefore I shall have to resort to other 
measures. It was held by Thomas Carlyle that it was 
the highest wisdom to know and believe that the stern 
thing which necessity ordered to be done was the wisest, 
'^the best, and the only thing wanted there. I will 
attack Kadongo first, and then march straight upon 
Musiri, and we will spend our last shots well, if necessary. 
It may be this bold movement will upset the combi- 

The Pasha has acted quickly. Eighty-two fresh 
carriers arrived at noon, under a strong guard, and three 
soldiers specially detailed to accompany me. On their 
delivery to us, each Zanzibari received a Madi to guard. 

At half-past three in the afternoon we commenced 
the steep ascent up the terrible slope of the plateau, 
with a burning sun in our front, and reached the crest 
at Bundi camp at 6.30 p.m., a half-hour after sunset. 

After placing strong guards round the camp, I 
selected a band of forty rifles of the choicest men under 
two Zanzibari chiefs, and prepared them for a surprise 
party to attack Kadongo's camp by night. A few of 
our native allies volunteered to show the hill village he 
was occupying. 

At 1 A.M. the party was despatched. 

May 27th. — At 8 a.m. the party detailed against 
Kadongo returned, having eff'ected their mission most 
successfully, but Kadongo himself escaped by crying 

VOL. I. oc 


1888. out that he was a friend of " Bula Matari." No cattle 
May 27. ^^ goats Were taken, because the place was only occu- 
pied by Kadongo's band for temporary purposes. 

We then lifted our burdens and began our march 
towards Gavira's. We had barely started when we 
discovered a large band of men advancing towards 
us, preceded by a man bearing a crimson flag, which at 
a distance might be taken for that of Zanzibar or Egypt. 
We halted, wondering what party this might be, but 
in a few moments we recognised Katto, Mazamboni's 
brother, who had been sent by his chief to greet us and 
learn our movements. AVe admired the aptness of 
these people in so soon learning to follow the direction 
given to them, for had not the flag held us in suspense, 
we might have injured our friends by taking them for 
the van of Musiri's war-party. 

Eetaining a few of them to follow us, I ordered 
Katto to return quickly to Mazamboni, his brother, 
and secretly inform him that as Musiri intended to 
attack us on the road, I intended to attack him at dawn 
the day after to-morrow, and that I expected from 
Mazamboni, as my ally, that he would bring as many 
men as he could sometime that next day. Katto 
declared the thing possible, though it was a short 
notice for the distance to be travelled. We were at 
the time six miles from Gavira's, thence to Mazamboni's 
village was thirteen miles, and back again to Gavira's 
would be another thirteen miles, and in the meantime 
some delay would be necessary to secretly muster a 
sufficient body of warriors becoming Mazamboni's rank, 
and prepare rations for a few days. 

We arrived at Gavira's about noon. Here I pro- 
posed to Gavira to join me in the attack, which the 
chief as readily promised. 

May 28ih. — Halt. We have received abundant con- 
tributions of food for our force, which numbers now 111 
Zanzibaris, 3 whites, 6 cooks and boys, 101 Madis, and 
3 soldiers belonging to the Pasha — total 224, exclusive 
of a few dozen natives who voluntarily follow us. 

An hour after sunset Mazamboni arrived in person 

Musmrs CAMP desebted. 485 

with about 1000 warriors armed with bows and spears. 1888. 
His force was camped in' the potato fields between '^^y-^ 
Gavira's and Musiri's district. 

May 29th. — At three o'clock a.m. we set out for Usiri 
on a N.W. road, a bright moon lighting the way. 
About 100 of the boldest of Mazamboni's corps preceded 
our force. The others fell in line behind, and Gavira's 
tribe, represented by about 500 men, brought up the 
rear. A deep silence, befitting our purpose, prevailed. 

At 6 A.M. we reached the outskirts of Usiri, and in a 
few moments, each chief having received his instruc- 
tions, Dr. Parke, in charge of sixty rifles to keep the 
centre, Katto, in charge of his brother's warriors to form 
the left wing, and Mpinga and Gavira with his men to 
form the right, the attacking force moved on swiftly. 

The results were ludicrous in the extreme. Mpinga's 
Wahuma herdsmen had given notice to Musiri's 
Wahuma herdsmen, and Mazamboni's Wahuma had been 
just as communicative to their fellow-countrymen with 
the enemy. Consequently the herdsmen had driven 
all the herds from Usiri by other roads ; a half of them 
arrived at Gavira's, and the other half at Mazamboni's, 
just at the same morning when the attacking force 
poured over the land of Usiri, and Musiri, the chief, 
after hearing of the disaster to Kadongo, and of the 
mighty army to be brought against him, took tender 
care that not one soul under his sway should be 
injured. The land was quite empty of people, herds, 
flocks, and fowls, but the granaries were heaped full of 
grain, the fields exhibited abundant crops of potatoes, 
beans, young Indian corn, vegetables, and tobacco. I 
am secretly glad of the bloodless termination of the 
afiair. My object has been gained. We have saved 
our extremely scanty supply of ammunition, and the 
road is clear from further trouble. Mazamboni and 
Gavira, I believe, were also delighted, though they 
expressed themselves mortified. 

In one of the huts was discovered the barrel of a 
carbine and percussion lock. The latter bore the brand 
of "John Clive III, 530." This is a relic of Kabba 



1888. Rega's visit, whose men were sadly defeated by Musiri 

May 29. ^bout a year ago. 

In the afternoon Mazamboni's warriors, 1000 strong, 
joined to celebrate the bloodless victory over Musiri in 
a phalanx dance. Dancing in Africa mainly consists of 
rude buffoonery, extravagant gestures, leaping and 
contortions of the body, while one or many drums keep 
time. There is always abundance of noise and loud 
laughter, and it serves the purpose of furnishing amuse- 
ment to the barbarians, as the dervish-like whirling and 
pirouetting give to civilised people. Often two men 
step out of a semicircle of their fellow villagers, and 
chant a duet to the sound of a drum or a horn amid 
universal clapping of hands, or one performs a solo 
while dressed most fantastically in cocks' feathers, strings 
of rattling gourds, small globular bells, and heaps of 
human, monkey, and crocodile teeth, which are the 
African jewels ; but there must always be a chorus, the 
grander the better, and when the men, women, and 
children lift their voices high above the drums, and the 
chatter and murmur of the crowd, I must confess to having 
enjoyed it immensely, especially when the Wanyamwezi 
are the performers, who are by far the best singers on 
the African continent. The Zanzibaris, Zulus, Waiau, 
Wasegara, Waseguhha, and Wangindo are in the main 
very much alike in method and execution, though they 
have each minor dances and songs, which vary con- 
siderably, but they are either dreadfully melancholiac or 
stupidly barbarous. The Wasoga, Waganda, Wakerewe, 
Wazongora, around Lake Victoria, are more subdued, a 
crude bardic, with something of the whine of the Orient — 
Mustapha, or Hussein, or Hassan, moaning below lattices 
to the obdurate Fatima or stony-eared Koxana. Except 
the Wanyamwezi, I have not heard any music or seen 
any dance which would have pleased an English 
audience accustomed to the plantation dances repre- 
sented in a certain hall in Piccadilly until this day, when 
the Bandussuma, under Katto, the brother of Mazamboni, 
led the chief warriors to the phalanx dance. Half a 
score of drums, large and small, had been beaten by 



half a score of accomplished performers, keeping isss 
admirable time, and emitting a perfect volume of sound ^^^ ^•' 
which must have been heard far away for miles, and in 
the meantime Katto, and his cousin Kalenge, adorned 
with glorious tufts of white cocks' feathers, were 
arranging thirty-three lines of thirty-three men each as 
nearly as possible in the form of a perfect and solid and 
close square. Most of these men had but one spear each, 
others possessed two besides their shields and quivers, 
which were suspended from the neck down the back. 

The phalanx stood still with spears grounded until, at 
a signal from the drums, Katto's deep voice was heard 
breaking out into a wild triumphant song or chant, and 
at a particular uplift of note raised his spear, and at 
once rose a forest of spears high above their heads, and 
a mighty chorus of voices responded, and the phalanx 
was seen to move forward, and the earth around my 
chair, which was at a distance of fifty yards from the 
foremost line, shook as though there was an earthquake. 
I looked at the feet of the men and discovered that 
each man was forcefully stamping the ground, and 
taking forward steps not more than six inches long, 
and it was in this manner that the phalanx moved 
slowly but irresistibly. The voices rose and fell in 
sweeping waves of vocal sound, the forest of spears rose 
and subsided, with countless flashes of polished iron 
blades as they were tossed aloft and lowered again to 
the hoarse and exciting thunder of the drums. There 
was accuracy of cadence of voice and roar of drum, 
there was uniform uplift and subsidence of the constantly 
twirling spear blades, there was a simultaneous action 
of the bodies, and as they brought the tremendous 
weight of seventy tons of flesh with one regular stamp 
of the feet on the ground, the firm and hard earth 
echoed the sound round about tremulously. With all 
these the thousand heads rose and drooped together, 
rising when venting the glorious volume of energy, 
drooping with the undertone of wailing murmur of the 
multitude. As they shouted with faces turned upward 
and heads bent back to give the fullest effect to the 


1888. ascending tempest of voices, suggestive of quenchless 
May 29. fj^py^ wfatli and exterminating war, it appeared to inflate 
every soul with the passion of deadly battle and every 
eye of the onlookers glowed luridly, and their right 
arms with clenched fists were shaken on high as though 
their spirits were thrilled with the martial strains ; but 
as the heads were turned and bowed to .the earth we 
seemed to feel war's agony, and grief, and woe, to thmk 
of tears, and widows' wails, and fatherless orphans' 
cries, of ruined hearths and a desolated land. But 
again as the mass, still steadily drawing nearer, tossed 
their heads backward, and the bristling blades flashed 
and clashed, and the feathers streamed and gaily 
rustled, there was a loud snort of defiance and such an 
exulting and energising storm of sound that man saw 
only the glorious colours of victory and felt only the 
proud pulses of triumph. 

Eight up to my chair the great solid mass of wildly 
chanting natives advanced, and the front line lowered 
their spears in an even line of bright iron ; thrice they 
dropped their salute and thrice they rose, and then the 
lines, one after another, broke into a run, spears 
clenched in the act of throwing, staffs quivering, war- 
whoops ringing shrilly. The excitement was intensified 
until the square had been transformed into wheeling 
circles three deep, and after three circlings round the 
open plaza. Prince Katto took his position, and round 
him the racing men coiled themselves until soon they 
were in a solid circle. When this was completed the 
square was formed, it was divided into halves, one half 
returning to one end, the other half to the other end. 
Still continuing the wild chant, they trotted towards 
one another and passed through without confusion, 
exchanging sides, and then once more in a rapid circling 
of the village common with dreadful gestures until the 
eye was bewildered with the wheeling forms, and then 
every man to his hut to laugh and jest, little heeding what 
aspects they had conjured by their evolutions and chants 
within me, or any one else. It was certainly one of the 
best and most excitinij exhibitions I had seen in Africa. 


May SOth. — March to Nzera-Kum Hill in Ndusuma, isss. 
three hours. ^^^^^^^^^ 

We marched to Mazamboni's country to our old camp 
at Chongo, which name the Zanzibaris have given to 
the hill of Nzera-Kum, and we had abundant evidence 
that Mazamboni was deeply implicated in the acts of 
the Wahuma herdsmen, for the track was fresh and 
large of many a fine herd of cattle. Presently we came 
in sight of the fine herds, who, all unconscious of 
trouble, were browsing on the fine pasture, and the 
Zanzibaris clamoured loudly for permission to capture 
them. For an instant only there was a deep silence, 
but Mazamboni, on being asked the reason for the 
presence of Musiri's herds on his territory, answered so 
straightforwardly that they belonged to the Wahuma 
who had fled from his territory last December when he 
was in trouble with us, and now to avoid the same 
trouble in Usiri had returned to their former place, and 
he had not the heart to prevent them, that the order 
was given to move on. 

May SI St. — Halt. Mazamboni gave us a present of 
three beeves and supplied our people with two days full 
rations of flour, besides a large quantity of potatoes and 
bananas. A large number of small chiefs from the 
surrounding districts paid visits to us, each bringing 
into camp a contribution of goats, fowls, and millet 
flour. Urumangwa, Bwessa, and Gunda have also 
made pacts of friendship with us. These villages form 
the very prosperous and extensively cultivated district 
which so astonished us by its abundance one December 
morning last year. 

Towards evening I received a communication from 
Musiri, saying that as all the land had made peace with 
me, he wished to be reckoned as my friend, and that 
the next time I should return to the country he would 
be prepared with suitable gifts for us. 

As to-morrow I propose to resume the journey 
towards Fort Bodo and Yambuya, let me set down what 
I have gleaned from the Pasha respecting himself 




Age and early clays of Kmin Pasha — Gordon and the pay of Emin Pasha 

— Last interview with Gordon Pasha in 1877 — Emin's last supply of 
ammunition and provisions — Five years' isolation — Mackay's library 
in Uganda — Emin's abilities and fitness for his position — His 
linguistic and other attainments — Emin"s industry — His neat 
journals — Story related to me by Shukri Agha referring to Emin's 
escape from Kirri to Mswa — Emin confirms the story — Some natural 
history facts related to me by Emin — The Pasha and the Dinka 
tribe — A lion story — Emin and " bird studies." 

It is not my purpose to make a biographical sketch of 
Emin Paslia, but to furnish such items of information 
as he delivered them to me, day by day, concerning the 
life he has led in the Soudan, and his acquaintance with 
his illustrious chief — the ever-lamented Gordon. 

By birth he is a German, but whether Austrian or 
Prussian I know not, and I have no curiosity to know 
the name of the obscure village or town where that 
event happened. He declares he is forty-eight years 
old, and must therefore have been born in the year 
1840. I fancy that he must have been young when he 
arrived in Constantinople, that some great man assisted 
him in his medical studies, that through the same 
influence probably he entered the Turkish service, and 
became medical attendant on Ismail Hakki Pasha. If 
for thirty years he has served under the crescent flag as 
he himself reported, he must have begun his service in 
Turkey in the year 1858. He became attracted to the 
"Young Turk" party, or to the reform party, in 
Stamboul. It had an organ, which, by its bold 
advocacy of reform, was three times suppressed by the 


authorities. On the last suppression he was expelled 
from the country. 

He admits that he was in Constantinople when the 
assassination of the Sultan Abdul Aziz occurred, though 
he was absent during the trial of those suspected to be 
concerned in it. Coming to Egypt in December, 1875, 
he entered the Egyptian service, and was despatched to 


"Gordon first appointed me as surgeon at £25 a 
month. He then raised me to £30, and after my 
mission to Uganda he surprised me with increasing my 
pay to £40, but when I became Governor of this Pro- 
vince my pay like other Provincial Governors' became 
£50 monthly. What the pay of a General is I do not 
know, but then I am only a ' Miraman,' a kind of 
civilian Pasha, who receives pay while employed, but 
immediately his services are not required he becomes 
unpaid. I expected to be made a military Pasha — a 
General of Division." 


" Now Gordon appointed the German Vice-Consul 
at Khartoum as my agent, to receive my pay, without 
any advice from me about it. For several months I 
believe it was paid to him regularly. But finally 
Gordon appointed the same Vice-Consul Governor of 
Darfour, when he shortly after died. When his effects 
were collected and his small debts paid, there were 
found sufficient funds to present his wife with £500 
and send her to Cairo, and to transfer £50 to my 
account as his principal creditor. A few months after- 
wards Khartoum fell, and what money had been de- 
posited there after the Vice-Consul's death was lost of 
course. So that for eight years I have received no pay 

at all." 

« « * « * 

'' My last interview with Gordon Pasha was in 1877. 
There had been an Expedition sent to Darfour, under 
Colonel Prout, and another under Colonel Purdy, for 


survey work. When Gordon became Governor-General, 
he requested Stone Pasha, at Cairo, to despatch to him 
one of these officers, for survey work in the Equatorial 
Province. Gessi Pasha had already circumnavigated 
the Albert, but his survey was by compass only. Both 
Prout Bey and Mason Bey were capital observers. 
Prout Bey was the first to arrive. He travelled from 
Lado to Fatiko, thence to Mruli, on the Victoria Nile, 
and from there he proceeded to Magungo, on the Albert 
Nyanza, and by a series of observations he fixed the 
position of that point for all time. Illness compelled 
him to retire to my station at Lado. Just then Mason 
Bey arrived in a steamer, to survey the Albert Lake, 
and by that steamer I received an order to descend to 
Khartoum, to be made Governor of Massowah, on the 
Ked Sea. The French Consul of that place had a mis- 
understanding with the civil Governor there, and he 
had begged that if another Governor was appointed, he 
should be some person who could understand French. 
I suppose Gordon, knowing me to be familiar with the 
language, had elected me. On reaching Khartoum I 
was very cordially received by Gordon, and he insisted 
on my taking my meals with him, which was a great 
favour, as he seldom invited anybody to eat with him. 
However, I declined living in the palace, and break- 
fasted at home, but lunch and dinner Gordon insisted I 
should take with him. He had abundance of work for 
me — letters to the Egyptian Pashas and Beys of the 
various provinces ; letters to the Catholic Mission of 
Gondokoro ; letters to the Pope, to the Khedive, &c., in 
Italian, German, and Arabic. This went on for some 
time, when one day he sent me on a mission to Unyoro. 
A little later I ascended the river, and I have never 
seen Gordon since." 

7[? 7(r ^ ?(? ^ 

" In June, 1882, Abdul Kader Pasha wrote me that in 
a couple of months he would despatch a steamer to me 
with provisions and ammunition. After waiting nine 
months I obtained fifteen cases only of ammunition, in 
March, 1883. That is really the last supply of anything 


received from the outside world until your recent arrival 

in April, 1888. Five years exactly !" 


" During five years I have remained isolated in this 
region ; not idle, I hope. I have been kept busy in 
the affairs of my Province, and have managed to find 
pleasure in many things. Still, the isolation from the 
civilized world has made life rather burthensome. I 
could enjoy life here to the end, could I but obtain 
regular news, and was certain of communication with 
the outer world, receive books, periodicals, every month, 
two months, or even three months. I envy those 
missionaries in Uganda who receive their monthly 
packet of letters, newspapers and books. Mr. Mackay 
has quite a library in Uganda. That packet of " honey- 
dew " tobacco I gave you the other day I obtained from 
him. I received also a couple of bottles of liquor, have 
had clothes, writing paper, and such news as I know I 
discovered in the Spectators and Times now and then 
sent me by him. But there are certain books upon 
subjects which I am interested in that I could never 
obtain through him without giving him and his friends 
far too great a trouble. Therefore I should wish a postal 
service of my own, then my life would be relieved of its 
discontent. Ah, those eight years of silence ! I 
cannot put my feelings in words. I could not endure 

them again." 


I have already described his person and age, and cer- 
tain qualities of his character may be discerned in the 
conversation reported above ; still, the man would be 
scarcely understood in the full compass of his nature if 
I stopped here. His abilities, and capacity, and fitness 
for the singular position in which he has been placed 
will be seen in the manner in which he has managed to 
clothe many of his troops. Among the gifts he pressed 
upon us were pieces of cotton cloth woven by his own 
men, coarse but strong, and slippers and shoes from his 
own bootmakers. The condition of his steamers and 
boats after such long service, the manufacture of oil 


suitable for the engines (a mixture of sesamum oil and 
tallow), the excellent sanitary arrangements and clean- 
liness and order of the stations under his charge, the 
regular and ungrudging payment of corn tribute twice 
a year by his negro subjects, all serve to demonstrate 
a unique character, and to show that he possesses talents 
rarely seen in those who select Africa for their field of 
labour. In endeavouring to estimate him, I pass in 
mental review hundreds of officers who have served on 
the Nile and the Congo, and I know of but few who 
would be equal to him in any one of his valuable quali- 
ties. Besides his linguistic attainments, he is a natu- 
ralist, something of a botanist, and, as a surgeon, I can 
well believe that thirty years of an adventurous life 
such as his has been would furnish him with rare oppor- 
tunities to make him wise and skilful in his profession. 
The language he has used, as may be seen above, is 
something higher than colloquial, and marks his attain- 
ments in English, With his full sonorous voice and 
measured tones, it sounded very pleasantly, despite the 
foreign accent. Upon any policy treated of in news- 
papers and reviews I found him exceedingly well 
informed, no matter what country was broached. His 
manner is highly courteous and considerate, somewhat, 
perhaps, too ceremonious for Central Africa, but highly 
becoming a Governor, and such as one might expect 
from an official of that rank, conscious of serious respon- 

Industry seems to be a vital necessity of life with him. 
He is a model of painstaking patient effort. No sooner 
has he camped than he begins to efiect arrangements 
orderly and after method. His table and chair have 
their place, his journals on the table, the aneroids on a 
convenient stand, dry and wet bulb thermometers duly 
exposed in the shade, with ample air-flow about them. 
The journals are marvels of neatness — blotless, and the 
writing microscopically minute, as though he aimed at 
obtaining a prize for accuracy, economy, neatness and 
fidelity. Indeed, most Germans of my acquaintance are 
remarkable for the bulk of their observations and super- 


fine caligraphy, while English-speaking travellers whom 

I have known possess note-books which, useful as they 

may be to themselves, would appear ill-kept, blotchy 

and scrawly in comparison to them, and furnish infinite 

trouble to their executors to edit. 

* * * * 

The following will illustrate something of his troubles 
during the five years he has been cut off from head- 
quarters at Khartoum. 

Shukri Agha, Commandant of Mswa station, who 
paid me a visit on the evening of the 19th May, relates 
that about a year ago 190 rifles of the First Battalion 
set out from Rejaf Station for Kirri, where the Pasha 
resided, with the intent to capture and hold him 
captive among themselves. A letter had been received 
from Dr. Junker from Cairo, stating that an expedition 
was to be sent to their relief, had created a confused 
impression in the minds of the soldiers of the First 
Battalion that their Governor ^ intended to fly in that 
direction, leaving them to their fate. Convinced that 
their safety lay in the presence of their Civil Governor 
among them, they conceived the idea of arresting him 
and taking him with them to Rejaf, which, with the 
more northern stations, was garrisoned by this battalion. 
" For," said they, '* we know only of one road, and that 
leads down the Nile by Khartoum." * The Pasha was 
suddenly informed of their intention by the officers of 
the Second Battalion, and cried out, " Well, if they kill 
me, I am not afraid of death ; let them come — I will 
await them." This the officers of the Second Battalion 
at Kirri would not permit, and implored him to make 
his escape before the malcontents appeared, and argued 
that " the violent capture and detention of the Governor 
would put an end to all government, and be the total 
ruin of all discipline." For some time he refused to 
move, but finally, yielding to their solicitations, escaped 
to Mswa. Soon after his departure the detachment of 

* The correspondence these people maintained with Khartoum compel 
me to doubt whether this is the correct reason. Eead Omar Sale's letter 
to the Khalifa at Khartoum, farther on. 


the First Battalion appeared, and, after surrounding tlie 
station, cried out a peremptory demand tliat the 
Governor should come out and deliver himself to them. 
They were answered that the Governor had already 
departed south to Muggi and Wadelai, upon which the 
mutineers advanced to the station, and seized the 
Commandant and his subordinate officials, and soundly 
flogged them with the kurbash, and afterwards took 
most of them prisoners and carried them to Rejaf, 
whither they returned. 

Shukri Agha continued thus : — " You must know that 
all the First Battalion guard the northern stations, and 
every soldier of that battalion is opposed to making any 
retreat, and any suggestion of leaving their watch post 
at Rejaf, the northernmost station, only makes them 
indignant. They have been all along waiting to hear 
of the arrival of a steamer at Lado, and are still firm in 
the belief that some day the Pasha at Khartoum will 
send for them. Whatever the Pasha says to the con- 
trary receives utter disbelief But now that you have 
arrived by an opposite road, and some of us "who were 
with Linant Bey in 1875 saw you in Uganda, and many 
more of us have known you by name, it is most likely 
all of them will be convinced that the Nile is not the 
only road to Egypt, and that you, having found them, 
can take them out of the country. They will see your 
officers, they will see your Soudanese, they will listen 
respectfully to your message, and gladly obey. That 
is my own opinion, though God only knows what the 
sentiments of the First Battalion are by this time, as 
sufficient time has not elapsed to enable us to hear 

from them." 


On telling Emin Pasha the next day the story of 
Shukri Agha, he said : — 

" Shukri Agha is a very intelligent and brave officer, 
promoted to his present rank for distinguished service 
against Karamalla, one of the Mahdi's generals, when 
he came here with some thousands to demand our 
surrender to the authority of Mohamed Achmet." 



" His story is quite true, except that he has omitted to 
mention that with the 190 rifles of the First Battalion 
there were 900 armed negroes. Subsequently I learned 
that it had been their intention to have taken me to 
Gondokoro, and detain me there until the garrisons of 
the southern stations, Wadelai, Tunguru, and Mswa, 
were collected, and then to have marched along the 
right bank towards Khartoum. On reaching the neigh- 
bourhood of Khartoum, and there learning that the city 
had really fallen, they were then to disperse, each to 
his own house, leaving the Cairenes and myself to shift 

as we might for ourselves." * 


The following are some natural history facts he 
related to me : — 

" The forest of Msongwa (see map) is infested with a 
large tribe of chimpanzees. In summer time, at night, 
they frequently visit the plantations of Mswa station to 
steal the fruit. But what is remarkable about this is the 
fact that they use torches to light the way ! Had I 
not witnessed this extraordinary spectacle personally 
I should never have credited that any of the Simians 
understood the art of making fire." 

" One time these same chimpanzees stole a native 
drum from the station, and went away pounding merrily 
on it. They evidently delight in that drum, for I have 
frequently heard them rattling away at it in the silence 
of the night." 

He observed that parrots are never seen along the 
shores of Lake Albert. Up to lat. 2° N. they are seen 
in Unyoro, but the Lake people do not seem to under- 
stand what is referred to when parrots are mentioned. 

Our people captured a pair of very young mongoose, 
which were taken to the Pasha. They were accepted, 
and ordered to be nursed on milk. He declared that 
the mongoose, though he becomes very tame and is 
exceedingly droll, is a nuisance. Instruments are 

* Knowing this, the Pasha seems to me to have been very imprudent 
in adventuring into the presence of these rebels without satisfying 
himself as to the effect his preeeuce "would have on them. 



broken, ink scattered, papers and books are smeared 
and soiled by this inquisitive little beast. To eggs it 
is especially destructive. If it finds an egg of more 
than ordinary hard shell, it lifts it with its fore-feet and 
lets it drop until it is broken. 

The Pasha has much to say respecting the Dinkas. 
Proprietors of cattle among the Dinka tribe own from 
300 to 1500 head. They rarely kill, their cattle being 
kept solely for their milk and blood. The latter they 
mix with sesamum oil, and then eat as a delicacy. At 
the death of a herd-owner his nearest kinsman invites 
his friends, and one or two beeves may be slaughtered 
for the funeral feast ; otherwise one scarcely ever hears 
of a Dinka killing his cattle for meat. Should one of 
the herd die a natural death, the love of meat demands 
that it be eaten, which is a proof that conscience does 
not prohibit satisfying the stomach with meat, but 
rather excessive penuriousness, cattle being the Dinka's 

These Dinkas also pay great reverence to pythons and 
all kinds of snakes. One of the Soudanese officers killed 
a snake, and was compelled to pay a fine of four goats. 
They even domesticate them, keeping them in their 
houses, but they are allowed every liberty, and to crawl 
out for prey, after which they return for rest and sleep. 
They wash the pythons with milk and anoint them 
with butter. In almost every hut the smaller snakes 
may be heard rustling in the roofs as they crawl, 
exploring for rats, mice, etc. 

On the east side of the Nile he found a tribe ex- 
ceedingly partial to lions ; in fact, one of them would 
prefer to be killed than be guilty of the death of a lion. 
These people dug a pit at one time for buffaloes and 
such game to fall into, but it unfortunately happened 
that a lion was the first victim. The Soudanese who 
discovered it were about to kill it, when the chief vetoed 
the act and implored that the lion should be given to 
him. The Soudanese were willing enough, and curiously 
watched what he would do with it. The chief cut a 
long stout pole and laid it slantwise to the bottom of 


the pit, up which the lion immediately climbed and 
bounded away to the jungle to enjoy his liberty. It 
should be added that the noble beast did not attempt 
to injure any person near the pit — probably he was too 
frightened ; though as pretty a story might be made out 
of it as that of Androcles and the lion, did we not live 
in such a veracious and prosaic age. 

" Bird studies," the gray- haired lieutenant from 
Cairo declared, were the Pasha's delight. Indeed, he 
seems to find as great pleasure in anything relating to 
birds or animals as in his military and civil duties, 
though I have not observed any neglect of the last, and 
the respectful soldierly bearing of his people in his 
presence marks a discipline well impressed on them. 

From the above gleanings of such conversation as I 
have noted it will be clear to any one that the Pasha has 
had a varied life, one that would furnish to quiet home- 
keeping people much valuable and enchanting reading 
matter. It may be hoped he will see fit some day to 
exhibit to them in book form some of his startling life 
incidents in Asia and Africa, and rehearse in his own 
pleasing manner some of the most interesting observations 
he has made during a long residence amid a new and 
wild nature. 




Escorted by various tribes to Mukangi — Camp at Ukuba village — Arrival 
at Fort Bodo — Our invalids in Ugarrowwa's care — Lieutenant Stairs' 
report on his visit to bring up the invalids to Fort Bodo — Night 
visits by the malicious dwarfs — A general muster of the garrison — I 
decide to conduct the Relief Force in person — Captain Nelson's ill- 
health — My little fox-teriier " Randy " — Description of the fort — 
The Zanzibaris — Estimated time to perform the journey to Yambuya 
and back — Lieutenant Stairs' suggestion about the steamer Stanley 
— Conversation with Lieutenant Stairs in reference to Major Barttelot 
and the Rear Column — Letter of instructions to Lieutenant Stairs. 

1888. On tlie 1st of June, escorted by a score of Mazamboni's 
June 1, people, we marched westward from Undussuma. In an 

" ^°^'* hour and a half we reached Urumangwa. This district 
furnished an escort of about a hundred, the Mazambonis 
withdrawing to their homes. At Unyabongo, after a 
two hours' march, the people of Urumangwa likewise 
withdrew, yielding their honourable duties to the people 
of the new district, and these escorted us for an hour 
and a half, and saw us safely housed and abundantly 
fed at Mukangi. For a short time before the latter 
place we were drawn up in battle array, and a fight was 
imminent, but the courage and good sense of its chief 
enabled both parties to avoid a useless rupture. 

A good example has its imitators as well as bad 
examples. The chiefs of "Wombola and Kaniette heard 
how quickly we had embraced the friendly offers of 
Mukangi, and when we marched through their districts 
the next day not one war-cry was heard or a hostile figure 
appeared. Those of Kamette' called out to us to keep on 
our way, it is true, but it was just, as we had no business 
in Kamette, and the day was yet young ; but on our 
arrival at the next village, Ukuba, we were tired, and 
disposed to rest after a five hours' march. But Ukuba, 


of Besse district, Had already experienced our weapons 
on the 12tli April last, and we were permitted to camp 
quietly. At sunset we were gratified at seeing several 
of the natives walking unarmed to camp, and in the 
morning they came again with presents of a milch goat, 
some fowls, and enough plantains for alL 

On the 3rd we pressed on rapidly, and captured the 
canoes to ferry our party across the Ituri, which, though 
there had been but little rain of late, we found to be as 
full as in rainy April. 

On the next day we captured a woman of Mande 
after crossing the river, and released her to tell her 
people that we were harmless enough if the road was 
undisturbed. It may extend the area over which peace 
between us and the natives is established. 

On the 5th we camped at Baburu, and on the next 
day at W. Indenduru. On the 7th a seven hours' march 
l)rought us to a stream called Miwale Eiver, from the 
great number of raphia palms ; and the next day we 
entered Fort Bodo, bringing with us six head of cattle, 
a flock of sheep and goats, a few loads of native 
tobacco, four gallons of the Pasha's whisky, and some 
other little luxuries, to joy the hearts of the garrison. 

Such an utter silence prevails in the forest that we 
were mutually ignorant of each other's fate during 
our sixty-seven days' separation. Until we approached 
within 400 yards of Fort Bodo we could not divine 
what had become of Lieutenant Stairs, who, it will be 
remembered, had been despatched on the 16th February 
to Ugarrowwa's to conduct such convalescents as could 
be found there to us to share in such fortune as might 
happen to us in the open country, whose very view 
had proved so medicinable to our men. Nor could the 
garrison guess what luck had happened to us. But 
when our rifles woke up the sleeping echoes of the 
forest with their volleys, the sounds had scarcely died 
away before the rifles of the garrison responded, 
and as we knew that Fort Bodo still existed, those 
immured within the limits of the clearing became aware 
that we had returned from the Nyanza. 

June 2. 

Fort Bodo. 


1888. Lieutenant Stairs was first to show himself and hail 
June 8. ^jg^ g^j^^ close after him Captain Nelson, both in excellent 
condition, but of rather pasty complexion. Their men 
then came trooping up, exuberant joy sparkling in 
their eyes and glowing in their faces, for these children 
of Nature know not the art of concealing their moods or 
disguising their emotions. 

But, alas ! for my estimates. Since I have entered 
the forest region they have always been on the erring 
side. After computing carefully, as I thought, every 
mile of the course to be travelled and every obstacle 
likely to be met by him and his lightly -laden escort, I 
was certain Lieutenant Stairs would be with us after an 
absence of thirty-nine days. We stayed forty-seven days, 
as we were assured it would please him to be present 
at the successful termination or crowning triumph of 
our efforts. He arrived after seventy-one days' absence, 
and by that date we had already communicated with 
Emin Pasha. 

I had estimated also that out of the fifty-six invalids 
left in the care of Ugarrowwa, and boarded at our 
expense, at least forty convalescents would be ready, fit 
for marching, but Mr. Stairs found most of them in 
worse condition than when they parted from us. All 
the Somalis were dead except one, and the survivor but 
lived to reach Ipoto. Out of the fifty-six there were 
but thirty-four remaining. One of these was Juma, with 
foot amputated ; three were absent foraging. Out of the 
thirty sorry band of living skeletons delivered to him 
fourteen died on the road, one was left at Ipoto, the 
remaining fifteen survived to exhibit their nude bodies 
disfigured by the loathliest colours and effects of chronic 
disease. The following is the letter describing Mr. 
Stairs' remarkable journey, which amply accounts for 
his detention : — 

" Fort Bodo, Ibwiri, Central Africa, 
(( Qj„ _^ " June 6th, 1888. 

" I have the honour to report that in accordance with your orders 
of the 15th February, 1888, I left this place on the Kith of that montli 
with an escort of twenty couriers and other details, to_ proceed to 
Ugarrowwa's station on the Ituri, forward the couriers on their journey to 


Major Barttelot's column, relieve the invalids left in charge of Ugarrow wa, ^^^j^g 
and bring tliem on to this station. jm^g g 

" Leaving this place, then, on the 16th, we reached Kiliinani Hill village p * t> j 
on the 17th. Mext day I decided to follow a large native track, well °^ ° ° 
worn, aboiTt two miles west of Kilimani on our through track to Ipoto ; 
accordingly we started off this up till 11 a.m. After we had gone this 
length, the track struck too much to the north and east; I therefore 
looked for other tracks, hoping by following one to at last get on to a 
large road, and thus work through to the Ihuru. Finding one, we 
followed it up some two miles or so, and then found that it ended 
abruptly, and no further trace could be found of it. Returning to our 
former road we mov6d on, and that day made four more endeavours to 
get north-west or somewhere in that direction ; late at night we camped, 
just before dark, having found a blazed track. On the next day, 19th, we 
followed this track north-west at a fast rate, and about 10 a.m. came on 
to an old village. The blazes here ended; no further signs df a track 
could we find leading out of the village, though we hunted thoroughly 
in every direction. Eeturning again, and following a large track north- 
east, we made still another try, but here again the track ended. 

" After some consideration 1 returned to oiir camp of yesterday, and 
decided on following a road leading towards Mabungu, and then take a 
side road, said by the natives to lead to the Iliuru, but on following this 
we found it lead merely up to some Wambutti huts, and here ran out. 

" After taking my head men's opinion, I then decided on returning 
and following our old road to Ipoto, there to jjrocure two guides and 
follow on the track to Uledi's village, and there cross the Ihuru and 
follow down on north side, &c. My reasons for doing these were : If I 
should go on like this, looking for tracks, I should lose probably four or 
five days, and this with my limited time would not be admissible ; and, 
secondly, that to attempt to split our way on a Tiearing through the bush 
to the river would take i)erhaps five days, which would quite counter- 
balance any advantage a north road might jjossess. Eeaching Kilonga 
Longa's on the 22nd, we arranged for a party to take lis by a road south 
of Ituri, and on the 24th left. On the Ist of March crossed the Lenda, 
courses now N.W. and N.N.AV. On the 9th reached Farishi, the upper 
station of Ugarrowwa. On the lltli we reached Ugarrowwa's, on the Ituri, 
early in the morning. For many days we had been having rains, and 
owing to these I suffered very much from fevers, and on getting to 
Ugarrowwa's had to remain in bed for two days. 

" At U.'s some eight or ten were away foraging, and to get these 
required three and a half days. 

" Fifty-six (56) men were left with Ugarrowwa, viz., five Somalis, five 
Nubians, and forty-six Zanzibaris, on the I8th of September, 1887. Of 
this total twenty-six had died, including all the Somalis excejit Dualla. 
There were still two men out when I left. Baraka W. Moussa I detailed 
as a courier in place of another (who had been left at Ipoto with bad 
ulcer), and Juma B. Zaid remained with Ugarrowwa. 

" The majority of the men were in a weak state when I arrived, and on 
leaving I refused to take seven of these. Ugarrowwa, however, point 
blank refused to keep them, so thus I was obliged to bring on men with 
the certainty of their dying on the march. 

" Early on the iGth, Abdullah and his couriers were despatched down 
river. On the 17th took our forty-four rifles from Ugarrowwa, and out 
of these made him a present of two and forty-two rounds Eemington 

" On the 18th closed with U. for |870, being $30 for twenty-nine men; 
also handed him his bills of exchange and your letter. 


1888 " ^^^ same day left for Ibwiri with following. 

Jime 8. " From the 19th to 23rd, when I reached Farishi, the rain was constant, 
F -t R (i ™3'king the track heavy and the creeks difficult in crossing. From here 
^^ ° °' on to Ipoto I had bad fevers day after day, and having no one to carry 
me, had to make marches of five to seven miles per day. The constant 
wettings and bad roads had made all the men very low-spirited, some 
doubting even that there was help ahead. Reached Ipoto April 11th, 
left 13th ; and after more trouble from fever reached here on 26th April. 
All glad to see the Fort. Dualla, the Somali, I was obliged to leave at 
Ipoto. Tam, a former donkey-boy, deserted on the road. Of the draft 
of invalids (twenty-six) ten had died. Kibwana also died from chest 
disease in camp near Mambungu. Out of fifty-six invalids brought 
fourteen alive to the Fort. 

" On reaching Fort Bodo I found you had been so long gone that I 
could not follow up with safety with the few rifles I could command, and 
so remained at this station and reported myself to Captain Nelson, who 
■ was left in charge of the Fort by you. 

" Floods, rains, fevers, and other illnesses had been the cause of our 
long delay, and those of us who were in fit condition at all, felt bitterly 
the disappointment at not being able to reach you. 

" I have the honour to be, &c., 

" W. G. Stairs, Lieut. R.E. 
" To M. H. Stanley, Esq." 

Of the condition of the garrison at Fort Bodo there 
was but little to complain ; the ulcerous persons, though 
nothing improved, were not worse ; the anaemic victims of 
the tortures of Manyuema at Ipoto had gained possibly 
a few ounces in weight ; the chronically indolent and 
malingerers still existed to remind us by their aspects of 
misery that they were not suitable for the long and 
desperate journey yet before us. We expected all this. 
The long journey to Yambuya and back, 1,070 miles, 
could never be performed by unwilling men. It would 
be volunteers, fired by interest, stimulated by the 
knowledge that, this one task ended, forest miseries, 
famine, damp, rain, mud, gloom, vegetable diet, 
poisoned arrows, would be things and griefs of the 
past ; and then the joys of the grass land, divine light, 
brightness and warmth of full day, careering of grass 
before the refreshing gales, the consolation of knowing 
that heaven is above, and the earth, yet full of glad 
life, glowing with beneficence and blandness, ever before 
them. Oh, gracious God ! hasten the day. But can 
black men, the " brutes," " niggers," " black devils," feel 
so ? We shall see. 

One crop of Indian corn had been harvested, and was 

June 8. 
Fort Bedo, 


stored snugly in granaries, the fields were being pre- isss 
pared anew for replanting, the banana plantations still 
furnished unlimited supplies of food, the sweet potatoes 
grew wild in various places, and there was a fair stock 
of beans. 

The malicious dwarfs (the Wambutti) had paid noc- 
turnal visits, and ravaged somewhat the corn fields, and 
Lieut. Stairs, with a few choice spirits of the garrison, 
had given chase to the marauders and had routed them, 
losing one man in the action, but scaring the undersized 
thieves effectually. 

The Fort now contained 119 Zanzibaris of the Advance, 
four of Emin Pasha's soldiers, ninety-eight Madi carriers, 
and three whites from the Albert Nyanza, besides fifty- 
seven Zanzibaris and Soudanese, and two officers who 
formed the garrison — total, 283 souls. It was out of 
this number w^e were to form a column of Zanzibari 
volunteers and Madi carriers to hasten to the relief of 
Major Barttelot and the Eear Column. 

After a two days' rest a general muster was made. 
The necessities of our condition were explained aloud to 
them ; our white brothers were labouring under God 
alone knew what difficulties — difficulties that appeared 
greater to them than they did to us, inasmuch as we 
had gone through them and survived, and could aff'ord 
to make light of them. For knowledge would teach us 
to be more prudent of our rations, where to refresh our 
jaded bodies, and when to hasten through the inter- 
vening wildernesses, husbanding our resources. Our 
meeting would rejoice our poor friends, distressed by 
our long absence, and our good news would reanimate 
the most feeble and encourage the despairing. They 
all knew what treasures of cloth and beads were in 
charge of the Rear Column. We could not carry all, as 
indeed there was no need for so much. How could it 
better be bestowed than on the tireless faithful fellows 
who had taken their master twice to the Nyanza and 
back to his long-lost friends ! "I pray you, then, come 
to my side ye that are willing, and ye that prefer to 
stay in the Fort remain in the ranks." 


1888. Exulting in their lusty strength, perfect health, and 

Junes, jjj their acknowledged worth, 107 men cried aloud, "To 

the Major ! " " To the Major ! " and sprang to my side, 

leaving only six, who were really indisposed by illness 

and growing ulcers, in their places. 

Those who understand men will recognize some 
human merits exhibited on this occasion, though others 
may be as blind in perceiving the finer traits in human 
nature, as there are many utterly unable to perceive in 
a picture the touches which betray the masterful hand 
of a great painter, or in a poem the grace and smooth- 
ness, combined with vigour and truth, of the true poet. 

After selecting out a few of the garrison to replace 
those unable to undertake the long march before us, 
there remained only to distribute twenty-five days' 
rations of Indian corn to each member of the Eelief 
Force, and to advise that in addition each man and boy 
should prepare as much plantain flour as he could 

Until the evening of the 15th of June all hands were 
engaged in reducing the hard corn with pestle and 
mortar and sieve into flour, or corn rice, called " grits," 
in peeling the plantains, slicing, drying them on woor) 
grating over a slow fire, and pounding them into fine 
flour. I, on my part, besides arranging the most need- 
ful necessaries required for general uses, had many per- 
sonal details to attend to, such as repairs of pantaloons, 
shoes, chair, umbrella, rain-coat, etc. 

My intention was to conduct the Relief Force in 
person, unattended by any officers, for many reasons, 
but mainly because every European implied increase of 
baggage, which was now required to be of the very 
smallest limit consistent with the general safety. 
Besides, Lieut. Stairs, in my opinion, deserved rest after 
his trip to Ipoto to bring the steel boat to Fort Bodo, 
and his journey to Ugarrowwa's was to conduct the 
convalescents. Captain Nelson, ever since the latter 
part of September, 1887, had been subject to ever- 
varying complaints — first ulcers, then a general debility 
which almost threatened his life, then skin eruptions, 


lumbago, tender feet, and fits of obstinate ague. To a issi. 
person in such a vitiated condition of blood a journey of "^"°® ^• 
the kind about to be undertaken would doubtless prove ^*'^"* ^"'^^ 
fatal. Dr. Parke, the only other officer availing, was 
needed for the sick at the Fort, as in truth the entire 
garrison consisted mainly of people requiring medical 
attendance and treatment. 

With great difficulty we were able to select fourteen 
men of the garrison to accompany Captain Nelson as far 
as Ipoto, to convey the dozen loads of baggage still 
remaining there ; but as we were about to start, the 
Captain was prostrated with another attack of inter- 
mittent fever, and a strange swelling of the hand, which 
made it necessary for Dr. Parke to replace him for this 
short journey. 

The faithful little fox-terrier " Randy," which had 
borne the fatigues of the double march to the Albert 
Nyanza so well, and had been such a good friend to us 
in an hour of great need, and had become the pet of 
every one, though " Randy " would not permit a Zan- 
zibari to approach me unannounced, was committed to 
the care of Lieutenant Stairs, in the hope of saving 
him the thousand-mile journey now before us. But 
the poor dog misjudged my purpose, and resolutely re- 
fused his food from the moment I left him, and on 
the third day after my departure he died of a broken 

Upon carefully considering the state of the Fort, and 
the condition of its garrison, and the capacity of its 
Commandant, Lieut. Stairs, who would be assisted by 
Captain Nelson and Dr. Parke, I felt the utmost 
assurance that, with sixty rifles and abundant stores of 
ammunition, they were invulnerable from any attack of 
forest natives, however strong their forces might be. A 
wide and deep ditch ran round two-thirds of it. At 
each of its angles a commanding platform, closely fenced, 
had been erected, with approaches and flanks duly under 
rifl^ range, and each angle was connected by a continuous 
stockade, well banked with earth without and supported 
within by a firm banquette. The main roads leading to 

Fort Bodo. 


1888. the Fort were also fenced, to serve as obstructions. The 
June 8. village inhabited by the garrison lay on the side 
unprotected by the ditch, and was arranged m V shape, 
to mask the entrance into the Fort. During daylight 
no hostile party could approach within 150 yards of 
the Fort unperceived. At night ten sentries would be 
sufficient precaution against surprise and fire. 

This protection was not so much designed against 
natives alone as against a possible — and by no means 
unlikely — combination of Manyuema with natives. As 
much might be urged for the likelihood of such a 
combination as against it ; but it is a totally wrong policy 
to be idle before an uncertain issue, and of the hundreds 
of camps or stations established by me in Africa, not 
one has been selected without considering every near or 
remote contingency. 

I w^as about to leave Fort Bodo without the least 
anxiety respecting the natives and Manyuema, as also 
without fear of incompatibility between the officers and 
Zanzibaris. The officers were now acquainted with the 
language of their people, as well as with their various 
habits, tempers, and moods, and the men could equally 
distinguish those of their officers. Both parties alpc 
believed that their stay at Fort Bodo was not likely to 
be protracted, as the Pasha had promised to visit them 
within two months, and from a visit of one of his 
considerate and thoughtful character they might surely 
infer they would derive pleasure as well as profit. On 
his return to the Nyanza they could accompany him, 
abandoning the Fort to its fate. 

Of the fidelity of the Zanzibaris there was also no 
room for doubt. However tyrannical or unjust the 
officers might be — an extreme conjecture — the Zanzi- 
baris could only choose between them on the one hand, 
and the cannibalism of the Wambutti and the incarnate 
cruelty of the Manyuema on the other. 

Would that I could have felt the same confidence 
and contentment of mind regarding the Rear Column. 
With the lapse of months had been the increase of my 
anxiety. As week after week had flown by, my faith 



in its safety had become weakened and my mind 
fatigued — with the continual conflict of its hopes and 
doubts, with the creation of ingenious and fine theories, 
and their no less subtle demolition, was, perforce, con- 
strained for its own repose and health to forbear 
thought and take refuge in the firm belief that the 
Major was still at Yambuya, but abandoned. Our 
duty was, therefore, to proceed to Yambuya, select the 
most necessary material equal to our carrying force, and 
march back to the Nyanza again with what speed we 

On this supposition I framed an estimate of the time 
to be occupied by the journey, and handed it, with a 
letter of instructions, to the Commandant of the Fort 
for his use : — 

June 8. 

Fort Bodo 

" Whereas the distance between Fort Bodo to the Nyanza is 125 miles, 
and has been performed in 288 hours' marching, or 74 days, inclusive of 

" Whereas we travelled the distance from Yambuya to TIgarrowwa'a 
in 289 hours = . . . . . . .74 days. 

" Whereas Lieutenant Stairs marched from Ugarrowwa's 

to Fort Bodo in 26 „ 

100 „ 

" Therefore our journey to Yambuya will probably occupy 100 days, 
and the same period back. From June 16th, 1888, to January 2nd, 
1889, is 200 days. We may reasonably be expected on January 2nd 
at Fort Bodo, and on the 22nd of the same month at Lake Albert. 

" Or thus : Starting June 16th, 1888 :— 

" Fort Bodo to . 

. Ugarrowwa's 

. July 5th 

Thence to 

. Avisibba . 

. „ 25t]i 

» )> 

. Mupe 

Aug. 14th 

„ ,, 

. Yambuya . 

Sept. 3rd 

Halt 10 days . 

— . . . 

„ 13th 

Keturn to 

. Mupe 

Oct. 3rd 

if f> 

. Panga Falls 

„ 23rd 

99 )? 

. Fort Bodo 

. Dec. 22nd 

Halt 5 days 


. „ 27th 

Thence to 

. Albert Nyanza 

Jan. 16th, 1889." 

The last evening of my stay at Fort Bodo, while re- 
citing over the several charges, general and personal, 
entrusted to him, Lieut. Stairs suggested that perhaps 
the non-arrival of the steamer Stanley at Yambuya 


1888. accounted for the utter silence respecting the Rear 
June 8. Qolumn. I thcu replied in the following terms : — 

"That is rather a cruel suggestion, my dear sir ; that 
is the least I fear, for as well as I was able I provided 
against that accident. You must know that when the 
Stanley departed from the Yambuya on the 28th of June, 
I delivered several letters to the captain of the steamer. 
One was to my good friend Lieut. Liebrichts, Governoi 
of Stanley Pool district, charging him, for old friend- 
ship's sake, to despatch the steamer back as soon as 
possible with our goods and reserve ammunition. 

"Another was to Mr. Swinburne, my former secretary, 
who was the soul of fidelity, to the effect that in case 
the Stanley met with such an accident as to prevent 
her return to Yambuya, he would be pleased to sub- 
stitute the steamer Floridoj for her, as the owners were 
business men, and full compensation in cash, which I 
guaranteed, would find as ready an acceptance with 
them as profits from the ivory trade. 

" A third letter was to Mr. Antoine Greshoff, the agent 
at Stanley Pool for the Dutch house at Banana, to the 
efiect that, failing both steamers Stanley and Florida, 
he would find a large ready money profit if he would 
undertake the transport of the stores of the Expedi- 
tion from Stanley Pool, and 128 men from Bolobo, 
to Yambuya. Whatever reasonable freight and fare 
he would charge, immediate payment was guaranteed 
by me. 

" A fourth letter was to our officer in charge at 
Stanley Pool, Mr. John Rose Troup, to the effect that, 
failing the steamers Stanley, Florida, and Mr. Greshoff 's, 
he was to use his utmost powers and means to collect 
boats and canoes, at whatever cost, ready at hand, and 
communicate with Messrs. Ward and Bonny at Bolobo. 
Mr. Ward at Bolobo was also enjoined to do the like 
in Uyanzi, and man these vessels with the Zanzibaris 
and natives, and transport by stages the various stores 
to the intrenched camp at Yambuya. This last would 
scarcely be needed, as it is extremely improbable that 
from June 28th, 1887, to June 16th, 1888— nearly 

Fort Bodo, 


twelve months — neither the Stanley, the Florida, nor 1888. 
Mr. Greshoffs steamer would be available for our _"^"°1^'. 

" Besides, you must remember that both captain 
and engineer of the Stanley were each promised a 
reward of £50 sterling if they would arrive within 
reasonable time. Such amounts to poor men are not 
trifles, and I feel assured that if they have not been 
prevented by their superiors from fulfilling their 
promise, all goods and men arrived safely at Yambuya." 

"You still think, then, that in some way Major 
Barttelot is the cause of this delay ? " 

" Yes, he and Tippu-Tib. The latter of course has 
broken his contract. There is no doubt of that. For 
if he had joined his 600 carriers, or half that number, 
with our Zanzibaris, we should have heard of them 
long ago, either at Ipoto, when you returned there for 
the boat, or later, when you reached Ugarrowwa's, 
March 16th this year. The letter of September 18th, 
1887, when only eighty-one days absent from Yam- 
buya, and which the Arab promised without delay, 
would certainly have produced an answer by this if 
the Major had departed from Yambuya. Those carriers, 
all choice men, well armed, acquainted with the road, 
despatched with you to Ugarrowwa's on February 16th, 
and seen by you safely across the river opposite his 
station on the 16th of the following month, would 
curely by this have returned if the Eear Column was 
only a few weeks' march from Yambuya ; therefore I am 
positive in my mind that Major Barttelot is in some 
way or other the cause of the delay." 

" Well, I am sure, however you may think the 
Major is disloyal, I ." 

" Disloyal ! Why, whoever put you in mind of that 
word ? Such a word has no connection with any man 
on this Expedition, I hope. Disloyal ! Why should 
any one be disloyal ? And disloyal to whom ? " 

" Well, not disloyal, but negligent, or backward in 
pressing on ; I feel sure he has done his best." 

" No doubt he has done his level best, but as I wrote 

Fort Bodo. 


1888. to him on September 18th, in my letter to be given to 
June 8. j^jjj^ \yj Ugarrowwa's carriers, it is his * rashness and in- 
' " " experience I dread,' not his disloyalty or negligence. I 
fear the effect of indiscriminate punishments on his 
people has been such that the vicinity of Stanley Falls 
and the Arabs has proved an irresistible temptation to 
desert. If our letters miscarry in any way, our long 
absence — twelve months nearly to this day, and by the 
time we reach Yambuya fourteen months at least ! — 
will be a theme for all kinds of reports. When the 
Zanzibaris from Bolobo reached him he ought to have 
had over 200 carriers. In twelve months — assuming 
that the goods and men arrived in due date, and that, 
finding Tippu-Tib had broken faith, he began the move 
as he promised — he would be at Panga Falls ; but if 
the severe work has demoralized him, and he has de- 
moralized his carriers, well, then, he is stranded far 
below Panga Falls — probably at Wasp Rapids, probably 
at Mupe or at Banalya, or at Gwengwere Rapids — with 
but 100 despairing carriers and his Soudanese, and he is 
perforce compelled by the magnitude of his task to halt 
and wait. I have tried every possible solution, and this 
is the one on which my opinion becomes fixed." 

"Do you allow only 100 left? Surely that is very 
low. " 

" Why ? I estimate his loss at what we have lost 
— about 50 per cent. We have lost slightly less ; for 
from our original force of 389 souls there are 203 still 
alive : — 4 at Nyanza, 60 in the Fort, 119 going with me, 
and 20 couriers. 

" Yes ; but the Rear Column has not endured a 
famine such as we have had." 

" Nor have they enjoyed the abundance that we 
have fed upon for the last seven months, therefore we 
are perhaps equal. But it is useless to speculate further 
upon these points. 

" The success which was expected from my plans has 
eluded me. The Pasha never visited the south end of 
the Lake, as I suggested to him in my letter from 
Zanzibar. This has cost us four months, and of Barttelot 

Fort Bodo 


there is not a word. Our men have fallen by scores, 1888. 
and wherever I turn there is no comfort to be derived „Ju°i8- 
from the prospect. Evil hangs over this forest as a 
pall over the dead ; it is like a region accursed for 
crimes ; whoever enters within its circle becomes subject 
to Divine wrath. All we can say to extenuate any 
error that we have fallen into is, that our motives are 
pure, and that our purposes are neither mercenary nor 
selfish. Our atonement shall be a sweet offering, the 
performance of our duties. Let us bear all that may 
be put upon us like men bound to the sacrifice, without 
one thought of the results. Each day has its weight of 
troubles. Why should we think of the distresses of 
to-morrow ? Let me depart from you with the convic- 
tion that in my absence you will not swerve from your 
duty here, and I need not be anxious for you. If the 
Pasha and Jephson arrive with carriers, it is better for 
you, for them, and for me that you go ; if they do not 
come, stay here until my return. Give me a reasonable 
time, over and above the date— the 22nd of December; 
then if I return not, consult with your friends, and 
afterwards with your men, and do what is best and 
wisest. As for us, we shall march back to the place 
where Barttelot may be found, even as far as Yambuya, 
but to no place beyond, though he may have taken 
everything away with him down the Congo. If he has 
left Yambuya and wandered far away south-east instead 
of east, I will follow him up and overtake him, and 
will cut through the forest in the most direct way to 
Fort Bodo. You must imagine all this to have taken 
place if I do not arrive in December, and consider that 
many other things may have occurred to detain us 
before you yield to the belief that we have parted for 

The following is the letter of instructions to Lieut. 
Stairs : — 

" Fort Bodo, Central Africa, 
<i gjjj " Juiie \^th, 1888. 

" During my absence with the advance party of the Expedition, 
now about to return to the assistance of Major Barttelot and Bear 
VOL. I. E E 


1888. Column, I appoint you Commandant of Fort Bodo. 1 .eave with you a 
June 13. garrison, inclusive of sick, numbering nearly sixty rifles. The men 
Fort Bodo ^i^^^'^ly ^^^'6 i^ot of tlie calibre requisite for a garrison in a dangerous 
country. Still they can all shoot off their rifles, are in good condition, 
and you have abundance of ammunition. My principal reliance is on 
the Commandant himself. If tlie ciiief is active and wary, our fort is 
safe, and no combination of natives can oust the garrison from its shelter. 
I need not tell you that I leave you with confidence. 

" Kespecting the improvements to be made in the Fort, which I have 
verbally explained to you, I would suggest that as the Fort when 
completed will be more extensive tlian at present, you elect al>out 
twenty or thirty of the more decent and cleanly of the men to occupy the 
, buildmgs in the Fort, until such time as they are wanted for other 
persons, because — 

" 1st. You are in no danger, then, of being cut off by a daring foe from 
your garrison. 

" 2nd One-third of your men will be then within the gates ready at 
your most sudden call. 

"8rd. The buildings within the Fort will be kept dry and in a habit- 
able condition by being occupied. 

" Corn. Begin planting corn about July 15th. 1st July you should 
begin hoeing up, clearing the around. 

" Bananas. I am exceedingly anxious about the bananas. Twice a 
week there should be sent a strong patrol round the plantations to scare 
the natives, and also elephants. For the latter half-a-dozen fires at as 
many points might suffice. 

" An officer should be sent out with the patrol, to have a reliable 
report of what transpires; should he report the liananas as getting 
scanty, then you should begin rationing your people, always obtaining 
your supplies by detachments from the most distant points of the 
plantations. Let the bananas nearest the Fort reach maturity, just as 
you would your corn. Along the main roads it would also be well to 
Jeave plantations alone until they mature. 

" I leave Captain Nelson as second in command, to take charge when 
you are incapacitated by illness or accident. 

" Dr. T. H. Parke, A.M.D., remains here as surgeon to take charge of 
the sick. 

" It is, of course, impossible to say when we shall return, as we have 
not the least idea whereabouts the Bear Column is, but we shall do our 
best. If the Major is still at Yambuya, you may expect us in December 

" I expect Emin Pasha and Mr. Jephson in here about two months 
hence— say about the middle of August. 

" Should Mr. Jephson appear with a sufficient force of carriers, then I 
should recommend the evacuation of the Fort and take the garrison, and 
accompany Mr. Jephson to the Nyanza, and put yourself and force at the 
disposition of Emia Pasha until my return. As I come eastward I 
propose following a northerly and easterly track from the Nepoko and 
make for the Ituri ferry. 

" In order that on reaching the Ituri ferry I may know wliether you 
have evacuated the Fort or not, please remember that on the right bank 
of the river, near the ferry, there are a number of very tall trees, on 
which you could carve a number of broad arrows, which would indicate 
that you had passed. You could also carve date of crossing the Ituri on 
a conspicuous ]:)Iace near the ferry. This would save me a great deal of 
time and anxiety respecting you. 

" As our twenty couriers left here Ibth February, it will be four 


Fort Bodo, 


months, June 16th, since they left. Tf Jephson appears in about two i888. 
months, say, the time will then be about six months since the couriers June 13. 
left Fort Bodo — quite sufficient time to dispel all doubt about them. 

"I wish you and your associates good health and safe arrival at the 
Nyanza. On our part we will do our work with what celerity circum- 
stances will permit. 

" Yours faithfully, 
"(Signed) Henry M. Stanley, 

" Commanding E. P. K. Expedition. 
" To Lieut. W. G Stairs. 

" Commandant Fort Bodo." 




The Belief Force — The difficulties of marching — We reach Ipoto — 
Kilougo Longa apologises for the behaviour of his Manyuema — The 
chief returns us some of our rifles — Dr. Parke and fourteen men 
return to Fort Bodo — Ferrying across the Ituri river— Indications of 
some of our old camps — We unearth our buried stores — The 
Manyuema escort — Bridging the Lenda river — The famished Madi— 
Accidents and deaths among the Zanzibaris and Madi— My little 
fox-terrier " Eandy " — The vast clearing of Ujangwa — Native women 
guides— We reach Ugarrowwa's abandoned station — Welcome food 
at Amiri Falls — Navabi Falls — Halt at Avamburi landing-place — 
Death of a Madi chief — Our buried stores near Basopo unearthed 
and stolen — Juma and Nassib wander away from the column — The 
evils of forest marching — Conversation between my tent-boy, Sali, 
and a Zanzibar! — Numerous bats at Mabengu village — We reach 
Avisibba, and find a young Zanzibari girl — Nejambi Eapids and 
Panga Falls — The natives of Panga — At Mugwye's we disturb an 
intended feast— We overtake Ugarrowwa at Wasp Eajiids and find 
our couriers and some deserters in his camp — The head courier 
relates his tragic story — Amusing letter from Dr. Parke to Major 
Barttelot — Progress of our canoe flotilla down the river — The 
Batunda natives— Our progress since leaving the Nyanza — Thoughts 
about the Bear Column— Desolation along the banks of the river — 
We reach Baualya— Meeting with Bonny — The Major is dead — 
Banalya Camp. 

1888. ^^" the 16tli of June, in the early morning we set out 
June 16. from Fort Bodo towards Yambuya in excellent spirits, 
Koit Bodo. lQU(^iy cheered by the garrison and with the best wishes 
of the officers. We numbered 113 Zanzibaris, ninety-five 
Madi carriers, four of Emin Pasha's soldiers, two whites 
besides Dr. Parke and his little band of fourteen men, 
whose company we were to have as far as Ipoto. 
Indekaru was reached on the evening of the 17th, amid 
a heavy storm of rain. The next day was a halt to 
collect more plantains. On the 19th we camped at 
Ndugu-bisha, the day following at Nzalli's. We had by 
this time been ii^troduced to the difficulties of forest 



marching. The cries of the column leaders recalled most ihhs 
painfully what an absence of seven months had caused "'""^ '"*^ 
us almost to forget. 

" Red ants afoot ! Look out for a stump, ho ! Skewers ! 
A pitfall to right ! a burrow to left I Thorns, thorns, 
'ware thorns ! Those ants ; lo ! a tripping creeper, 
Nettles, 'ware nettles ! A hole ! Slippery beneath, 
beneath ! look out for mud ! A root ! Red ants ! red 
ants amarch ! Look sharp for ants 1 A log ! Skewers 
below ! " And so on from camp to camp; 

Most of the villages along this route still stood, but all 
awry and decaying ; reeling from rotten uprights, the 
eave corners on the ground, green mould covering the 
floors within, hollows filled with slime, and fungi 
flourishing along the sides, and nitrous excrescences 
abounding ; roofs covered with creepers, nettles, and 
prolific gourd vines — veritable nests of ague, into which, 
however, necessity compelled us and our men to seek 
shelter by reason of excessive fatigue, or imminence of a 

Mambungu's w^as reached on the 21st, and on the 
edge of the Busindi clearing we camped on the following 
day. After forty-seven hours marching' from Fort Bodo 
we entered the Arab settlement of Ipoto, where it will 
be remembered our people, maddened by distress of 
hunger, caused me such serious losses of arms and 
ammunition. But the change in their condition was so 
great, and their eyes flashed such lively glances of scorn 
at their tormentors, that in the afternoon Kilonga-Longa, 
with his head-men, dreading reprisal, began with many 
apologies for the behaviour of his Manyuema during his 
absence to extenuate the heinousness of their crimes, and 
to ofi'er to atone for them as well as he was able. 
Nineteen Remingtons were laid before me, out of thirty 
I knew to be in their possession. Six of these had been 
left as pledges of payment by myself, tw^o were given by 
Mr. Stairs acting in my name, one was sold by Captain 
Nelson, and ten were sold by Zanzibaris, besides eleven 
not yet recovered ; but out of 3000 cartridges and two 
entire cases these receivers of stolen goods purchased 


1888. from the starving Zanzibaris, only fifty were returned. 
June 21. ^Yi^atever fears the Manyuema may have felt, the fit time 
jpoto. £^^. reprisal and retaliation had not arrived, though fifty 
rifles could have captured the settlement easily, the 
majority of Kilonga-Longa's people being absent raiding 
eastward. We had far more important business afoot 
than the destruction of Ipoto, nor must it be forgotten 
that our little garrison at Fort Bodo was not so secure 
but that a few hundreds of men made desperate by their 
losses might not avenge themselves fully by a siege or 
midnight assault. 

We therefore, bending under the necessities of the 
ooeasion, accepted the rifles and gifts of goat and rice, 
and the Zanzibaris were permitted to sell such ivory as 
they had packed up for 100 pecks of rice, which to them 
was most welcome provender. 

The next day the chief returned two more rifles, but 
all my men being sufliciently armed, he was requested 
to retain them as pledges, in addition to the six 
remaining in his hands, for payment of ninety doti of 
cloth promised to him and his people for the grudging 
and scant sustenance given to Captain Nelson and Dr. 
Parke while they were compulsory guests of this ill- 
natured community. 

In the afternoon Dr. Parke and his little band of 
fourteen men commenced their return journey to Fort 
Bodo, conveying thirteen loads, and bearing the very 
last instructions I could give. 

On the 25 th June we set out from Ipoto accompanied 
by a guide and our escort of fifteen Manyuema, who w^ere 
ostentatiously detailed for this duty as far as the next 
Arab settlement, one of Ugarrowwa's outlying stations. 
We arrived at the Ituri River, and a canoe capable of 
carrying nine men was delivered over to us at 3 P.M. to 
serve as the means of ferriage. As one trip to the left 
bank and back occupied on an average twenty-three 
minutes, night fell before a half of our force was 

The work of ferrying was resumed early next morning, 
and continued until two o'clock, when every soul had 


crossed excepting the Manyuema escort whose fears that isss.^ 
•sudden vengeance would be inflicted on them, caused '^"°^.^J'" 
them to decline the venture they had been ordered to 

We were now fairly in the wide uninhabited wilder- 
ness through which last October the Expedition 
struggled, gaunt victims of a merciless famine. No 
consideration would have tempted us to a revisit of 
these dreadful shades, but that we fostered a lively 
hope that we should soon meet our returning couriers, 
who we expected would gratify us with news from the 
Major's column. Imbued with the fond belief that as 
they had not arrived at Ipoto we should meet them 
on this road — none other being known to them — we 
marched briskly from the landing-place, and in two and 
three-quarter hours reached the camp whence we had 
crossed over to the north bank on the 14th of October 
last. Indications of our stay here were yet fresh — the 
charcoal broad arrows drawn on the barked tree stemSj. • 
the lead pencil writing to Khamis Parry still plainly 

At 1.15 P.M. of the 28th we arrived at Nelson's camp, 
opposite the confluence of the Ihuru with the Ituri, a 
place which last October witnessed such death and 
agony, where poor Nelson sat so many hours, so many 
wretched days with ulcered feet, waiting anxiously the 
arrival of news from us, and where he was found by his 
friend Mounteney Jephson, haggard, and reduced by his 
feelings of forlornness and despair into a state of abject • 
helplessness, in the midst of his dying and dead 
companions. We had performed the march in twenty 
hours, or in four days inclusive of our detention while 
ferrying with one small craft. Last October, despite 
our strenuous endeavours, the same distance had occu- 
pied us thirty-nine hours' marching, or thirteen days 
inclusive of the halt ! The condition of the stomach 
made all this great difference. 

We found our caclte untouched, though we had strong 
doubts, and unearthed our buried stores which Jephson's 
relief party was unable to carry away. The ammunition, 


1888. made by Kynoch of Birmingliam, after eight months' 
June 28. j^^jpial ill thc saiicl, subject to tropic damp and an eternal 
Camp!"" rs-in, was not so much injured as we expected, a full 
eighty per cent, of it being still sound, and the well- 
waxed brass cases and copper caps yet exhibited their 
native brightness and gloss. Distributing 1,000 
rounds to the men for the refilling of their pouches, 
selecting such other articles as were useful, we made up 
eight loads, and after burying the rest as superfluous, 
we hurried away from the hateful spot, camping far 

Arriving at camp, we discovered four Madi carriers 
to have deserted with the kits of their Zanzibari mates. 
Had they known, what we could never forget, of the 
evil repute of this wilderness, they probably would have 
chosen the brawling river for their graves than the slow 
torture of famine in the ruthless forest. 

At sunset we were surprised to see the Manyuema 
escort reach our camp. They had fled to Kilonga 
Longa's, and that gentleman had sternly ordered them 
to follow us again, and not to return without a note 
reporting they had performed the duty on which they 
had been sent. 

On the 29th we left the river route and steered a 
south-westerly course through the pathless forest, in 
order to strike the road taken by Mr. Stairs' party on 
their return from Ugarrowwa's. As the head-man Rashid 
bin Omar was of our party, we presumed — as he asserted 
' his faith in himself — that he would recognize the path 
if it were shown to him, after which of course there 
would be no difficulty. The whole of the 29th and 30th 
were occupied in this south-westerly course undeviating. 
We meanwhile crossed several native paths, but as 
Rashid failed to recognize any of them, we continued on 
our way. On the 1st July, early in the morning's 
march, we entered the basin of the Lenda River, and 
then, as Rashid expressed himself of the opinion that 
we must have passed the path, we took a direct westerly 
course, steering straight on through the forest by 
compass. At noon of the 2ud we struck the Lenda 


River which generally flowed, as we observed during ihbs. 
the afternoon march of the 2nd and until noon of the ^"'^' ^ 
3rd, N.N.AV. Discovering a narrow chasm thirty yards ^i^gj 
wide through which the Lenda rushed furiously, we 
conceived it would be to our advantage to throw a 
bridge across this river, and trust to fortune showing us 
the path to Ugarrowwa's station on the other bank, 
rather than continue along the Lenda River on the right 
bank, lest we might be forced to wander for days 
without finding the means of crossing. Accordingly we 
selected three of the tallest trees, 115, 110, and 108 
feet respectively, which we managed to launch across the 
chasm, and these resting on stout forked uprights, with 
railings to steady the laden men, made a commodious 
and safe bridge. Early on the morning of the 5th the 
bridge was completed, and by ten o'clock every man was 
safe across. 

The Madi carriers having purposely scattered their 
corn provision along the road to lighten their loads, 
began now to pay the penalty of their wastefulness. 
Though the camp-crier cried out daily the number of 
days yet remaining for which the provisions must last, 
the ignorant savages were, however, too dense-headed 
to profit by the warning ; consequently we had a 
dozen feeble wretches already faltering in their gait. 
We were already short of seven — four of whom had 

We continued on the left bank our westerly course, and 
meantime crossed several native paths inclining S.E. and 
N.W., but we found none that can be made available 
for our necessity. 

On the 6th we stumbled across a clearing garnished 
with a small but thriving plantation of plantains. The 
famished Madis rushed on this supply like hungry wolves 
on their prey, and soon devoured the whole, but three 
of them trod on cunningly -hidden sharp-pointed skewers 
set in the ground. 

Through a pelting rain we travelled on the 7th, and, 
wet and miserable, camped in the bosom of untraversed 
woods. One hour's march next day brought us to the 



1888. small village of Balia, and five hours later halted for the 


July 7. jjjg}^^ a^J3 Bandeya. 

This day had been replete with miseries and singular 
accidents. A shower of cold rain fell on us after leaving 
Balia, and three of the naked Madis fell dead within a 
few paces of each other. At the first indications of this 
shower I had ordered a halt, and spread out about 150 
square feet of tenting, inviting everyone to huddle 
under it. The shower over, we rolled up the canvas 
and resumed the march, but we were still subject to the 
heavy cold dripping of the foliage. The Zanzibaris, more 
accustomed to it and in better condition of body, were 
not much inconvenienced ; but three Madis, depressed in 
mind, depleted in body, fell dead as suddenly as though 
shot. A Lado soldier of Emin Pasha's and a Zanzibari 
were skewered in the feet, and so crippled by these 
painful wounds that we were obliged to carry them. 
Near Bandeya another Madi native succumbed to 
illness caused by insufficient food, and a Zanzibari was 
shot by a bold and crafty dwarf with an arrow which 
penetrated between the ribs, but not to a fatal depth. 
Arriving at the village, my cook Hassan, in an unfortunate 
moment, while drawing his Winchester rifle towards him, 
caused it to explode, tearing a large portion of the 
muscles of the left arm ; and near midnight a youth 
named Amari, while blowing up to a brighter flame a 
watch-fire, was suddenly wounded in the head by a bullet 
from a Remington cartridge that some one had carelessly 
dropped near the embers. 

The next day, guided by some women who said they 
knew the way to Ugarrowwa's, there was a most tedious 
march through an immense clearing lately abandoned by 
the natives. None that I can remember was so full of 
vexations. It was a strained position at every stride we 
took — now treading on a slippery trunk which bridged a 
chasm bristling with dangers from a number of dead 
branches, their sharp points erected upwards threatening 
impalement to the unfortunate man who fell from such 
a height on them ; then balancing oneself on a log thrown 
across a rushing stream ; anon plunged into a brake 


suffocatingly close from tlie dense masses of myriads of 1888. 
creepers growing above and around ; soon stumbling J^ ^ " 
through a deep green slough, its depth hidden by "'^"^ 
floating vegetable parasites, then over a fearful array of 
logs, the relics of the old forest, and every step the 
difficulties" repeated until near noon we had traversed 
with streaming bodies the vast clearing of Ujangwa. 
On the confines of the virgin forest we formed camp, 
despatched the people to gather plantains and to prepare 
them as provisions for the few days yet remaining of the 

By solar observations I discovered we were in N. 
lat. 1° 0' 16", 

On the 10th I suspected we were taking a course 
which, if continued, would lead us not far from our camp 
of the 8th, but the Zanzibaris were so wedded to the 
belief that the natives knew their own country best, that 
in a fit of spleen I permitted them to rest in that 
opinion. About ten o'clock of the 11th we came upon 
the clearing and a little village we had left on the 
morning of the 8th. Thus we had made a complete 
circle, and in revenge for this the people demanded that 
the women should be slaughtered. Poor things, they 
had only acted according to their nature ! It is we who 
were in error in supposing that the natives would show 
us a way leading them further and further from their 
own country. AVere the faith continued in them they 
would have persisted in guiding us round about their 
clearings until they had dropped dead on their native 
earth. The women were therefore sent away home, 
and with compass in hand we steered a west by north 
course to strike the main road. We continued this course 
the whole of the 11th, and early next day succeeded in 
finding the path, which ran north by east. 

At nine o'clock of the 13th July we reached our old 
camp on the Ituri River, opposite Ugarrowwa's station, 
but the place, as we looked across the river, we found to 
be abandoned. Therefore no news could be obtained of 
our long absent carriers, or of the Major and his people. 
We resumed our march, our course being along the 


1888. Ituri Kiver, every mile, every creek, every crossing-place 
July 14. g^jj^ every camp, well known to us. 

Falls" The next day, rations all exhausted, Madis perishing 
by twos and threes daily, we reached Amiri Falls, No 
sooner was camp pitched than there was a rush for 
food. It was not to be obtained in the immediate 
vicinity, for Ugarrowwa's multitude of 600 people had 
preceded us and devoured every edible, and that the 
supply had been insufficient for them was evident by 
the number of skeletons in his old camp. Distance 
would not deter our fellows from the Nyanza ; they 
hastened onward, pursuing a track leading southward, 
until finally after some hours they reached a hill the 
base of which was one continuous thriving plantation of 
plantains. At a late hour in the night they brought 
the good new^s to camp, gratified our famished eyes 
with a view of the prodigious fruit, which caused us 
all to dream ecstatically on fruity banquets of which 
the mellow and flavoury plantain was the most con- 

Of course a halt at such a critical period within reach 
of such abundance was imperative, and at an early hour 
the camp was emptied of nearly every able hand, 
excepting sentries, to procure food. In the afternoon 
the well-furnished foragers returned, often in couples, 
with an immense bunch between them, like to the old 
engraving of Caleb and Joshua bearing the grapes of 
Eshcol. The more provident, however, bore larger 
quantities of the fruit, peeled and sliced, ready for 
drying, thus avoiding the superfluous stalk and 
plantain skin. During the absence of the foragers the 
weaker of the messes had erected the wooden grates 
and collected the fuel for the drying overnight. The 
fruit when thus dry could be converted into cakes, or 
palatable plantain porridge, or a morning's draught of 
plantain gruel. Many of the finest specimens were 
reserved to ripen to make a sweet pudding, or a sweet 
brew, or for sauce for the porridge. 

On the 16th July we resumed our march along the 
river, following our old road as closely as possible, and 


in seven hours reached the Little Rapids above Navabi 1888. 
Falls. On the next day passed Navabi Falls, and "'"'^ ^\ 
took a look at the place where we submerged our yalL' 
canoes, to discover that they had been taken away. 
Within four hours we arrived at our old camp at 
Avamburi landing-place. The path was now consider- 
ably improved, for nearly a thousand pairs of feet had 
trodden it since our two score of bill-hooks had first 
carved a passage through the bush. Many a skeleton 
lay along the road, and our moribund Madis were 
destined to add a few more to the number, for day by 
day they dropped down never to rise again. Nothing 
that we could say would prevail to induce them to 
provide provision for the morrow. Ten plantains they 
thought an inexhaustible stock, but the evening would 
find them hungering for more. The only other means 
left to save their lives was to halt as often as possible, 
to enable them to eat their fill. Accordingly we halted 
two days at Avamburi landing-place, to rest and comfort 
the drooping and dying Madis. 

On the 20th we marched for seven and a half hours, 
and camped a few miles above Bafaido Cataract, losing one 
Zanzibar! and four Madis en route. One of the latter 
was a chief among them, who suffered from a skewer 
wound in the foot. As we were starting he stated his 
intention to die on the spot, called his countrymen 
together, distributed his bracelets, anklets, shiny iron 
collars and ear-rings among th-em, and then lay down 
with a placid countenance, wherein not the slightest 
emotion was discernible. All this was very admirable, 
but it would have been still more admirable to have 
bravely struggled, than to have so doggedly died. 
Three hours later we discovered a canoe into which we 
were enabled to place a few weaklings. Before reaching 
camp we had found three canoes, into which we em- 
barked nearly all the ailing ones. It would have been 
cruel to have halted and sent back people for the Madi 
chief; besides there were many chances against our 
finding him alive, for as soon as the rearguard left the 
camp it was generally visited by hosts of natives, who 


1888. would feel no remorse for ending the feeble life of the 

July 21. g-^i^ man lag-ffinof behind the column. 

Cataract. 1^© uext day was a short march of two hours. 
Ugarrowwa had also halted at Bafaido Cataract, and for 
several days, judging from the elaborate arrangements 
of his large camp, which from a distance appeared like a 
large town, occupying the extremity of the river-head 
terminated by the cataract. Before arriving at Hippo 
Broads we were in possession of four canoes. On the 
next day, lunching at the cataract camp, where we buried 
our shovels and some articles which our weakening 
force could not carry, we examined the cache, and 
discovered that the deserters had unearthed the ten 
tusks of ivory, and the natives had possessed themselves 
of all the remaining articles. Late in the afternoon we 
camped at Basopo Cataract. Between the two cataracts 
the Zanzilmris discovered several canoes hidden away in 
the creeks emptying into the Ituri, and joyfully, but 
most recklessly, embarked in them, and notwithstanding 
their knowledge of the dangerous channels of the 
Basopo Cataract, continued on their course down the 
furious stream, which caused us the loss of a Zanzibari 
and a boy belonging to the soldiers of Emin Pasha. In 
the capsized canoe were also two of the Pasha's soldiers, 
both of whom lost their rifles and their kit, and barely 
escaped with their lives. 

Two Zanzibaris, called Juma and Nassib, wandered 
away from the column and were missing this day, and 
we were therefore obliged to halt on the 24th to send 
out a party to hunt for them. In the afternoon the 
party returned unsuccessful, but an hour later we were 
startled to hear a bullet hissing over our heads. A 
search was made, and the culprit was found to be 
Nassib, who, accompanied by his friend Juma, was 
returning to camp, and who informed us that he had 
seen one of our people in the bush just outside the 
camp, and had fired at him, supposing him to be a 
prowling native. He still more astonished us when he 
related that the cause of his parting from the column 
was that he and Juma had seen some fine plantains in a 


plantation, and had sat down to peel and* dry a supply 1888. 
for the road. This had consumed some eighteen hours ^"'^ ^'^ 
at least, and they say that when they sought the road catarrct 
they could not find the track of 200 men. It is 
difficult to decide which compelled most admiration, the 
folly of these two third-rate men sitting calmly down 
in the midst of a plantation belonging to ferocious 
cannibals, who generally closed the rear of the columns 
to avenge themselves on the stragglers, or the alarm 
which in this solitary instance possessed the natives. 

On the 25 th we camped above the Little Rapids of 
Bavikai, and on the next day entered the populous 
district of Ave-jeli, opposite the mouth of the Nepoko 
affluent, taking our quarters in the village where 
Dr. Parke so successfully amputated the foot of an 
unfortunate Zanzibari thirteen months before. 

I was never so sensible of the evils of forest marching 
as on this day. My own condition of body was so 
reduced, owing to the mean and miserable diet of vege- 
tables on which I was forced to subsist, that I was more 
than usually sympathetic. At this time there were 
about thirty naked Madis in the last stages of life ; their 
former ebon black was changed to an ashy grey hue, 
and all their bones stood out so fearfully prominent as 
to create a feeling of wonder how such skeletons were 
animated with the power of locomotion. Almost every 
individual among them w^as the victim of some hideous 
disease, and tumours, scorched backs, foetid ulcers, were 
common ; while others were afflicted with chronic dysen- 
tery and a wretched debility caused by insufficient food. 
A mere glance at them, with the mal-odour generated by 
ailments, caused me to gasp from a spasm of stomach 
sickness. With all this, the ground was rank with 
vegetable corruption, the atmosphere heated, stifling, 
dark and pregnant with the seeds of decay of myriads 
of insects, leaves, plants, twigs and branches. At every 
pace my head, neck, arms or clothes was caught by a 
tough creeper, calamus thorn, coarse briar, or a giant 
thistle-like plant, scratching and rending whatever 
portion they hooked on. Insects also of numberless 


1888. species lent their aid to increase my misery, especially 
July 26 ^j^g polished black ant, which affects the trumpet tree. 
^^'"'* '■ As we marched under the leaves these ants contrived to 
drop ou the person, and their bite was more vexatious 
than a wasp's or red ant's ; the part bitten soon swelled 
largely, and became white and blistery. I need not 
name the other species, black, yellow and red, which 
crossed the path in armies or clung to almost every plant 
and fed on every tree. These offensive sights and 
odours we met day after day, and each step taken was 
fraught with its own particular evil and annoyance, but 
with my present fading strength and drooping spirits, 
they had become almost unbearable. My mind suffered 
under a constant strain of anxiety respecting the fate of 
my twenty choice men which were despatched as couriers 
to the rear column under Major Barttelot, as well as of 
the rear column itself. I had had no meat of any kind, 
of bird or beast, for nearly a month, subsisting entirely 
on bananas or plantains, which, however varied in their 
treatment by the cook, failed to satisfy the jaded 
stomach. My muscles had become thin and flabby, and 
were mere cords and sinews, every limb was in a tremor 
while travelling, and the vitals seemed to groan in anguish 
for a small morsel of meat. 

At camp I overheard a conversation carried on 
between my tent-boy Sali and another Zanzibari. The 
boy was saying that lie believed the "Master" would 
not last long, how he had observed that his powers were 
declining fast. " Please God," said the other, " we shall 
find goats or fowls in a few days. It is meat he needs, 
and he shall get it if Ugarrowwa has not cleared out the 

" Ah," said Sali, " if the Zanzibaris were men instead 
3f being brutes, they would surely share with the master 
what meat they get wdiile foraging. Do they not use 
his guns and cartridges, and are they not paid wages for 
using them. I can't understand why they should not 
share what they obtain with the master's own rifles." 

" There are few here so wicked as not to do it — if they 
get anything worth sharing," replied the other. 



*' But I know better," said Sali. " Some of the issa. 
Zanzibaris find a fowl or a goat almost every day, but I '^^"'^,^^; 
do not see any of them bringing anything to the master." 

At this juncture I called out to Sali, and enjoined him 
to tell me all he knew. By dint of questioning, the fact 
was elicited that there was some truth in what he 
had stated. Two of the Zanzibar! chiefs, Murabo, of 
Bumbire fame, and Wadi Mabruki, had discovered a 
goat and three fowls on the 25th, and had secretly eaten 
them. This was one of the first instances of signal 
ingratitude discovered in these two men. From this day 
the effect of the disclosure resulted in obtaining a share 
in the spoils. Three fowls were delivered to me before 
evening, and a few days later I had regained normal 
strength. This happy result in my own case proved 
what the needs of the poor naked Madis were. 

A heavy stock of provisions of dried plantains was 
prepared at Ave'-jeli, and our increasing flotilla of canoes 
enabled us to embark all our Madis, baggage, and half 
of the Zanzibari force. 

We formed our next day's camp near Avugadu Rapids, 
and on the 27th passed the canoes over the rapids, and 
halted for the night a few miles below. 

We lunched at our old camp, where I remained so 
many days while waiting and searching for the lost 
Expedition in August, '87, on the 30th July, and took 
up our night's quarters at Mabengu village. 

At this village we observed about sunset an immense 
number of large bats, called " popo " in Swahili, sailing 
over our heads to their night roosts across the river. A 
thin riband of sky was alone visible above where I stood, 
and I counted 680 of the number that flew within view. 
As the army of bats must have spread over several 
miles of the forest, a rough approximation of the many 
thousands that were flying may be made. 

On the last day of July we reached Avisibba, famous 
for its resistance to our advance column last year, and 
for the fatal eflfects of the poisoned arrows employed in 
the conflict. In one of the huts we found the top of one 
of our tent-poles, wrapped carefully in leaves, with a 

VOL. I. F F 


1888. small piece of cartridge paper, a bit of green velvet from 

July 31. Q^j. instrument case, and the brass case of a 

Remington cartridge. The curious package was hung up 

to one of the rafters, and probably consecrated to some 


In another hut we discovered a collar of iron rings, 
and ten unfired cartridge cases. These last must have 
belonged to one of our unfortunate deserters, whose flesh 
must have simmered in a pot over a fire and formed a 
family repast. An old jacket was also picked up later, 
which deepened the probability. 

Shortly after landing at the village a little naked girl 
about eight years old walked composedly into view and 
surprised us all by addressing us in the Zanzibari lan- 

She cried out, "It is true, then ? I heard a gunshot, 
and I said to myself while in my hiding-place, these 
must be my own people, and I will go and see them, 
for the Pagans have no guns." 

She gave her name as " Hatuna-mgini " (we have no 
other), and related that she and five full-grown women 
were abandoned by Ugarrowwa at that place because 
they were very sick, and that soon after Ugarrowwa had 
departed with his large flotilla of canoes the natives 
rushed in and killed the five women, but that she had 
run away and hidden herself, where she had remained 
ever since, living on raw wild fruit, but in the night 
she had succeeded in gathering bananas, which, when 
ripe, she could eat uncooked, since no fire was possible. 
Ugarrowwa had had a skirmish with the Avisibbas, 
in which he had killed a great number. He had stayed 
here five days preparing food, and had departed many 
days — "more than ten days." 

A march of four and a half hours to Engweddc', and 
another of seven and a half hours, took us to a camp 
opposite an island occupied by the Bapaiya fishermen, 
a few miles above the Nejambi Rapids. Rifles, accoutre- 
ments, were disembarked, and the canoemen were 
ordered to pass their canoes down the left branch. 
While the land party was engaged in the portage, the 



majority of the canoemen preferred to take tte right issa 
branch, in which act of disobediance the Zanzibari chief f ''^^^^' 
and five Madis lost their lives, one canoe was lost, and 
two others capsized, but afterwards recovered. A 
Zanzibari named Salim was so bruised and battered 
by the flood sweeping him against the rocks that he 
was unable to walk for nearly a month afterwards. 

About 3 P.M. we resumed our journey, and arrived 
about 5 P.M. at Panga Falls. Leaving a detachment 
of them to guard the canoes, we formed camp below 
the Falls. The land party succeeded in finding a small 
supply of Indian corn, which, converted into meal, 
made me a porridge. supper. 

A downpour of rain, commencing at midnight and 
continuing until 1 p.m. of the 5th of August, much 
impeded our work, but by night we had our flotilla 
of nineteen canoes safe below the Falls, in front of our 

The natives of Panga had betaken themselves into 
an island near the right bank, with all their goats, 
fowls, and other property, but they had left several 
nets and wires within reach in the various branches 
on our side, whence we obtained some fine large fish. 
The natives were practically safe, inasmuch as no body 
of men with other business in view would incur the 
trouble of molesting them. They, however, manifested 
most plausibly a desire to make terms of amity with us 
by pouring water on their heads and sprinkling their 
bodies with it, and some of our men good-naturedly 
approached their island and responded reciprocally. 
The daring natives pushed across the cataract, and 
one of them contrived to draw himself unperceived 
near one of our men, and stabbed him in the back, 

A halt was ordered the next day, and a band of forty 
men proceeded inland to forage, returning towards 
night, each with a load of eatables ; but one of their 
number, a Madi, received a severe wound in the back 
with an arrow. 

Our old camp opposite the confluence of the Ngula 
River and the Ituri was reached on the 7th in two and 


1888. a half hours by the canoes, but the land party occupied 
Aug. 8. eigi^t hours in marching the distance, which I estimated 
banga's. ^^ clcven uiilcs. 

At Mambanga's on the north bank, which we reached 
the next day, we found a good supply of food, but a 
Zanzibari named Jaliffi was seriously wounded with a 
wooden arrow in the chest. A portion an inch and a 
half long was imbedded in the wounded part, which 
incapacitated him from duty for over two months. On 
the point of the arrow being ejected, the wound soon 

At Mugwye's — or My-yui — the next place, a great 
change had occurred. All the villages were obliterated 
by fire, and the fine plantain plantations cut down, and 
at Mugwye's own village there stood an immense camp. 
Believing that Ugarrowwa was present, we fired a signal 
shot, but no answer being returned, we proceeded to 
our old camp on the left bank, where on one of the 
trees Lieutenant Stairs had carved the date " July 31st " 
(1887) for the benefit of the Major. 

Arriving at our old camp, we were surprised to see 
the body of a woman belonging to Ugarrowwa's, freshly 
killed and washed, laid out on the bank close to the 
river, and near by three bunches of plantains, two 
cooking-pots, and a canoe capable of carrying five 
people. It was evident to us that a party of natives 
hearing the signal shot, had decamped, and had been 
obliged to abandon their intended feast. 

A party of men was sent across the river to recon- 
noitre, and in a short time they came back reporting 
that Ugarrowwa must have departed that same morning 
down the river. This was very regrettable to me, as I 
burned to ascertain what he had heard of the news from 
down river, and I also wished to beg of him not to 
ravage the country for the benefit of succeeding caravans, 
which would suffer serious loss from the wholesale havoc 
and devastation attending his journey. 

On the 10th of August I delivered over to the care 
of the senior Zanzibar chief, Rashid, thirty-five of the 
ablest of our men, with a charge to pursue our old track 


along the river as I intended to descend tlie river with isss. 
our canoe flotilla without a halt as far as Wasp Rapids, "^"^' ^^; 
where no doubt we should overtake Ugarrowwa, and "swye& 
where we should stay together until he should reach us. 
At 6.40 A.M. w^e set out, and, paddling vigorously, 
were in the neighbourhood of Wasp Rapids at 11 a.m. 
Long before we heard the roar of the rushing river over 
the rocky reefs which obstruct its course there, we 
descried an immense camp on the right bank, and in a 
short time the forms of men in white dresses moving 
about the bush. When we had approached within rifle 
range we fired some signal shots and hoisted our flag, 
which was no sooner seen than the deep boom of 
heavily-loaded muskets announced that we were re- 
cognized. Soon several large canoes pushed from the 
right bank towards us, as w^e were descending along the 
left bank, and hailed us in the Swahili language. After 
the usual exchange of compliments we then asked the 
news, and to our great joy, not unmixed with grief, we 
learned that our couriers, who had now been absent 
from us nearly six months, were in Ugarrowwa's camp. 
The couriers had left Lieutenant Stairs at Ugarrowwa's 
station on the 16th of March, and had reached Wasp 
Rapids in seventeen days, or on the 1st of April, where 
they had been driven back with a loss of four of their 
number. Perceiving that they were unable to pierce 
through the hostile crowds, they had travelled back to 
Ugarrowwa's station, which they reached on the 26 th of 
April, and where they placed themselves in Ugarrowwa's 
hands. A month later, Ugarroww^a, having collected 
his people from the outlying stations, commenced his 
descent of the Ituri River, our couriers accompanying 
him, reaching Wasp Rapids on the 9 th of August, 
having been seventy-six days en route. That same 
period we had occupied in travelling from the Albert 
Nyanza, the lOtli of August being the twenty-ninth 
day since we had left Ugarrowwa's old station. 

After forming our camp on the left bank in the 
deserted village of Bandeyah, opposite the camp of 
Ugarrowwa's, in the deserted village of Bandekiya, the 


1888. surviving couriers, accompanied by Ugarrowwa and his 
Aug. 11. ijgad men, visited us. Amid a deep silence the head 

a° eya. ^^^^ related his tragic story : 

" Master, when you called for volunteers to bear your 
letter to the Major, there was not a man of us but 
intended to do his very best, knowing that we were all 
to receive a high reward and great honour if we succeeded. 
We have done our best, and we have failed. We have, 
therefore, lost both reward and honour. It is the men 
who have gone with you to the Nyanza and found the 
Pasha, and can boast of having seen him face to face, 
who deserve best at your hands. But if we have not 
succeeded in finding the Major and gladdening his heart 
with the good news we had to tell, God he knows it has 
not been through any fault of our own, but rather 
because it is His will that we should not do so. We 
have lost four of our number, and I am the only one 
who cannot show a wound received during the journey. 
We have two, who though alive, seem to be incurable 
from the poison in their blood. Some of our men have 
as many as five arrow wounds to show you. As far as 
Avisibba we came down the river smoothly enough, but 
then the sharp work soon commenced. At Engwedde 
two were wounded. At Panga Falls three men were 
most seriously hurt by arrows. Between Panga Falls 
and here was a continued fight day after day, night 
after nio;ht ; the natives seemed to know Ion a: before we 
reached them our full strength, and set on us either in 
full daylight or in the darkness, as though resolved to 
exterminate us. Why they should show so much courage 
with us when they had shown themselves so cowardly 
when we went up with you, I cannot say, unless our 
deserters, coming down river by half-dozens, have enabled 
the Pagans to taste the flavour of Zanzibari blood, and 
they having succeeded so well with them, imagined they 
could succeed with us. However, when we reached this 
village wherein you are now encamped, there were only 
eleven of us fit for anything ; all the rest were sore from 
their wounds and one was helpless ; and soon after 
our coming the fight began in real earnest. Those 


from that great village opposite us joined with the isae, 
natives of Bandeya ; the river seemed to swarm with ^"^' ^^' 
canoes, and the bush around this village was alive with **" ^^^ 
natives. After an hour's trial, during which time many 
of them must have been killed, for they were so crowded, 
especially on the river, we were left in peace. We 
availed ourselves in fortifying, as well as we could, the 
few huts we had selected for our quarters during the 

" When night fell we placed sentries as usual, as you 
and Lieut. Stairs and Ugarrowwa, all of you, enjoined 
on us ; but, wearied with work and harassed by care, 
our sentries must have slept, for the first thing we 
knew was that the natives had pulled down our zeriba 
and entered into the camp, and a wild cry from a man 
who received a fatal thrust with a spear woke us up to 
find them amongst us. We each grasped our rifles and 
fired at the nearest man, and six of them fell dead at 
our feet. This for a moment paralysed them ; but we 
heard a chief's voice say, * These men have run away 
from Bula Matari. Not one of them must live.' Then 
from the river and the bush they came on in dense 
crowds, which the flashes of our rifles' fire lit up, and 
their great numbers seemed for a short time to frighten 
the best of us. Lakkin, however, who is never so 
funny as when in trouble, shouted out, * These fellows 
have come for meat — give it them, but let it be of their 
own people,' and wounded men and all took their rifles 
and took aim as though at a target. How many of 
them fell I cannot say ; but when our cartridges were 
beginning to run low they ran away, and we were left 
to count the dead around us. Two of our men never 
answered to their names, a third called Jumah, the son 
of Nassib, called out to me, and when I went to him I 
found him bleeding to death. He had just strength 
enough to charge me to give the journey up. * Go 
back,' said he. ' I give you my last words. Go back. 
You cannot reach the Major ; therefore whatever you do, 
go back to Ugarrowwa's.' Having said this, he gave 
up his last breath, and rolled over, dead. 


1888. " In the morning we buried our own people, g.nd around 
Ang 11. Q^p zeriba there were nine natives dead, while within 
^^^" there were six. We beheaded the bodies, and after 
collecting their heads in a heap, held council together as 
to the best course to follow. There were seventeen of 
us alive, but there were now only four of us untouched 
by a wound. Jumah's last words rung in our ears like a 
warning also, and we decided to return to Ugarrowwa's. 
It was easier said than done. I will not weary you 
with details — we met trouble after trouble. Those who 
were wounded before were again wounded with arrows ; 
those who were unwounded did not escape — not one 
excepting myself, who am by God's mercy still whole. 
A canoe was capsized and we lost five rifles. Ismail ia 
was shot dead at Panga Falls. But why need we say 
over again what I have already said ? We reached 
Ugarrowwa's after an absence of forty-three days. There 
were only sixteen of us alive, and fifteen of us were 
wounded. Let the scars of those wounds tell the rest 
of the story. We are all in God's hands and in yours. 
Do with us as you see fit. I have ended my words." 

Among those who heard this dreadful story of trials 
for the first time there was scarcely a dry eye. Down 
many faces the tears ran copiously, and deep sighs and 
ejaculations of pity gushed from the sympathetic hearts. 
When the speaker had finished, before my verdict was 
given, there was a rush towards him, and hands 
stretched out to grasp his own, while they cried out 
with weeping eyes, " Thank God ! thank God ! You 
have done bravely ; yes, you have shown real worth, and 
the mettle of men." 

It was thus we welcomed our long-lost couriers, 
whose fate had been ever in our minds since our 
departure from Fort Bodo. They had been singularly 
unsuccessful in the object of their mission, but somehow 
they could not have been more honoured by us had 
they returned with letters from the Major. The story 
of their efforts and their sufferings was well told, and 
was rendered more effective and thrilling by the sight 
of the many wounds each member of the gallant band 


had received. Through the kindness of Ugarrowwa, 188& 
whose sympathies had been won by the same sad but bJJJ'^JJ^ 
brave story, their wounds had soon healed, with the 
exception of two, who though now only greatly scarred 
were constantly ailing and weak. I may state here 
that one finally recovered in the course of two months 
his usual strength, the other in the same time faded 
away and died. 

In Ugarrowwa's camp were also discovered three 
famous deserters, and two of our convalescents who 
were absent foraging during Lieut. Stairs' visit. One 
of these deserters had marched away with a box of 
ammunition, another had stolen a box containing some 
of Emin Pasha's boots and a few pairs of my own. 
They had ventured into a small canoe which naturally 
was capsized, and they had experienced some remark- 
able hair-breadth escapes before they arrived at Ugar- 
rowwa's. They had been delivered as prisoners to 
Lieut. Stairs, but a few days later, they again escaped 
to Ugarrowwa's, who was again induced to deliver them 
up to me. These two afterwards behaved exceedingly 
well, but the third, while a victim to small-pox, some few 
weeks later, escaped from the care of his friends and 
leaped into the Nejambi Rapids, where he was drowned. 

Ugarrowwa, being out of powder, was more than 
usually kind. A notable present of four goats, four 
sacks of rice, and three large canoes was made to me. 
The goats and rice, as may be imagined, were very 
welcome to us, nor were the canoes a despicable gift, as 
I could now treble the rate of our descent down the 
river ; for in addition to our own canoes the entire Ex- 
pedition of 130 fighting men, boys, followers, and Madi, 
carriers, besides the baggage could be embarked. 

No news had been obtained of our Rear Column by 
either the couriers or Ugarrowwa. The letter to the 
Major, which I had delivered to Ugarrowwa for despatch 
by his couriers last September, was now returned to, 
me with the letters from my own couriers. He had 
sent forty-five men down the river, but at Manginni, 
about half-way between Wasp Rapids and My-yui, they 


1888. had been obliged to return. Thus both efforts to com 
Aug. 11. niunicate with Major Barttelot had been unsuccessful 
^^' and could not but deepen the impression that something 
exceedingly awry had occurred with the Rear Column. 
Among the letters delivered to me by Ugarrowwa was 
one open. It is descriptive and amusing, and char 
acteristic of our Doctor : — 

"Fort Bodo, 
« Mt dear old Barttelot, " 1^^^ February, 1888. 

" I hope you are ' going strong,' and Jameson ' pulling double.' 
None of us here have any idea where you are. Some of us officers 
and men say you are on the way up river, others say you are still at 
Yambuya, unable to move with a large number of loads, and amongst 
the men there is an idea that your Zanzibaris may have gone over to 
Tippu Tib. Stanley reached the Lake 14th December, 1887, but could 
not communicate with Emin Pasha. As he had not got his boat, he 
then came back from the Lake into the bush, and made this fort to store 
his baggage, while he again goes on to the Lake with Jephson and boat. 
Stairs goes to Ugarrowwa's to-morrow with twenty men, who are to go 
on to you and who bring this letter. Stairs returns here with about 
forty or fifty men who were left at Ugarrowwa's, and then goes on after 
Stanley, as the place is only 80 or 100 miles from the Lake. I am to stay 
at this fort with forty or fifty men. Nelson, who has been ailing for 
months, therefore also remains here. We had an awful time coming 
here. I often said I was starved at school, but it was stuffing compared 
with what we have gone through. I am glad to say all the white men 
are very fit, but the mortality amongst the men was enormous, something 
like 50 per cent. Up to Ugarrowwa's there is plenty of food, but little 
or none along the river this side of Ugarrowwa's. Stanley, I know, is 
writing you all about tlie starvation and the road. To-day, Stanley fell 
in all the men, and asked them all if they wanted to go to the Lake ergo 
back for you. Most of the men at first wanted to go back, but after- 
wards the majority were for the Lake ; both Stairs, Jephson, and myself 
were for the Lake, so as to decide if Emin Pasha was alive or not, so as 
not to bring your colmnn up all this way and then go back to Muta 
Nzig6. All the men are as fat as butter, some of them, however, who 
stayed with me at an Arab camp for three months, where I was left to 
look after Nelson, and sick men, and boxes, etc., are reduced to skin and 
bone. Out of thirty-eight, eleven died of starvation. Stairs was the only 
officer wounded, but many of the men died from their wounds. 

" We are all in a bad way for boots ; none of us have a good pair. I 
have made two pairs, but they did not last long, and all my clothes have 
been stolen by ' Kehani,' a Zanzibari. Stanley has had me working 
hard all day, and I have only time to write these few lines as the sun 
is going down. Our party have lost and sold a great quantity of 

" Give my best wishes to old Jameson, also the other fellows whom I 
know ; and hoping to see you up here before long, 

" Believe me, yours very sincerely, 
"J. H. P. 

** We are all awfully sick of this ' bush' ; it continues to within a few 
miles of the Lake." 


The next day was a halt. The senior Chief Rashid isss. 
and his land party did not arrive before 2 p.m. of the ^^^- *^ 
11th. The current had carried our flotilla in five hours, ^^*"°*''' 
a journey which occupied him fifteen hours' march. But 
on the 12th of August, having safely passed the canoes 
below the rapids, we embarked at noon and proceeded 
down river. Opposite Elephant-playground camp we 
met one of Ugarrowwa's scouting canoes ascending, the 
men of which related wonderful stories of the strength, 
fierceness, and boldness of the Batundu natives. Two 
hours later the Batundu drums announced our advent 
on the river ; but when their canoes advanced to reckon 
the number of our vessels, they quietly retired, and we 
occupied their chief village in peace, and slept undis- 
turbed during the night. 

At S. Mupe' we arrived on the 13th, and halted one 
day to prepare food for our further journey down river, 
but on the next day, the 15th, we passed the flotilla 
safely down the various rapids, and camped below the 
lowest Mariri Eapids. 

Resuming the journey on the 16th, we floated and 
paddled past three of our land march camps, and on a 
large island possessing huts sufiicient to accommodate 
2,000 people we halted for the night. Both banks of 
the river were unpeopled and abandoned, but no one 
could impart any reason for this wholesale devastation. 
Our first thought was that our visit had perhaps caused 
their abandonment, but as the natives had occupied 
their respective villages in view of the rear guard, we 
concluded that probably some internecine war was the 

This day was the eighty-third since we had departed •. 
from the shores of the Albert Nyanza, and the sixtieth 
since we had left Fort Bodo. Our progress had been 
singularly successful. Of the naked Madi carriers we 
had lost a great many, nearly half of the number that 
we had departed from the Nyanza with ; but of the 
hardened and acclimatised Zanzibaris we had lost but 
three, two of whom were by drowning, and one was 
missing through a fit of spleen. Five hundred and 



1888. sixty miles of tlie journey had been accomplished, 
Ang. 16. ^Y^Q^Q vfQVQ Only ninety miles remaining between Bun- 
° gangeta Island and Yambuya, yet not a rumour of any 

kind had been heard respecting the fate of our friends 
and followers of the rear column. This constant and un- 
satisfied longing, pressing on my mind with a weight as 
of lead, with the miserable unnourishing diet of dry plan- 
tains, was fast reducing^me into an aged and decrepit state 
of mind and body. That old buoyant confident feeling 
which had upheld me so long had nearly deserted me 
quite. I sat near sunset by the waterside alone, watching 
the sun subside lower and lower before the horizon of black 
foliage that bounded Makubana, the limits of my view. 
I watched the ashen grey clouds preceding the dark calm 
of night, and I thought it represented but too faithfully 
the melancholy which I could not shake off". This day 
was nearly twelve months from the date the rear column 
should have set out from Yambuya — 365 days. "Within 
this period 100 carriers only might have been able to 
have advanced as far as Bungangeta, even if they had to 
make seven round trips backwards and forwards ? What 
could possibly have happened except wholesale desertion 
caused by some misunderstanding between the ofiicers 
and men ? In the darkness I turned into my tent, but 
in my nervous and highly-strung state could find no 
comfort there ; and at last I yielded and implored the all- 
seeing and gracious Providence to restore to me my 
followers and companions, and allay the heartache that 
was killing me. 

At the usual hour on the 17th, we embarked in our 
canoes and resumed our journey down the river, paddling 
languidly as we floated. It was a sombre morning ; a 
heavy greyness of sky painted the eternal forest tops of 
a sombrous mourning colour. As we glided past 
Bungangeta district we observed that the desolation had 
not been confined to it, but that Makubana also had 
shared the same fate ; and soon after coming in view oi. 
the mighty curve of Banalya, which south or left bank 
had been so populous, we observed that the district of 
the Banalya had also been included. But about half- 



past nine we saw one village, a great way do-wn through 
the light mist of the morning, still standing, which 
we supposed was the limit of the devastation. But as 
we drew near we discovered that it had a stockade. In 
July 1887, when we passed up, Banalya was deemed too 
powerful to need a stockade. Presently white dresses 
were seen, and quickly taking up my field glass, I 
discovered a red flag hoisted. A suspicion of the truth 
crept into my mind- A light puif of wind unrolled the' 

Aog. 17 


flag for an instant, and the white crescent and star wa^! 
revealed. I sprang to my feet and cried out, "The 
Major, boys I Pull away bravely." A vociferous shout- 
ing and hurrahing followed, and every canoe shot forward 
at racing speed. 

About 200 yards from the village we stopped paddling, 
and as I saw a great number of strangers on the shore, 
I asked, " Whose men are you ? " " We are Stanley's 
men," was the answer delivered in mainland Swahill 


1888. But assured by this, and still more so as we recognised 

An?. 17. ^ European near the gate, we paddled ashore. The 

ana ya. j^^j.Qpgg^jj qj^ ^ nearer view turned out to be Mr. William 

Bonny, who had been engaged as doctor's assistant to 

the Expedition. 

Pressing his hand, I said, 

" Well, Bonny, how are you ? Where is the Major \ 
Sick, I suppose ? " 

" The Major is dead, sir." 

" Dead ? Good God ! How dead ? Fever ? " 

*' No, sir, he was shot." 

*' By whom 1 " 

" By the Manyuema — Tippu-Tib's people." 

*' Good heavens ! Well, where is Jameson ? " 

" At Stanley Falls." 

*' What is he doing there, in the name of goodness ? ** 

*' He went to obtain more carriers." 

" Well then, where is Mr. Ward, or Mr. Troup ? " 

" Mr. Ward is at Ban gala." 

*' Bangala ! Bangala ! what can he be doing there ? ** 

" Yes, sir, he is at Bangala, and Mr. Troup has been 
invalided home some months ago." 

These queries, rapidly put and answered as we stood 
by the gate at the water side, prepared me to hear as 
deplorable a story as could be rendered of one of the 
most remarkable series of derangements that an organized 
body of men could possibly be plunged into. 

Despite Mr. Bonny's well written report of the events 
which had occurred, it was many days before I could 
find time to study and understand the details. The 
strangers I had observed belonged to Tippu-Tib, and 
they now pressed congratulations upon our arrival, and 
our people hurrying in through the narrow gate with 
the baggage from the canoes, bawling out recognition 
of their friends, leaping with joy, or howling with grief, 
made Banalya Camp indescribably tumultuous. 

Let us imagine the baggage stored orderly, the 
canoes lashed to stakes firmly driven in the bank, the 
congratulations of the strangers over, the Zanzibaris of 
the advance column departed from our immediate 


vicinity to seek their long-lost friends and to hear the isss. 
news, the Soudanese and Zanzibar! survivors of the ^'^^' ^^' 
rear column having uttered their fervid thanks that we "^ ^* 
had at last — at last, thank God — come, and such letters 
as had arrived hastily read, despatches hastily written, 
sent by couriers to Stanley Falls, one for Tippu-Tib 
himself, and one for the Committee of the Relief Fund, 
and we shall be at liberty to proceed with the story o 
the rear column, as gathered from Mr. Bonny's reports 
oral and written, and from the surviving Soudanese 
soldiers and Zanzibaris, and we shall then see how the 
facts differed or agreed with our anticipations. 





Tippu-Tib — Major E. M. Barttelot — Mr. J. S. Jameson— Mr. Herbert 
Ward — Messrs. Troup and Bonny — Major Barttelot's Report on the 
doings of tlie rear column — Conversation with Mr. Bonny — Major 
Barttelot s letter to Mr. Bonny— Facts gleaned from the wr.tteu 
narrative of Mr. Wm. Bonny— Mr. Ward detained at Bangala — 
Repeated visits of the Major to Stanley Falls— Murder of Major 
Barttelot — Bonny's account of the murder — The assassin Sanga is 
punished — Jameson dies of fever at Bangala Station — Meeting of 
the advance and roar columns — Dreadful state of the camp — Tippu- 
Tib and Major Barttelot — ^Mr. Jameson— Mr. Herbert Ward's report. 

The principal characters of tlie following narrative 
are : — 

First. Tippu-Tib, alias Sheikh Hamed bin Mohammed, 
a man who is a native of the East Coast of Africa, of Arab 
descent. He has thousands of men under his command. 
He is a renowned slave trader, with a passion for extend- 
ing his conquests and traffic in ivory and slaves, who, 
while meditating war against an infant State lately 
created in Africa, is persuaded to agree to a peace pact, 
to confine his destructive raids within certain limits, and, 
finally, to lend the services of 600 carriers to our Expe- 
dition, which is destined for the rescue of a worthy 
Governor beleaguered by many enemies at the north end 
of the Albert Nyanza. 

While exhibiting the utmost goodwill, ungrudging 
hospitality, and exercising numerous small kindnesses to 
the officers of the Expedition, he contrives to delay per- 
forming the terms of his solemn contract, and months 
are wasted l)efore he moves to take the necessary steps 
for accomplishing his duties. Finally, as the officers 
provoke him by constant and persistent entreaties, he 





makes a journey of over 700 miles, collects the carriers, 
and after eleven months' systematic delay, surrenders 
them to his white friends. But a few weeks later a ^^"^'J"* 
catastrophe occurs : one of the head-men of these 
carriers, named Sanga, points his musket at the princi- 
pal European officer in charge, and shoots him dead. 


Second, is Major Edmund Musgrave Barttelot, a 
generous, frank, and chivalrous young English officer, 
distinguished in Afghanistan and on the Soudanese Nile 
for pluck and performance of duty. His rank and past 
experience in the command of men entitle him to the 
appointment of commander of the rear column. He is 


1888. instructed to remain at Yambiiya until the arrival of a 
Aug. certain contingent of carriers from Bolobo, in the charge 
a°aya. ^£ i\^xqq Subordinate officers, Messrs. Ward, Troup, and 
Bonny. If Tippu-Tib has arrived previous to or by 
that date, he is to lose no time in following the track of 
the advance column, which has preceded him by about 
seven weeks. If Tippu-Tib has not arrived by the time 
the Bolobo contingent has reached Yambuya, he is to 
make a forward move by slow stages with his own force 
of about 210 carriers, making repeated trips backwards 
and forwards until all the essentials are removed from 
camp to camp ; he is allowed discretion what to dispense 
with in order to be enabled to march ; the articles arc 
mentioned which may be thrown away. He declares the 
instructions to be clear and intelligible. He vows that 
he will not wait longer at Yambuya than the arrival of 
the Bolobo people, and satisfies us all that in him we 
have a man of energy, resolution, and action, and that 
there is no need of anxiety respecting the conduct of 
the rear column. In every letter and report he 
appears animated by the utmost loyalty and willing 

Third, is a young civilian named James Sligo Jameson, 
a gentleman of wealth, with a passion for natural history 
studies, who, professing a fraternal attachment for his 
friend the Major, is appointed second in command of the 
rear column. It is reported of him, that " his alacrity, 
capacity, and willingness to work are unbounded "; what- 
soever his friend the Major proposes receives the ready 
sanction of Mr. Jameson ; and he has a claim to having 
much experience and judgment for former adventurous 
travels in Mashona Land and Matabele. Barely four 
weeks after the assassination of his friend he dies, utterly 
worn out by fever and trouble. 

Three young Englishmen come last, who are attached 
to the Major's staff, two of whom, Mr. Herbert Ward and 
Mr. Troup, are to be associated with the commander and 
his second in the discussion of every vital step, and no 
important decision can be taken unless a council of the 
four has been convened to consider it as to its bearing 



upon the enterprise for which they have assembled on 
the verge of the unknown region of woods. They are 
therefore implicated in the consequences of any resolu- 
tion and every sequent act. They are not boys new 
from school, and fresh from the parental care. They are 
mature and travelled men. Mr. Herbert Ward has seen 



service in Borneo, New Zealand, and Congo land ; is bright, 
intelligent and capable. Mr. John Rose Troup has also 
served under my command in the Congo State, and has 
been mentioned in my record of the founding of that 
State as an industrious and zealous officer. Mr. "William 
Bonny has seen service in the Zulu and Nile campaigns. 


1888. has lived years in South America, and appears to be 
•^"s- a staid and observing man. 
Banaiya. -js^^^ 1^^^.^ jg ^j^^ inexplicable mystery. We have 

parted from them while warmly and even affectionately 
attached to each other. We have plighted our words 
one to the other. " Fear not," say they ; " we shall be 
doing and striving, cheerfully and loyally." We believe 
them, and hand in hand we pledge ourselves. 

AVe return from our quest of Emin Pasha, and ac- 
cording to Major Barttelot's own Eeport (see Appendix) 
we learn the following striking facts : — 

1st. " Rumour is always rife, and is seldom correct, 
concerning Mr. Stanley. He is not dead to the best of 
my belief I have been obliged to open Mr. Stanley's 
boxes, as I cannot carry all his stuif." 

He sends to Ban gala all my clothing, maps, and 
charts, reserved medicines for the Expedition, photo 
chemicals and reserve negatives, extra springs for Win- 
chesters, Remingtons, essentials for tents, and my entire 
canteen. He reduces me to absolute nakedness. I. am 
so poor as to be compelled to beg a pair of pants 
from Mr. Bonny, cut another pair from an old white 
blanket in the possession of a deserter, and another from 
a curtain in my tent. But Messrs. Jameson, Troup, and 
Bonny are present, concurring and assisting, and the 
two last-named receive salaries, and both present their 
accounts and are paid, not a penny deducted, and a 
liberal largesse besides in first-class passages home is 
granted to them. 

2nd. " There are four other Soudanese and twenty- 
nine Zanzibaris who are unable to proceed with us." 

" Two cases of Madeira were also sent him (Mr. 
Stanley). One case I am sending back " — that is, down 
the Congo. He also collects a choice assortment of jams, 
sardines, herrings, wheaten flour, sago, tapioca, arrow- 
root, &c., and ships them on board the steamer which 
takes Mr. Troup homeward. And there are thirty-three 
dying men in camp. We may presume that the other 
gentlemen concurred in this deed also. 

3rd. " I shall go on to Wadelai, and ascertain from 



Emin Pasha, if he be there still, if he has any news isss. 
of Mr. Stanley ; also of his own intentions as regards ^"^" 
staying or leaving. I need not tell you that all 
our endeavours will be most strenuous to make the 
quest in which we are going a success. It may be he 
only needs ammunition to get away by himself, in 
which case I would in all probability be able to supply 

On the 14th of August Mr. John Rose Troup has 
delivered over to Major Barttelot 129 cases Remington 
rifle cartridges, in addition to the twenty-nine left by me 
at Yambuya. These 158 cases contain 80,000 rounds. 
By June 9th (see Barttelot's Report) this supply has 
dwindled down to 35,580 rounds. There has been no 
marching, no fighting. They have decreased during a 
camp life of eleven months in the most unaccountable 
manner. There are left with the rear column only suffi- 
cient to give fifty rounds to each rifle in the possession 
of Emin Pasha's troops. Half of the gunpowder, 
and more than two-thirds of the bales of cloth, 
have disappeared. Though Yambuya originally con- 
tained a store of 300,000 percussion-caps, it has 
been found necessary to purchase £48 worth from 

4th. " The loads we do not take are to be sent to 
Bangala. They will be loaded (on the steamers) on 
June 8th (1888), a receipt being given for them by 
Mr. Van Kerkhoven, which is forwarded to you ; 
also a letter of instructions to him and to Mr. Ward. 
Perhaps you would kindly give the requisite order 
concerning the loads and two canoes purchased for 
Mr. Ward's transport, as it is nearly certain I shall not 
return that way, and shall have, therefore, no further 
need of them or himy (See Appendix — Barttelot's 

Mr. Ward has been despatched down river to telegraph 
to the Committee for instructions ; he was supposed to 
l)ring those instructions back from the sea with him. 
Here we are told the Major has no further need of him. 
He has also written to Captain Van Kerkhoven, of Ban- 



1888. gala, not to allow him to ascend above Bangala. In the 
ut!w« last paragraph of Mr. Jameson's letter to Mr. Bonny 1 
note a reference to this change. 

5th. The rear column consisted of 271 souls rank 
and file when we parted from Yambuya, June 28th, 

In October, 1887, this force, according to a letter from 
the Major, had decreased to 246 men. 

On June 4th, 1888, while the rear column lies still in 
the same camp (see the Major's Eeport) it has diminished 
to 135 men rank and file. 

On August 17th, 1888, I demand from Mr. William 
Bonny, who is in sole charge at that date, an official 
report as to the number of men left of the rear column, 
and he presents me with the following : — 

" List of Zanzibaris left by Mr. Stanley at Bolobo and 
Yambuya, inclusive of eleven men, deserters, picked up 
from advance column : — 

78 dead. 

26 deserted. 

10 with Mr. Jameson (Bangala). 

29 left sick at Yambuya. 

5 left sick on road. 
75 present at Banalya, August 17th, 1888. 


Return of Soudanese and Somalis and Syrians left at 
Yambuya : — 

21 died. 
1 killed by natives. 
1 executed by order of Major Barttelot. 

3 sent down Congo to Egypt. 

4 left sick at Yambuya. 
1 sick handed over to care of Congo State. 

22 present at Banalya, August 17th, 1888. 



Return of British officers left by Mr. Stanley at 
Bolobo and Yambuya : — 


1 John Eose Troup, invalided home. 1888. 

1 Herbert Ward, sent down river by Major Barttelot^ Aug.' 

1 James S. Jameson, proceeded down Congo. ^^ , ' 

1 Edmund M. Barttelot, Major (murdered). iianaiyac 
1 William Bonny, present atBanalya, Augiiyt i7th, 1888* 



11 deserters from advance column. 

1 error. 


Dead and lost. 
78 Zanzibaris dead. 
29 left sick at Yambuya. 

4 left sick at Yambuya. 

6 left sick on road. 
21 Soudanese dead. 

1 killed by natives. 

1 executed. 


6tli. The steamer Stanley arrived at Yambuya on the 
14th of August, within a few days of the date mentioned 
in the Letter of Instructions. On the 17th she departs 
to her port at Leopoldville, and has severed all connec- 
tion with the Expedition. The officers of the Congo 
State have behaved loyally according to their Sovereign's 
promise. It only remains now for the rear column to 
pack up and depart slowly but steadily along our track, 
because Tippu-Tib has not arrived, and according to the 
issue anticipated will not come. 

I turn to Mr. Bonny, and ask, " Were you not all 
anxious to be at work ? " 

" Yes, sir." 

" Were you not burning to be off from Yambuya ? " 

*' Yes, sir." 

" Were you all equally desirous to be on the road ? " 

*' I believe so. Yes, sir." 

" Well, Mr. Bonny, tell me — if it be true that you 
were all burning, eager, and anxious to be ofi' — why you 


1888. did not devise some plan better tlian travelling back- 
-^"s- wards and forwards Ijetween Yanibuya and Stanley 

Banalya. ^^lls ? " 

" I am sure I don't know, sir, 1 was not the chief, 
and if you will observe, in the Letter of Instructions you 
did not even mention my name." 

" That is very true ; I ask your pardon ; but you 
surely did not remain silent because I omitted to men- 
tion your name, did you — you a salaried official of the 
Expedition ? " 

" No, sir. I did speak often." 

" Did the others ? " 

" I don't know, sir." 

I have never obtained further light from Mr. Bonny, 
though at every leisure hour it was a constant theme. 

A year after this we were at Usambiro, south of the 
Victoria Nyanza, and I received a clipping of a news- 
paper wherein there was a copy of Major Barttelot's 
letter of October, 1887. There was a portion which 
said, " We shall be obliged to stay here until November." 
I know that they thought they were obliged to remain 
until June 11, 1888. I turn to Major Barttelot's letter 
of June 4th, 1888 (see Appendix), wherein he says, "I 
feel it my bounden duty to proceed on this business, in 
which I am fully upheld by both Mr. Jameson and 
Mr. Bonny ; to wait longer would be both useless and 
culpable, as Tippu-Tib has not the remotest intention 
of helping us any more, and to withdraw would be 
pusillanimous, and, I am certain, entirely contrary to 
your wishes and t^ose of the Committee." 

I turned to my Letter of Instructions, and I find in 
Paragraph 10 : 

" It may happen that though Tippu-Tib has sent 
Bome men, he has not sent enough to carry the goods 
with your own force. In that case you will of course 
use your discretion as to what goods you can dispense 
with, to enable you to march." 

Paragraph 11, "If you still cannot march, then it 
would be better to make marches of six miles twice over, 
if you prefer marching to staying for our arrival, than 


throw too many things away." (See Letter of Instruc- isss. 
tions in a preceding chapter.) ^°' 

At Usambiro also I received the answer which the 
Committee sent in reply to Mr. Ward's cablegram from 
St. Paul de Loanda, asking them to " wire advice and 

To Major Barttelut, Care Ward, Congo. 
" Committee refer you to Stanleys orders of the 24</i June. If you still 
cannot march in arxordance with these orders, then stay where you are, await- 
ing his arrival, or until you receive fresh instructions from Stanley." 

A committee 6000 miles away penetrate into the 
spirit of the instructions instantly, but a committee of 
five ofiicers at Yambuya do not appear to understand 
them, though they have been drawn up on the clear 
understanding that each officer would prefer active 
movement and occupation to an inactive life and idle 
waiting at Yambuya. 

7th. Mr. William Bonny, whose capacity to under- 
take serious responsibilities is unknown to me, is not 
mentioned in the Letter of Instructions. 

On my return to Banalya, Mr. Bonny hands me the 
following order written by Major Barttelot. 

" Yambuya Camp, 

« April 22nd, 1888. 

" Sir, — In event of my death, detention of Arabs, absence from any 
cause from Yambuya camp, you will assume charge of the Soudanese com- 
pany, the Zanzibar company, and take charge of the stores, sleeping in 
the house where they are placed. All orders to Zanzibaris, Somalis, and 
Soudanese will be issued by you and to them only. All issues of cloth, 
matako (brass rods), etc., will be at your discretion, but expenditure of 
all kinds must as much as possible be kept under. Eelief to Mr. Stanley, 
oare of the loads and men, good understanding between yourself and the 
Arabs must be your earnest care ; anything or anybody attempting to 
interfere between you and these matters must be instantly removed. 

" I have the honour to be, Sir, &c., 

" Edmund M. Barttelot, 

" Major." 

What remains for the faithful Jameson, " whose 
alacrity, capacity, and willingness to work are un- 
bounded," to do ? Where is the promising, intelligent, 
and capable Ward ? What position remains for the 
methodical, business-like, and zealous Mr. John Rose 
Troup 1 Mr. Bonny has been suddenly elevated to the 


1888. command of the rear column in the event of any un- 

^^^- happy accident to Major Barttelot. 
^ ^^' My first fear was that I had become insane. When 
I alone of all men attempt to reconcile these inexplic- 
able contrarinesses with what I know animated each and 
every officer of the rear column, I find that all the wise 
editors of London differ from me. In the wonderful 
log-book entries I read noble zeal, indefatigable labour, 
marches and counter-marches, and a limitless patience. 
In the Major's official report, in Mr. Jameson's last sad 
letter (see Appendix), I discern a singleness of purpose, 
inflexible resolve and the true fibre of loyalty, tireless 
energy, and faith, and a devotion which disdains all cal- 
culation of cost. When I came to compare these things 
one with another, my conclusion was that the officers 
at Yambuya had manifestly been indifferent to the 
letter of instructions, and had forgotten their promises. 
When Mr. Bonny told me that one of them had risen at 
a mess meeting to propose that my instructions should 
be cancelled, and that the ideas of Major Barttelot 
should be carried out in future — it did appear to me 
that the most charitable construction that could be 
placed upon such conduct was that they were indifferent 
to any suggestions which had been drawn out purposely 
to satisfy their own oft-repeated desire of " moving on." 
But how I wish that I had been there for just one 
hour only on that August 17th, 1887, when the five 
officers were assembled — adrift and away, finally from 
all touch with civilization — to discuss what they should 
do, to tell them that 

" Joy's soul lies in the doing, 
And the rapture of pursuing 
Is the prize.'* 

To remind them that 

" The path of duty is the way to glory." 

What ! count your hundreds of loads ! What are 
they ? Look, it is simply this : 200 carriers are here 
to-day. There are 500 loads. Hence to the next vil- 
lage is ten miles. In six days your 200 men have 




carried the 500 loads ten miles. In four months you isss. 
are inland about 150 miles. In eight months you are ^j^"f' 
300 miles nearer to the Nyanza, and long before that 
time you have lightened your labours by conveying 
most of your burdens in canoes ; you will have heard 
all about that advance column as early as October, the 
second month of work ; for powder and guns, you may 
get Ugarrowwa's flotilla to help you, and by the time 
the advance column starts from Fort Bodo to hunt 
you up, you will be safe in Ugarrowwa's settlement, and 
long before that you will have met the couriers with 
charts of the route with exact information of what 
lies before you, where food is to be obtained, and every 
one of you will be healthier and happier, and you will 
have the satisfaction of having performed even a greater 
task than the advance column, and obtained the 
" kudos " which you desired. The bigger the work the 
greater the joy in doing it. That whole-hearted striv- 
ing and wrestling with Difficulty ; the laying hold with 
firm grip and level head and calm resolution of the 
monster, and tugging, and toiling, and wrestling at it, to- 
day, to-morrow, and the next until it is done ; it is the 
soldier's creed of forward, ever forward — it is the man's 
faith that for this task was he born. Don't think of 
the morrow's task, but what you have to do to-day, 
and go at it. When it is over, rest tranquilly, and 
sleep well. 

But I was unable to be present ; I could only rely on 
their promise that they would limit their faith in Tippu- 
Tib until the concentration of all officers and men 
attached to the rear column, and insist that the blazing 
on the trees, the broad arrow-heads pointing the way, 
should be well made for their clear guidance through 
the almost endless woods, from one side of the forest 
to its farthest edge. Yet curiously hungering to know 
why Barttelot, who was '' spoiling for work," and Jame- 
son, who was so earnest, and had paid a thousand 
pounds for the privilege of being with us, and Ward, 
who I thought was to be the future Clive of Africa, and 
Troup, so noted for his industry, and Bonny, so steady 


1888. and so obedient, so unconsciously acted as to utterly 

Aug. prevent them from doing what I believe from my soul 

ana ya. ^^^^j yf^i^}^Q^ ^o do as much as I or any other of us did, 

a conviction flashes upon my mind that there has been 

a supernatural malignant influence or agency at work 

to thwart every honest intention. 

A few instances will tend to strengthen this con- 
viction. I freely and heartily admit that the five 
officers burned to leave Yambuya, and to assist in pro- 
secuting unto successful issue the unique enterprise 
they had sacrificed so much comfort to join. But they 
are utterly unable to move, try how they may. They 
believe I am alive, and they vow to make a strenuous 
quest for me, but they reduce me to nakedness. They 
are determined to start in quest and relief of Emin 
Pasha, because " to withdraw would be pusillanimous, 
and to stay longer would be culpable," and yet they 
part with the necessary ammunition that they wish to 
carry to him. They confess that there are thirty-three 
sick men unable to move at Yambuya, and yet the very 
stores, medicaments, and wine that might have saved 
them they box up and send to Bangala, after first 
obtaining a receipt for them. They have all signed 
agreements wherein each officer shall have a fair share 
of all European preserved provisions, perfect delicacies, 
and yet they decline to eat them, or allow the sick men 
to eat them, but despatch them out of the hungry 
woods to the station of Bangala. Mr. Bonny, as I 
understand, expressed no regret or audible dissent at 
their departure. From pure habit of discipline he 
refrained from demanding his fair share, and like a good 
Englishman, but mighty poor democrat, he parted with 
his inalienable right without a murmur. They searched 
for Manyuema slaves, cannibals of the Bakusu and Bason- 
gora tribes to replace their dead Zanzibaris and Sou- 
danese, Somalis and Syrians, and it came to pass a few 
weeks after they had obtained these cannibals that one 
of their head men assassinates the English commander. 
Also on a fatal date, fatal because that resolution to 
wait sealed their fate, an officer of the advance column 


was straying through an impenetrable bush with 300 issa 
despairing men behind him, and on this fatal date the J"^^' 
next year, Mr. Bonny, the sole survivor of the English *°" ^* 
band, pours into my ears a terrible tale of death and 
disaster, while at the same hour poor Jameson breathes 
his last, tired and worn out with his futile struggles to - 
" move on " at Bangala, 500 miles west of me ; and 
600 miles east of me, the next day, Emin Pasha and 
Mr. Jephson walk into the arms of the rebel soldiery 
of Equatoria. 

This is all very uncanny if you think of it. There is 
a supernatural diablerie operating which surpasses the 
conception and attainment of a mortal man. 

In addition to all these mischiefs a vast crop of lying 
is germinated in these darksome shades in the vicinity 
of Stanley Falls, or along the course of the Upper 
Congo, showing a measureless cunning, and an in- 
satiable love of horror. My own murder appears to be 
a favourite theme, quantities of human bones are said to 
be discovered by some reconnoitring party, human 
limbs are said to be found in cooking-pots, sketches by 
an amateur artist are reported to have been made of 
whole families indulging in cannibal repasts ; it is more 
than hinted that Englishmen are implicated in raids, 
murder, and cannibalism, that they have been making 
targets of native fugitives while swimming in the 
Aruwimi, all for the mere sake of infusing terror, alarm, 
and grief among quiet English people, and to plague 
our friends at home. 

The instruments this dark power elects for the dis- 
semination of these calumnious fables are as various in 
their professions as in their nationality. It is a deserter 
one day, and the next it is an engineer of a steamer ; it 
is now a slave-trader, or a slave ; it is a guileless mis- 
sionary in search of work, or a dismissed Syrian ; it is a 
young artist with morbid tastes, or it is an officer of 
the Congo Free State. Each in his turn becomes pos- 
sessed with an insane desire to say or write something 
which overwhelms common sense, and exceeds ordinary- 


1888. From the official written narrative of Mr. William 
^"^' Bonny I glean the following, and array the facts in 

Janalya. i j '' 

' clear order. 

The Stanley steamer has departed from Yambuya 
early in the morning of August 17th, 1887. The goods 
she has brought up are stored within the magazine, 
and as near as I can gather there are 266 men within 
the entrenched camp. As they are said to have met 
to deliberate upon their future steps we may assume 
that the letter of instructions was read, and that they 
did not understand them. They think the wisest plan 
would be to await Tippu-Tib, who, it will be remembered, 
had promised to Major Barttelot that he would be 
after him within nine days. 

On this day the officers heard firing across the river 
almost opposite to Yambuya. Through their binoculars 
they see the aborigines chased into the river by men 
dressed in white clothes, who are shooting at them from 
the north or right bank. Conceiving that the 
marauders must be some of Tippu-Tib's men, they 
resolve upon electing an officer and a few men to 
interview them, and to cease from molesting the natives 
who have long ago become friendly and are under their 
protection. The officer goes across, finds their camp, 
and invites Abdallah, their chief, to visit the English 
commander of Yambuya. The Major thus learns that 
these marauders really belong to Tippu-Tib, and that 
Stanley Falls is but six days' march overland from 
Yambuya. Probably believing that, after all, Tippu-Tib 
may be persuaded to assist the Expedition, he inquires 
for and obtains guides to conduct some of his party to 
Stanley Falls, to speak and treat in his behalf with that 
chieftain whom we have conveyed from Zanzibar to 
Stanley Falls, with free rations in consideration of the 
help he had solemnly contracted to furnish. 

On August 29, Mr. Ward returns from the Falls with 
a reply from f ippu-Tib, wherein he promises that he 
will collect the carriers needed and send them within ten 
days. The first promise in June was " in nine days " ; 
the promise is in August " in ten days." A few days 



later Mr. Jameson returns from Stanley Falls in company 1888. 
of Salim bin Mohammed, a nephew of Tippu-Tib, and a ^^^^^'^ 
large party of Manyuema. This party is reported to 
be the vanguard of the carrier contingent, which Tippu- 
Tib will shortly bring in person. 

In the interval of waiting for him, however, trouble 
breaks out on the Lumami, and Tippu-Tib is obliged to 
hurry to the scene to settle it. The Yambuya garrison, 
however, are daily expecting his presence. 

Unable to bear the suspense, the second visit to 
Stanley Falls is undertaken, this time by Major Barttelofc 
in person. It is the 1st of October. Salim bin Mo- 
hammed accompanied him, and also Mr. Troup. On 
the way thither they met Tippu-Tib advancing towards 
Yambuya, having six deserters from the advance column, 
each bearing a weighty tusk. The Major graciously 
remits the six ivory tusks to the Arab chief, and, as 
they must have a palaver, they go together to Stanley 

After one month the Major returns to his camp, on 
the Aruwimi, and states that Tippu-Tib, unable to 
muster 600 carriers in the Stanley Falls region, is 
obliged to proceed to Kasongo, about 350 miles above 
Stanley Falls, and that this journey of about 700 miles 
(to Kasongo and back) will occupy forty-two days. 

Meantime, twenty of the Major's own people have 
been buried outside the camp. 

The English commander learns that during his ab- 
sence, Majato, a head man of the Manyuema, has been 
behaving " badly," that he has been, in fact, intimidating 
the natives who marketed with the garrison, with the 
view of starving the soldiers and Zanzibaris, or reaping 
some gain by acting as the middleman or factor in the 
exchange of goods for produce. Hearing these things, 
the Major naturally becomes indignant, and forthwith 
despatches Mr. Ward, who makes the third visit to the 
Falls to complain of the arbitrary conduct of Majato. 
The complaint is effective, and Majato is immediately 

In the beginning of 1888, Salim bin Mohammed 

VOL. I. H H 


arrives at Yambuya for the second time, and presently 
becomes so active in enforcing certain measures against 
the natives that the food supply of the camp is wholly 
cut off and never renewed. He also commences the 
construction of a permanent camp of substantial mud- 
built huts, at half a bow-shot's distance from the pali- 
sades of Yambuya, and completely invests the fort on 
the land side, as though he were preparing for a siege 
of the place. 

After a futile effort to bribe Salim with the offer of a 
thousand pounds to lead a Manyuema contingent to 
follow tbe track of the advance column, Major Barttelot 
and Mr. Jameson, about the middle of February, under- 
take the fourth visit to Stanley Falls. Salim, fearing 
unfavourable accounts of his behaviour, accompanies them 
en route ; the party meet 250 Manyuema, but as they 
have no written instructions with them, they are per- 
mitted to scatter over the country in search of ivory. 

In March Salim returns to Yambuya, and intimates 
to the officers that no doubt the carriers would be ulti- 
mately forthcoming, not how^ever for the purpose of 
following Mr. Stanley's track, but to proceed via Ujiji 
and Unyoro ; a mere haziness of geography ! 

On the 25th of March, Major Barttlelot returns to the 
camp with information that Mr. Jameson, the inde- 
fatigable Jameson, has proceeded up river in the 
track of Tippu-Tib with the intention of reaching Ka- 
songo. He also announces his intention of forming a 
flying column, and leaving the larger part of his goods at 
Stanley Falls in charge of an officer ! He also prepares 
a teleo;ram to the committee in London which is as 
follows : — 

" St. Paul de Loanda, 

" 1st Maij, 1888. 

" No news of Stanley since writing last October. Tippu-Tib went to 
Kasongo, Nov. 16th, but up to March has only got us 250 men. More are 
coming, but uncertain in number, and as precaution, presuming Stanley 
in trouble (it would) be absurd in me to start with less number than he 
did, while carrying more loads — minus Maxim gun. Therefore I have 
Bent Jameson to Kasongo to hasten Tippu-Tib in regard to originally 
proposed number of 600 men, and to obtain as many fighting men as 
possible up to 400, also to make as advantageous terms as he can 



regarding: service, and payment of men, he and I guaranteeing money I888. 
in name of Expedition. Jameson will return about tlie 14th, but earliest j^jf^,* 
day to start will be June 1st, when I propose leaving an officer with all 
loads not absolutely wanted at Stanley Falls. Ward carries this 
message ; please obtain wire from the King of the Belgians to the 
Administrator of tlie Free State to place carriers at his disposal, and 
have steamers in readiness to convey him to Yambuya. If men come 
before his arrival I shall start without him. He should return about 
July 1st. Wire advice and opinion. Officers all well. Ward awJiits 

" Barttelot." 

Mr. Ward proceeded down the Congo, and in an un- 
precedentedly short time reached the sea-board, cabled 
his despatch, received the following reply, and started 
up the Congo again for the Yambuya camp. 

" Major Barttelot, care Ward, Congo. 

"Committee refer you to Stanley's orders of the 24th June, 1887. If 
you still cannot march in accordance with these orders, then stay where 
you are, awaiting his arrival or until you receive fresh instructions from 
Stanley. Committee do not authorise the engagement